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race, sent forth and brought her hither from the country of Kálinga, 31 and anointed her as his queen. And she bore these five daughters, 32 Subhaddá, Sumittá, Lókanáthá, Ratanávalí, and Rúpavatí, and a son Vikkama Báhu, who possessed all the signs of good fortune. And she gained the king's heart, because she had begotten him a goodly number 33 of children. And none other in the house of the king's palace conceived a child in the womb for the king, save women of equal rank.


And one day the king, when he was in the midst of the assembly of his ministers, beheld all his daughters as they stood beside him in order 35 (according to their age). And being skilled in divining by bodily 36 signs, he perceived on none of them save Ratanávalí the signs of giving birth to a son, who would be great and prosperous hereafter. And, being moved by much affection towards her, he called Ratanávalí unto 37 him, and when he had kissed her head, he softly spoke, saying, "This 38 damsel's shall be the womb which shall conceive a son who by his

glory, and liberality, and wisdom, and valour, shall surpass all kings 39 that have been before him or that shall come after him, in that he would deliver Lanká from the fear of her enemies and bring her under one canopy of dominion, and be the protector of her religion, and adorn her throne with his many virtues."


And the king, who prided himself in his race, gave not his younger sister to wife unto the king of Cóla, even though he had entreated him 41 often. But he sent forth and brought hither a prince of Paṇḍu, born of a pure race, and bestowed on him his younger sister, the princess 42 Mittá. And she bare three sons, Mánábharana, Kittisirimégha, and 43 Sirivallabha. And the princess Subhaddá did the lord of the land

give unto Víra Báhu to wife, and Sumittá unto Jaya Báhu, with great 44 pomp. Unto Mánábharana he gave his daughter Ratanávalí, and 45 unto the prince Kittisirimégha gave he the princess Lókanáthá. And after the death of his daughter Rúpavatí he gave unto Sirivallabha the princess Sugalá.

46 Now, three princes, kinsfolk of the queen, by name Madhukaṇnava, 47 Bhímarája, and Balakkára, came hither from Síhapura. And the king saw them and was filled with great joy, and gave unto each of 48 them wherewith they might live according to their rank. And they lived according as it pleased them, gaining the goodwill of the lord of 49 the land from whom they had received many favours and benefits. And the king gave Sunári, the youngest sister of these princes, unto his son 50 Vikkama Báhu to wife, being desirous to establish his race. And to increase the prosperity of his family he gave afterwards the princess Lílávatí1 also to wife to Vikkama Báhu with a great portion.


Thus did this chief of men, who possessed great riches in abundance, and was full of loving-kindness, strive after the welfare of his kinsfolk in the paths of justice.

1 She as well as Sugalá (v. 45) appear to have been his granddaughters. Vide vv. 27, 28.

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Thus endeth the fifty-ninth chapter, entitled The Patronage (of Relations)," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.


TURNOUR has translated this chapter (see his translation, Appendix V.) as a specimen of the style in which a subsequent portion of the Mahávansa is composed by a different author," and that "he might draw attention to another instance of the mutual corroboration afforded to each other by Professor Wilson's translation of the Hindu historical plays and this historical work." It may not be out of place, therefore, to subjoin his translation here, although it contains several grave errors, almost amounting to a distortion of facts, which may be attributed partly to the incorrectness of his manuscript text. A comparison of the two translations with the text will clearly show where the mistakes occur.


He (Vijaya Báhu) for the security of Lanká (against invasion) placed trustworthy chiefs at the head of paid troops, and stationed them round the seacoast. On the proper caste he imposed the task of making the requisite repairs and embellishments to the palace and other public edifices (at Anuradhapura), in order that he might celebrate his inauguration; and having during a period of three months assembled there and exacted allegiance from all the provincial chiefs from whom allegiance was due, departed for Pulatthinagara.

A certain "Andúti" chief, previously known in the Malaya division by the name of Balanáyakó, in his infatuation, announced himself in the most public manner an uncompromising enemy to the ruler of the land; and collecting the whole of his forces, approached, with hostile intent, a village in the suburbs of the capital. The monarch of Lanká hastening thither, and completely extirpating that faction, returned to Pullatthinagara, and incorporated that force with his own.

This wise and virtuous prince, when he held the dignity of sub-king for seven years, causing to be recorded the 1.... ; and thereafter having repaired to, and observed, at Anuradhapura all the prescribed state forms, and celebrated his inauguration with the utmost pomp, occupied himself in the exercise of his royal prerogatives.

