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them and was greatly pleased therewith, and did unto them both what was needful. Of the two bodies of messengers he first sent back those 26 that came from Kannáta together with his own servants, carrying gifts of great value for the king of Kannáța. But when the Sinhalese 27 messengers arrived at the dominion of the king of Cóla he cut off their ears and their noses in anger, and utterly deformed them.

And the men who had thus been brought to ugliness returned and 28 told the king of all that the Cólian had done unto them. And the 29 king's anger was greatly kindled, and he went into the midst of the assembly of his ministers, and sent unto the Tamil messengers, and gave this message unto them to be delivered unto the Cólian, saying, "Set we apart our armies in either island and make a trial of the 30 strength of our arms in single combat between us in the midst of the ocean, or, if it please thee better, let us array our armies in battle, 31 either in my kingdom or thine, according as it pleaseth thee, and let the strife be there." (And then he turned and spake to the messengers, 32 saying,) "Remember that ye deliver this my message to your master the king in the self-same words that I have uttered it." And when he had thus spoken, he caused the messengers to be clad in women's apparel, and sent them with all speed to the Cólian king; and himself 33 took his army and set out for Anuradhapura.

And he sent the two captains of his army to Mattikáváṭatittha and 34 Mahátittha that they might go to the Cóla country and carry on the

war.

And when these captains were making ready ships and pro- 35 visions for the army that was to be sent to the Cóla country for the war, in the thirtieth year of the king's reign, the forces that were called 36 Velakkáras1 wished not to go thither, and rebelled like unto furious 37 elephants, and killed both the captains, and laid waste the country round about, and took the city of Pulatthi. Being puffed up with 38 success, they took also the king's sister captive with her three sons, and hastened and burnt the king's palace with fire. And the king 39 (who then dwelt at Anuradhapura) made haste and departed from the city for the southern country, and placed all his treasures in the mountain Vátagiri. And together with Víra Báhu, the sub-king, who 40 was full of courage like unto a lion, and with a mighty host of fighting men that followed him from all sides, he returned to the city of Pulatthi 41 and gave battle, and speedily drove away the rebellious hosts that came against him. And he took the chiefs of the rebellious forces to 42 the pyre where the remnants of the bones of the two captains were lying, and tied them firmly to posts with their hands behind their backs, 43 and burned them with fire, the flames whereof blazed all around. Moreover, the king laid waste the lands of the haughty nobles who 44 dwelt there, and thus wholly delivered the soil of Lanká from the thorns of danger.

1 This name occurs several times in the following chapters. I believe it is the name of a body of mercenaries employed by the Sinhalese kings at this period.

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Furthermore, the king forgot not the resolve that he had made to fight the Cólian king, and made ready an army in the five and fortieth 46 year of his reign and marched with it to the seaport, and abode there 47 for some time awaiting his approach. But, seeing that the Cólian king came not thither, he sent messengers unto him, and returned to the city of Pulatthi and dwelt there a long time.

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And he repaired the tanks Maháheli, Sareheru, Mahádattika, 49 Katunnáru, Pandavápi, Kallagallika, Erandagalla, Díghavatthuka, 50 Mandaváṭaka, Kitta, Aggabódhipabbata, Valáhassa, Mahádáragalla, 51 Kumbhílasobbha, Pattapásána, Kána; and many others also, of which the bunds had been destroyed, he caused to be constructed out of his 52 great desire for the welfare of the poor. And so that the water might be retained of the torrents that flowed from the mountains and of the rivers and streams, the lord of the land built embankments also in 53 divers places, and made the country to abound with food. He built also the bund of the channel Tilavatthuka, which had been breached and thus filled the Manihira tank with water.

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And he caused his own queen to be deprived of all honour and 55 privileges, and to be seized by the neck and cast out of the city because that she had hindered the customs which had always been observed without restraint in the viháras. And by this means did he obtain the forgiveness of the great Order of monks, and thus proclaim to the world his great regard for the Order.

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He built also the Dhátugabbhas at Mahágáma that belonged to the three fraternities, which the Cólians had destroyed, as also those at the two Thúpárámas.

And at the cremating place of his mother, and also of his father, he built five large dwelling-places for monks, and the like he did also at Budalaviṭṭhi.

