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have learnt it? but if you had learnt Dutch, there would have been some sense in it, as now they have got the country they will keep it for good.' So my despondency increased on hearing these words, and I even blamed myself for having learnt English; yet, under the circumstances, I put my trust in the Almighty, who feeds His slaves, and whom His creatures cannot comprehend. And this was not because of my knowledge of either the Dutch or the English, but because of an unexpected event having come on me.

To proceed. The Dutch that came in the above ships landed, and they remained at Banda Illiar; and the country was not given over to them, for its Governor was absent; but in five days Colonel Farquhar returned, when he gave authority to Captain Davis to hand over Malacca, on which he sailed again. Then, according to my recollection, it was at seven in the morning of the next day that the Dutch soldiers entered the fort along with their officers, accompanied with the drum and fife and other noises; also the Governor and secretaries, carrying with them a Dutch flag, and having drawn swords in their hands. These approached the flag-mast at the top of the hill, where were already waiting the English soldiers, headed by their officers and leaders with drawn swords in their hands, and drums and fifes playing. Then at the first the English hoisted their flag, with the drums beating and fifes playing with a plaintive note; and I observed that their appearance was distressed and sorrowful, like corpses, all having doleful faces. Then, after about ten minutes, they lowered the flag. Now, at the foot of the mast companies of both Dutch and English soldiers were drawn up, but each on their respective sides, and the inhabitants filled the area in order to see the proceedings. There were also persons engaged to read proclamations in four languages. They

now hoisted the Dutch flag, when their music struck up with lively airs. The flag remained up also for about ten minutes; and when it was descending, to see the soldiers of the two different races, you would think that they would have murdered each other in their wrath, their faces were so red, like tigers about to spring on their prey, each with weapons in their hands. They now hoisted both flags together, and held them for a moment at the mast-head; they then lowered them. This they did three times before they lowered the English flag, which they did very slowly; and at this period the tears were seen to start in the eyes of many of the English, for their drums and fifes played slowly, as the sound of people wailing: this moved the hearts of those that saw them. And when the English flag had reached the ground, they then read the proclamation in four languages, to this effect:

'Know all ye that we read this for your information: Whereas the King of England, in council, has agreed, to wit, that the country of Malacca shall be made over (srah) by His Majesty the King of England to His Majesty the King of Holland.'

After this had been read, all the English officers and their followers returned to their homes, and the Dutch officers proceeded to relieve the English guards at the various stations.

The name of the new Governor was Timmerman Tysen; the name of his secretary, Baumhoor (?); and the name of the commandant, Myor (?), to wit, Fernus (?) The Governor went to the Stadt House, the secretary to a house in the fort on the sea-side, this with his guard.

But to return to the affairs of Colonel Farquhar, who sailed in a vessel. This he ordered to proceed towards Singapore, the reason of this being that he had been

acquainted of old with Tuanku Long, son of Sultan Mahmud, at the time he lived in Malacca. And there was a report at that time that Tuanku Long had obtained a deal of money from Colonel Farquhar, and for that he was about to give the island of Singapore to the English. From this it arose that Colonel Farquhar wished to see him at Rhio, to conclude the agreement; nor till this was done did he return to Malacca to give over the place to the Dutch, as I have related. And as to the whole that passed between him and Tuanku Long, he made Mr. Raffles,* who at this time was at Penang, aware of the same by letter. Mr. Raffles thereupon reported to the Governor-General in Bengal, who returned for answer, that the East India Company would guarantee no more expenses in settling the place than the salaries of himself and Colonel Farquhar; but if it became a place at a future time, the Company would consider the subject. On this Mr. Raffles admitted that he had an understanding with Colonel Farquhar that he should, under all hazards, found the Settlement of Singapore. After this he came to Malacca, and consulted with Colonel Farquhar; and when they had settled operations, he ordered him to return to Singapore and arrange there as he should think fit, till he came himself, he at that time being under orders, from the Governor-General, to settle some disputes existing amongst the Rajas of Acheen, to wit, Acheen Pedier and Tallo Samaway, who were about to be at warfare, when they had sent a letter to Bengal asking for intervention, with a view to settlement.

So Mr. Raffles sailed to Acheen, and Colonel Farquhar set out for Singapore, and when he arrived he landed from the vessels, having with him some Malacca

*Now Sir Stamford, though Abdulla yet calls him Tuan Raffles, which I literally translate.

men as followers. He proceeded to the plain, where the court-house now stands, which at that time was covered with kamunting and kadudu plants. Towards the river there were four or five small huts, where were also planted six or seven cocoa-nut trees, and one hut, somewhat larger, in which the Tomungong lived. Colonel Farquhar walked round the plain, and when the Orang Laut (sea Malays) met him they ran away, to give notice to their chief, on which he came out at once to meet him. At this time Colonel Farquhar was resting below a kalat tree in the centre of the plain, and when they approached they paid their respects and shook hands, on which Colonel Farquhar was escorted to the Tomungong's house, where they entered into conversation as to the object of coming, with the origin of the whole affair, till the time that Mr. Raffles had sent a letter from Bencoolen, requesting that a good site be chosen for a new settlement, now that the English had given over Malacca to the Dutch.

Now if this place would do, and the English should make a town, it would be a good thing for the Malays in carrying on their traffic, and where also all the Europeans would collect, bringing their merchandise. This was said, with much other argument and counsel, with cajolings to soften the heart of the Tomungong, as sugar melts in the mouth.

Thus answered the Tomungong: 'I am a mere castaway, my desire having taken me to Rhio, and you know the custom of the Malay rajas is self-aggrandisement. Owing to this I have cast myself away on this island, in the middle of the sea; but yet I am the inheritor of it by the Malayan law, for it is the Tomungong's right to govern the islands, for the true sovereign is dead, viz., Sultan Mahmud. And he had two princes, but they are not full brothers: one is named Abdulrahman, and the

other Hassin, who is called Tuanku Long. Now since the death of the sovereign, the leading men of Rhio, Diak, and Pahang have sought thousands of faults, as to whom should be established, by the Bindoharn, for they are both equally princes. It is the wish of Tuanku Putri, the wife of the deceased, to elevate Tuanku Long, but of the leading men to elevate Tuanku Abdulrahman. From this comes thousands of troubles: such is the state of things. Tuanku Abdulrahman has gone to Tringanu, leaving Tuanku Long in Rhio: such is the state of affairs. In the first place, however, the regalia are all in the possession of Tuanku Putri.'

And when Colonel Farquhar heard this he smiled, saying, 'My prince, all these things Mr. Raffles has well considered, and he can put them straight.' He then asked the name of the hill behind the plain, when he was told that of old it was called Bukit Larungan. Then he asked the reason of such a name, when the Tomungong replied, that when the Raja resided here in olden times, he erected his palace there, and would allow no one to go up; this is the reason of its being named the Forbidden Hill.

Then said Colonel Farquhar, 'With reference to my coming here, and the agreement which has been made with Mr. Raffles, under the approval of Tuanku Long, the son of Sultan Mahmud, of Rhio and Linga, in regard to the making over (srah) of this island to the East India Company for the founding of a settlement, which will revive the names of the sultans of old, and remain a sign of the friendship of Tuanku Long and yourself towards the English Company, let us two make arrangements before the coming of Mr. Raffles, as between yourselves on the one side and the East India Company on the other; what do you think of this?' The Tomungong was silent for a while, and then said that he was under

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