He caused it to be registered, as a record to be perpetually preserved, that the period during which he was involved in sinful acts (in warfare) and had devoted himself to pious deeds (in the peaceful administration of his kingdom) amounted (then) to eighteen years.

Departing from thence, he established himself at Pulatthinagara, and became celebrated under the title of Sirisanghabódhi. Assigning to his younger brother Víra Báhu the office of sub-king, and placing him in the administration of the southern division, he duly supported him. The monarch, conferring also the office of "ádipádó on his younger brother Jaya Báhu, placed him over the Róhana division; and having bestowed

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1 The meaning of the omitted word cannot be ascertained, as there is no Commentary to the Mahávansa subsequent to the reign of Mahásénó.

on all his officers of state appointments proportioned to their merits, he took steps for defining relationships (and pedigrees) in the kingdom.

This just and benevolent monarch re-established the administration of justice, which had been neglected for a long period, on the most equitable principles.

While this sovereign was thus, in the full exercise of his royal power, eradicating those foes who, like unto thorny bushes, had possessed themselves of Lanká, the Chatagáhákanáthó, the Dhammagéhakanáyakó, as also the Setthináthó, who were three brothers, becoming hostile to the rája, flying from him, repaired to the Jambudípó. After the lapse of nineteen years they returned to Lanká. All these persons quickly seduced the Róhana as well as the Malaya division, and all the southern provinces, from their allegiance. The accomplished warrior (Vijaya Báhu) hastened to the Róhana and Malaya divisions, and slaughtered great numbers of the disaffected inhabitants in those parts. Having thoroughly subdued (those districts) and placed them under the administration of loyal officers, this experienced and powerful (rájá) himself repaired to the southern provinces; sending into the field his trusty brother also, who was as illustrious in descent as himself; and having then secured his implacable enemies, impelled by resentment as mortal as Máró (Death), indiscriminately impaled them; and having thoroughly established order in Lanká, which was overgrown with the thorns (of disorder), returned to his capital, Pulatthipura.


The (ex-) queen named Lílávatí, the consort of Jagatipáló, who had been (carried away captive during the Cólian interregnum and) detained in the kingdom of Cóla, making her escape from her Cólian captivity, together with her royal daughter, embarked in a vessel; and expeditiously reaching Lanká, presented herself to the monarch. The sovereign having inquired into her pedigree, and knowing that family was of illustrious descent, raised her to the station of queen-consort. This queen bore a daughter unto the rájá. The supporter of royalty conferred on her the name of Yasodhará. The rájá bestowed this daughter, together with the province of mountains and torrents (Malaya) on Víravammó. She gave birth to two daughters: of these two daughters, the eldest was named Samaná, she was as bountiful as the earth; the younger was called Sugalá.

This rájá, intent on the perpetuation of the line from which he was himself descended, caused (also) to be brought from the kingdom of Kálinga a daughter of the reigning monarch of Kálinga, named Tilókasundarí, lovely in person, and inost amiable in disposition, and installed her (likewise) in the dignity of queen-consort. She had five daughters, viz., Subhaddá, Sumittá, Lókanáthá, Ratnávali, and Rúpavatí; and a son named Wakkama Báhu, endowed with the indications of eminent prosperity. She so entirely captivated and engrossed the rájá's affections, that among all the ladies of his palace none but her, who was as illustrious in descent as himself, could succeed in becoming enciente to him.

At a subsequent period, on a certain day, while surrounded by his ministers, he assembled his daughters, and ranged them in order according to their seniority. Overlooking the other daughters, this (monarch), who was versed in fortune-telling, fixed his gaze on Ratnávali, who, he discerned, was endowed with the signs of good fortune and with a womb of fecundity. Overpowered by the impulse of his affections, clasping her to him, and

kissing her on the crown of her head, he poured forth these endearing expressions: "Her womb is destined to be the seat of the conception of a son, who will be supremely endowed with the grace of dignity, as well as with benevolent and charitable dispositions; with firmness of character, and energy in action; with the power of commanding the respect of men, and of controlling all other monarchs: he will be destined also to sway the regal power, by reducing Lanká, which will be overrun by foreign enemies, under the dominion of one canopy; and blessed will he be with all prosperity.