58 And he made repairs to the viháras Pandavápi, Páthína, Rakkha 59 cétiyapabbata, Mandalagiri, Madhutthala vihára, Uruvéla vihára at 60 Dévanagara, Mahiyangana vihára, Sítalagámalenaka, Jambukóla 61 vihára, Girikandaka, Kurundiya vihára, Jambukólakalenaka, Bhal62 látaka vihára, Paragámaka, Kásagalla, Candagiri vihára, Velagámi vihára, the vihára at the village Maháséna, and the bódhi-house at the 63 city of Anuradhapura. Thus did the king bring into repair these viháras and many others also, and he granted lands unto them each by each.

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And saying, "Let no man endure hardship who goeth along the 65 difficult pathway to make obeisance at the footprint of the Chief of Sages on the Samantakúța rock," he caused the village Gilímalaya, that abounded in rice fields and other land, to be granted, wherewith 66 to supply them with food. And on the Kadalígáma highway and the Húva1 pathway he built resting places, and gave lands unto them each 67 by each, and caused it to be inscribed on a stone pillar, saying, “Let

1 Úva.

no lord of the land that cometh hereafter take them away." To the 68 monks that dwelt in monasteries made for their benefit he gave the village Antaraviṭṭhi and the village Sangháța and the village Sirimandagalla; and to those that lived according to the rule he gave the four 69 things needful for a monastic life. To their kinsfolk also he gave land for their support. And in the winter he caused the Order to be furnish- 70 ed with cloaks and fire pans and divers drugs in abundance. And being 71 a man gifted with great understanding, many a time did he give unto them befittingly all the things that were needful for a monastic life, as well as the eight ordinary requisites. Those villages also, many in 72 number, that were given by former kings wherewith to procure cooked 73 food for the monks who dwelt in monasteries built for them, and the lands that were given to those that busied themselves with the work of conducting offerings to the shrines and other places, yea, all those lands. that were in the Róhana, did he confirm as before without abatement. This mighty man gave bulls also for the use of cripples, and out of his 74 great compassion he gave rice for ravens, and dogs, and other beasts.

And he was a great poet, and gave to many men who made songs 75 wealth in great plenty with gifts of land, that they might possess them from generation to generation. And when the sons of the king's 76 ministers rehearsed before him the songs that they had made, he gave them gifts of money according to their merits. To the halt and the 77 blind he gave lands to be possessed by each; and he took not away that which had been granted aforetime to the déválayas. To well- 78 born women that were helpless by becoming widows he gave lands and food and raiment according to their necessities.

And the king, who was much skilled in making songs in Sinhalese, 79 became the chief of the bards among the Sinhalese.

And Víra Báhu, the sub-king, who was much bound to all that was 80 good, rebuilt the cétiya at the Baddhaguna vihára that the Cólians had destroyed, and, being a cheerful giver, he afterwards gave lands of 81 great value to that superior vihára, and caused offerings to be made thereat continually. It was even he who built, in the forest that was 82 hard by, a tank of great strength, and plentifully supplied with water. And Yasodhará, the king's daughter, caused a large image-house of 83 great strength and beauty to be built at the Kappúramúláyatana vihára. And at the Sélantarasamúha vihára the king's own wife 84 caused a beautiful palace to be built, very lofty and delightful. In 85 those days also many ministers of the kingdom and many of the king's household amassed to themselves great merit in divers ways. And 86 when the chief of Lanká ruled the land in this wise, the sub-king, a man of great sobriety, was subdued by the terrible hand of death. And 87 when the king had fulfilled all the things that were necessary to be done (on his account), he bestowed the office of sub-king on Jaya Báhu, with the consent of the monks, and after that the office of chief governor 88 on Vikkama Báhu. And when in process of time a son was born unto him, called Gaja Báhu, the king, being mindful of the welfare of his 89

sons, took counsel with his great ministers, and gave unto him the 90 whole of the Róhana, and sent him thither to dwell there. And he departed thence and made Mahánágahula the chief city of his province, and sojourned there.

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Thus did Vijaya Báhu, the ruler of men, hold the reins of government. without any fear in his hands for fifty and five years more; and when he had improved the religion of the land and the country, which was sore distressed by the wicked Tamils, he ascended up to heaven as if to behold the great reward arising from his good deeds on earth.

Thus endeth the sixtieth chapter, entitled "The Patronage of the State and Church," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.

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THEN

CHAPTER LXI.

