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36 Now, at that time, a certain valiant and furious man, named Víradéva, who was born in the country of the Áryas, and was chief of 37 the Palandípa, landed at Mahátittha with mighty men, thinking that 38 he could take possession of Lanká. And when tidings thereof were 39 brought to king Vikkama Báhu, he thought thus within himself: "Let everything be rooted out till there shall be no place left in Lanká for the invaders ;" and so he departed from Kalyáni and came up to the village Mannára, which was nigh to Mahátittha.


And Víradéva did battle with the king and slew Aníkanga and 41 others, and the two brothers, the king's sons, and Kitti, the chief of the army, and many others also who were numbered among the valiant 42 men. And he took the commander Rakkhaka alive, and when he had 43 routed the king and his army, he pursued him hotly. And the king fled in terror and came to his own city, and taking what treasure he could find, went straightway to a fortress in the middle of the country 44 abounding with storehouses.1 And Viradéva pursued after him, and 45 returned to the city and abode there a few days. Then he went up quickly (into the strong places of the country) to take Vikkama Báhu. But the valiant Vikkama Báhu sent his great hosts against him, and 46 caused them to give him battle. And he slew Víradéva in a fortress in a great marsh at the village Antaraviṭṭhika; and having thus become 47 the lord of his people, he dwelt in the city of Pulatthi and governed the king's country, although he was not anointed king.

48 Thereafter the three brethren abandoned their desire for war, and 49 went everyone to his own country, and dwelt there as before. Nor were these four lords of the land able to bring the country under one 50 canopy, even though they strove hard thereto. And because they were imprudent they degraded the nobles and appointed base men in 51 their places, such as they chose. These foolish men gave no heed to religion, neither cared they aught for their subjects whom the king 52 Vijaya Báhu had prospered in divers ways. The possessions of honourable men also they took away by force, even though there was 53 no fault to find in them. And, for their avarice and covetousness, they oppressed their subjects and levied grievous taxes from them, yea, even as the mill extracts juice from the sugar cane.


Moreover, the king Vikkama Báhu seized the lands that were dedicated to Buddha and for other holy purposes, and bestowed them 55 on his servants. To the strangers that fought for him he gave divers viháras in the city of Pulatthi that were adorned with relics, that they 56 might dwell therein. The gems and other precious things, the offerings of the faithful unto the alms-bowl relic and the sacred tooth-relic, took he also by force, as also the perfumes of sandal, aloes-wood, and 57 camphor, and a great number of images of gold, and did with them as it pleased him.


Whereupon the brethren of the eight chief viháras, whom the people

1 Kotthasára, a place of security abounding with stores of grain.

regarded as fathers, and the Pansukúlika brethren that belonged to the 59 two sections, seeing the evil that was being done continually to the religion and the people of the land, were sore grieved thereat, and, 60 taking counsel together, said, "It were better that we should depart from the presence of those who, like the Titthiya unbelievers, work so much evil to the religion of the land." And so they took the sacred 61 tooth-relic and alms-bowl relic of Buddha and went to the Róhaṇa, and abode wheresoever they found it convenient for them. Likewise 62 they who were of households of high repute scattered themselves everywhere in convenient places, and lived as if they were concealing themselves. The chief men also, who had been set over the boundaries 63 by the kings of both parties, fell out among themselves, and made war on each other continually. They burnt down many rich villages and 64 made cuttings in tanks which were full of water, and in divers other ways destroyed all the conduits and dams, and hewed down coconut 65 trees and other serviceable trees also. And being at enmity with one 66 another, they so laid waste the country that villages and ancient places could not be recognized. These kings brought evil also upon their 67 people by causing their hired servants to wander about the land, plundering the villages and robbing on the highways. The servants 68 and labourers also of the great men of the land, fearing nothing, defied 69 their masters, and, because they were in the favour of the kings and received offices from them, armed themselves with weapons and waxed 70 very powerful. And the inhabitants of Samantakúța and many other strongholds gave not unto the kings the taxes that were paid in former 71 times, but, heeding not their kings, they waxed rebellious and lived in their own places, puffed up with pride. So that it might be said of 72 the whole country of Lanká (from north to south and from east to west), "They who love ruin and destruction are wandering over the land." Thus lived these lords of the land, transgressing all the established 73 customs of the country. Like greedy owners of the land they were always cruel. Their hearts were wholly bent on evil. They felt not the dignity of kings; and though placed in high offices of trust, wherein they might seek their own good and the good of others, yet lacked they even noble ambition.