The rája refused to bestow his daughter, who was the pride of his race, on the reigning king of Cóla, who earnestly sued for her; and sending for a prince of the royal family of Pandu, which was already connected with his own, married him to his younger sister, the princess Mittá. She gave birth to three sons, Mánábharanó, Kittisiriméghó, and Sirivallabhó. The ruler also wedded, in great pomp, Subhadá to Víra Báhu, and Sumittá to Jaya Báhu. He bestowed Ratnávali on Mánábharanó and Lókanáthá on Kittisiriméghó. Of his remaining daughters, he bestowed the one named Rúpavatí, as well as the princess Sugalá,1 on Sirivallabhó. At that period there were three royal princes, the relations of queen Tilókasundarí, who had come over from Sihapura, whose names were Madhukannawó, Bhímarájá, and Balakkáró. The ruler of the land having received them, and become favourably impressed with them, conferred on them, severally, stations worthy of them. All these three persons, in the full enjoyment of royal favour, and entirely possessed of the confidence of the monarch, resided where they pleased. Bent on the preservation of the purity of his house, he bestowed on his son Vikkama Báhu, Sundarí the younger sister of this princess; and, devoted to the interests of his house, he subsequently also gave unto (his said son) Vikkama Báhu the amiable princess Lílávatí with a suitable provision.

Thus this monarch, endowed in the utmost perfection with all regal prosperity, and blessed with a benevolent disposition, seeking the advancement of his own connections, regulated his government on principles conducive to their aggrandisement.

The fifty-ninth chapter in the Mahávanso, entitled "The Patronage (of Relations)," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous



AND the king chose him men from all the great families according 1

to custom, and set them to guard his person. And in the city of 2 Pulatthi he built a strong wall of great height, and ornamented it with plaster work, and protected it with towers built thereon, and 3 with a deep moat round about it of great length and breadth, so that an enemy could not easily break through it.

Moreover, the king, being minded to establish the religion, and 4 seeing that the monks were less in number than that required for

1 The granddaughter is here called a daughter.



5 performing the rite of ordination, sent messengers with gifts to the 6 Rámañña1 country unto his friend the king Anuruddha. And when he had brought from thence monks, elders of the church, who were endued with great piety and virtue, and were well skilled in the 7 Pitakas, this chief of men made offerings unto them of great value, and caused monks to be enrobed and to be ordained in great numbers. 8 And the Three Pitakas, with their commentaries, he caused to be read always, so that the religion of the conqueror, which had been darkened throughout Lanká began now to shine forth.


He caused also a great many viháras of exceeding beauty to be 10 built in divers parts within the city of Pulatthi, and caused monks of the three brotherhoods to dwell therein, and satisfied them greatly with 11 the four things that were necessary for a monastic life. And as he was wholly devoted to the three sacred objects, he built a vihára, and embellished it with a gate of pillars and a wall and a moat, and adorned 12 it with a noble house of five stories. He varied it also with fine rows of dwellings round about it, of great beauty, and an excellent spacious, 13 shining gate, which was always full of people. And when he had built this vihára he gave it unto the monks who dwelt in the three 14 brotherhoods. Moreover, he dedicated thereto the whole country, Alisáraka, together with the chiefs of the people who dwelt there, 15 that so the monks might obtain cooked food for themselves. He caused many hundreds of monks to dwell there, and provided them always with great offerings of the four things needful for a monastic life. He made also a beautiful sanctuary of great value for the tooth17 relic, and held a great festival daily in honour thereof. And he shut himself every morning against his people, and made a translation of 18 the Dhamma Sanganí within the beautiful hall of preaching. He was wont also to make divers offerings of perfumes, flowers, and other things, with dancing and the like thereof, and to bow down his head 19 and to worship the great Buddha with much devotion. And as he was a generous giver, he delighted many wise men from India by making gifts to them without any distinction.


20 To those also who preached the sacred doctrine he made divers offerings, because he loved the goodness thereof, and caused them to 21 discourse thereon. Three times did he cause alms to be given to the

poor, equal in value to his weight in the balance; and the sabbath day 22 he observed in a very holy manner. The Dandissara alms gave he also every year, and caused the Three Pitakas to be written and given 23 unto the Order of monks. And many times honoured he the great bódhi of India, by sending gifts thereto of gems and pearls and precious things.

24 Now, there came unto this country messengers from the king of 25 Kannáța and the king of Cóla, bearing rich gifts; and the king saw

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