HEN Mittá, King Vijaya Báhu's sister, with her three sons, and the chief officers of state, and the monks who dwelt in the (eight) 2 chief viháras-even all of them-caused no information of the king's death to be conveyed to Vikkama Báhu, the chief governor, who then 3 dwelt at Róhaṇa, but took counsel together, and with one mind anointed the sub-king, Jaya Báhu, king over the kingdom of Lanká. 4 And they all transgressed the ancient customs and ways, and appointed 5 prince Mánábharana to the office of sub-king. And the three brethren, the eldest of whom was Máṇábharaṇa, joined themselves unto the king 6 Jaya Báhu, and forthwith seized and took possession of all the jewels that were considered of great value, even all the pearls and precious 7 stones, and of the vehicles and elephants, and such like also. And, taking the whole army with them, they set out from the city of Pulatthi 8 saying, "We shall soon take Vikkama Báhu captive." And when Vikkama Báhu heard these tidings, he exclaimed, "Woe is me that 9 had no opportunity to render my last respects unto my father! But now will I go to the city forthwith and behold the spot where his body 10 was burnt, and ease me of the great sorrow that weighs on my heart." And when the governor had thus determined strongly within himself, 11 he set out from the city with great resolution, taking with him a 12 company of seven or eight hundred fighting men. But while he was

yet hastening on his way, he met the great force that was coming, prepared for battle, at the village Panasabukka in the division of 13 Guttahálaka. And he, being the only brave man in his company who knew no fear, fought against them and drove them forthwith on every 14 side. And the three brethren who were discomfited there were roused with pride, and quickly prepared another army, and gave battle in a 15 place called Ádipádakajambu. But he defeated the three of them a 16 second time also. And a third time did he defeat them at Katagáma,

and a fourth time at Kálavápi, and a fifth time at Uddhanadvára, and a sixth time at Paņkavélaka. And after he had thus battled with 17 them, and always attained the victory, he went up to the city of Pulatthi with his officers and all his followers. And when he had seen the 18 place where his father was cremated, as he had aforetime determined, he was relieved of his great grief and was comforted in spirit. And he 19 abode in the city, and gave unto his officers and to all who had been friendly unto him in the time of his distress, all manner of wealth and offices, to each man according to his merits. And to all his fighting 20 men who had come with him he gave fitting reward, remembering how they had been faithful to him in his troubles.

In the meanwhile also, the sub-king Máṇábharana with the rest of his 21 brothers brought the southern district and the Róhana country under their yoke; and after that, he gave unto Kittisirimégha the country 22 of twelve thousand villages,1 and commanded him to dwell there. Whereupon Kittisirimégha, the chief of the people, went thither and 23 dwelt in the city Mahánágasula, being commanded thereto by his brother. And to the prince Sirivallabha he gave the country called 24 Aṭṭhasahassa, and commanded him to dwell there. Likewise he also 25 went thither and made the village Uddhanadvára his chief city, and dwelt there and governed the country. But Mánábharana himself 26 departed to the southern district together with his army, and dwelt in the village Punkhagáma, being known to all men by the name of Víra Báhu. Now, at that time, the king Jaya Báhu (who had been routed 27 in battle) and the mother of the three brethren abode with Kittisirimégha.

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Then when a year had passed, Mánábharana and the rest, remember- 28 ing always the great and lasting defeat and shame which they had 29 suffered in battle from Vikkama Báhu, were roused with a great desire for vengeance, and they said to themselves, How doth this man, who 30 hath not been anointed king, venture to enjoy the king's country, which belongeth by right only to those whose heads have been duly consecrated?" And being thus carried away beyond measure by 31 envy, they gathered unto them followers, and joined themselves again together to make war. And when the spies of Vikkama Báhu had 32 made known unto him these tidings, he went against them into their own country at the head of a large army, and gave battle at the village 33 Bódhisénapabbata, which is in the southern country, and defeated the three brethren; and communing thus within himself, saying, "Now 34 shall I root out all mine enemies," he pursued the enemy hotly as they were fleeing. But they took refuge in the hiding places of the country 35 of Pañcayójana,3 and Vikkama Báhu made haste and entered Kalyáni with the intent to take them captive.

1 Giruwápattu or Giruwádolosdáha ?

2 Atakalan and Kolonná Kóralés ?
3 Pasdun Kóralé.

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