Thus endeth the sixty-first chapter, entitled "An Account of the Lives of Four Kings," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.


AND it came to pass that king Jaya Báhu1 and his queen Mittá 1

died while they yet dwelt at Róhana; and Sugalá, the wife of 2 Sirivallabha, gave birth to two children, namely a son, Mánábharana,

1 Ex-king.

3 and a daughter, Lílávatí. Likewise the queen Ratanávalí,1 the consort 4 of Mánábharana, had two daughters, Mittá and Pabhávatí. And the chief governor Víra Báhu (Máṇábharana), seeing that he had only two 5 daughters (and no sons), thought in this wise: "We who are descended from the pure race of the moon, which is considered by the whole world 6 as the head of the generation of all kings, are indeed placed in a very enviable position, being full of all power and might, expert in various 7 arts, and skilful in the management of horses and elephants. Nevertheless, we three (brothers) have been again and again defeated and 8 humbled in battle by Vikkama Báhu, even by him singly; and yet there seemeth not any likelihood of the coming to us of a son, who would be 9 able to wipe off this stain. Alas, how grievous is our lack of fortune! What doth it profit me a kingship stained with the reproach of the 10 world! Now, therefore, it seemeth good that I should give up my attachment to the pleasures of state, and spend my days diligently in the performance of good deeds." Having thus communed with himself, he 11 gave up all the business of the kingdom to his ministers, and lived there (in quietness) for seven or eight months. And one day, wrapped in serene thought, after keeping the holy precepts, he lay down to sleep in the 12 temple of the king of the gods. And lo! in the early hours of the morning the king saw in a dream an angel of great majesty, arrayed in 13 gorgeous apparel, adorned with scents and flowers, of exceeding great

size, like unto the sun that has ascended up to the sky, making every 14 side radiant with the glory of his body. And he spake unto the king,

saying, "Hail, lord of the land, who art favoured by fortune! Rejoice 15 and be exceeding glad. For ere long there shall be born unto you a 16 noble son, endued with marks of greatness, able to accomplish all his 17 desires, refined in mind, whose glory and dominion will be spread

throughout the vault of heaven, resplendent with power and fame and glory, a mine of virtue, and one who shall raise up his people and the religion of the land. Now, therefore, arise and go quickly into the 18 city where thy wife and thy children dwell." Thereupon the chief of

men awoke with a feeling of great joy, and when the dawn succeeded 19 the night he returned to Punkhagáma. And the king told the pleasant 20 dream, just as he had seen it, to the queen and to his ministers. And he lived with his queen, expecting a son of great renown, and heaped up good deeds of divers kinds by bestowing alms and observing the precepts of religion.


And again it came to pass that one day while it was yet dawn, he 22 saw in a dream a lovely young elephant, tame and wholly white, and

endued with every mark of beauty. And it seemed to him as if he 23 were leading it fondly into the bedchamber of his queen. Having seen this, he awoke and rose from his stately bed, and, with a heart full of

1 Daughter of Vijaya Báhu (see chap. LIX., vv. 34-39) and wife of Mánábharana, who is also called Vira Báhu.

* Şakra.

pleasure and joy, entered the queen's bedroom at that very instant, 24 and told her the dream just as he had seen it. Thereupon the queen 25 spake to him and said, "I also have seen in a dream a young elephant 26 like unto it walking round my bed, and I caught him by his trunk and drew him up to my bed and fondly embraced him." Having told each 27 other all that which they had seen, they remained awake until the break of day. And in the morning, when the household Brahman 28 came to minister, and the sooth-sayers also, they (the king and queen) inquired of them (the meaning of the dream); and when they heard the dreams they were glad, and interpreted them saying, "Of a surety 29 there will be born to you ere long a son richly endued with marks of 30 good fortune." And when the king and his ministers and the citizens heard this (interpretation), they all joined in a great festival of joy. 31 From that time forth the king looked for the promised favour, and caused many prayerful blessings1 to be pronounced on him by the Order of monks. And he daily gave away, in divers ways, unto the 32 poor, at the gate of charity, gifts of exceeding great value, such as gems, pearls, and the like. He also caused Brahman priests, who were versed 33 in the Védas and Védangas, to perform the religious rites, such as Hóma and the others that were regarded as acts that bring blessings on men. Moreover, he appointed the king's workmen to repair the 34 viháras and relic-chambers that had been much decayed and the tanks that had been ruined. And thus, while the king was spending his days 35 in the performance of good deeds, a noble child was conceived in the womb of the queen. And the king, having been informed thereof, 36 rejoiced, and was exceeding glad, and took great care of her during the period of her pregnancy. And when the full time of her delivery had 37 come, she brought forth a son at a lucky hour when the stars were favourable. And straightway every region of the country was filled 38 with gladness, and sweet and gentle and cooling winds blew everywhere; and the courts of the palace resounded with the trumpeting of the 39 elephants and the neighing of the horses, and were filled with great noise and confusion. And when king Máṇábharaṇa beheld the various 40 marvels that had been manifested unto him, he stood amazed; but 41 when it was told him, soon after, of the birth of his son, he was filled with a fulness of joy, even as if he had been anointed with the oil of immortality. He then ordered a great many captives who were shut 42 up in prison to be set free, and caused alms to be given in great plenty to monks and Brahmans. And the inhabitants of the city, led by the 43 king's ministers, adorned the whole capital with arches of plantains 44 and in divers other ways, and, attired in their best robes and ornaments, they kept up a great and joyous feast for many days. Moreover, the 45 king, having observed all the ceremonies regarding the prince that were connected with the birth of children, in the manner set forth in the 46 2 Oblations to the gods.

1 Paritta.

3 Gabbha-pariháran. This is probably the same as the Garbha-lambhana and other rites of the Grihya rules.

Véda, sent unto the household Brahmans and others who were skilled in divination by signs. And when he had treated them with much 47 kindness and respect, he commanded them to examine the signs on the body of the prince. And they examined all the signs on the hands and feet and other parts of the prince's body with great care, and then, in 48 the presence of the ministers that were assembled together, with great 49 joy they declared thus unto the king and queen: "This prince hath power to subdue not only the island of Lanká, but even the whole of India under the dominion of one canopy, and to enjoy it withal." 50 Then when he had again gratified them with presents and shown them kindness, the king questioned them further, whether there appeared any 51 evil whatsoever that might happen to the child. And they answered and said, "The prince will have a long life; but there is a conjunction 52 of stars that of a certainty meaneth evil to the father." Thereupon the king gave unto the child the name of Parakkama Báhu, which signified that he would have an arm endued with strength to humble his enemies. 53 And as he had a knowledge of rites and ceremonies, he caused the due performance of the feast of boring the ear and the feast of feeding the child with rice to be held according to the custom, and sent his messen54 gers unto the king Vikkama Báhu at Pulatthi to convey unto him the 55 tidings of the birth of his son. And Vikkama Báhu, having heard

from them about the great good fortune that was foretold concerning the son of his fair sister, and the evil that was in store for the father of 56 the child, spake these words: " He hath begotten unto me a fortunate 57 nephew, who will be like a sparkling central gem in the chain of kings 58 beginning with Vijaya. Let the prince therefore grow up here, even

with me, so that no evil befall him. For this my son Gaja Báhu is nowise able to acquire that which he has not gotten, or to retain that 59 which he has got. And Mahinda, my other son, although he possesseth valour and other virtues, is not meet to succeed me in the kingdom, 60 being inferior in rank on his mother's side. Therefore, of a surety

shall my nephew become the heir to my kingdom, which teemeth with 61 riches that have been heaped up by me." And, with his mind full of such thoughts, he sent messengers with presents of princely ornaments 62 and other valuable gifts to fetch the young prince. And the king Víra Báhu (Máṇábharaṇa) having heard everything from the mouth of the messengers, said unto himself: "The words that he hath spoken are 63 the words of truth and wisdom, intended to profit me; nevertheless it doth not behove me to part with a son begotten of my body, that so I 64 may turn aside the evil that impendeth on me. Moreover, if the prince be removed thither (to Pulatthi) the party of Vikkama Báhu will, like 65 a fire that burneth stronger before a fierce gust of wind, shine forth with an exceeding great blaze of glory, and our house will of a surety 66 suffer, in every wise, a great loss." Having pondered thus within himself, he withheld his son from the messengers that came to fetch him, and dismissed them after that he had gladdened their hearts with gifts of great value.

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