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55 elephant, surrounded by a well-clad host.

And the book Dhammasanganí he took in procession in great splendour to the richly decorated 56 vihára that he had built there, and having placed it on the relic-altar in the hall of the goodly relic-house that was ornamented with divers 57 jewels, he made offerings unto it. And in the Maháméghavana he built the Ganthákara parivéņa, and a hospital also in the city, and 58 gave lands to them. At the Abhayagiri he built the Bhandiká parivéna 59 and the Siláméghapabbata vihára, and gave lands to them also. And 60 to the refectories at Jétavana vihára and the Abhayagiri, this chief of Lanká gave villages likewise, a village to each house. And by reason of his gratitude this most righteous king gave lands to the vihára Dakkhinagiri by name.

61 Moreover, Sakka Sénápati built a delightful parivéņa which he called 62 after his own name, and gave it unto the Thériya brethren with lands. And his wife Vajirá also gave unto them a parivéņa after her own name, 63 and lands thereto. And it was she who gave to the Théravaṇsa sisterhood, that was honoured everywhere, the convent that she 64 built at Padaláñchana. And the queen-mother of Sakka Sénápati built a convent after her own name for the use of the forest brethren, 65 who were as lamps to the succession of elders (Théravansa.) And for the image of the Teacher at Maricavaṭṭi she it was who made a jewel for the crest, a network for the feet, and a canopy and a robe also.

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And in the palace the king built a royal chamber after his own name, and a beautiful house with upper stories, which he called Pálika.

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And Rájiní, the king's second queen, made an offering of a silken 68 covering for the Hémamála cétiya.1 And she had a son called Siddhattha, who was celebrated as Malaya Rájá." He was like unto 69 the god of beauty in form. And when he died the king built a hall for the brethren, and established an alms of food, and gave the merit thereof to him.

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So while the king of Lanká was ruling righteously in this wise, king 71 Pandu who had warred with the king of Cóla and was routed, sent many presents unto him, that he might obtain an army from him. And the king, the chief of Lanká, took counsel with his ministers and 72 equipped an army, and, appointing Sakka Sénápati to the command 73 thereof, accompanied it himself to Mahátittha. And he stood on the shore and brought to their mind the victories of former kings, and gave them 74 courage, and thus sent them into the ships. And Sakka Sénápati carried them safely to the other side of the sea, and reached the 75 Pandiyan country. And when king Pandu beheld the army and the captain thereof, he was greatly pleased, and exclaimed, " All Jambudípa shall 76 I now bring under the canopy of one dominion; " and then he led the two armies (his own and the Sinhalese king's) to battle. But he succeeded not in conquering the king of the Cólian race. And so he abandoned

1 The Ruvanveli Séya.

the struggle and returned (to his own place). But Sakka Sénápati 77 went against him, saying, " Alone shall I fight him," and died of a contagious disease to the great misfortune of Pandu. And when it 78 was told to the king of Lanká that his army was being destroyed by the same disease, he had compassion on the men, and ordered that they should be brought hither. And then he gave the office of 79 Sakka Sénápati to his (the late general's) son, and made him the chief of the army, and brought him up in his father's name. And he caused 80 the Paritta ceremony to be held in the city by the brethren of the three fraternities, and drove out the fear of disease and dearth from the people.

And when he had brought happiness in divers ways to the religion 81 and to his people, the king passed away to heaven in the tenth year of his reign.

And Kassapa, the chief of kings, although he sat on the throne of 82 Lanká, was yet well read in the Three Piṭakas. Like unto a lamp did he give light to the length and breadth of knowledge; and he wrote books, and was of ready speech, and a poet. He had a clear memory and clearness of purpose; and he was both a preacher of the law and a doer of the same. Wise, faithful, and merciful, always seeking the good of others, he was bountiful and versed in the ways of the world. May the (kings of the) earth, yea, even all, be like unto him in the purity of virtue.

Thus endeth the fifty-second chapter, entitled "The Reigns of Two Kings," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.

ΤΗ

CHAPTER LIII.

HEN Dappula,1 the sub-king, became king; and he appointed to 1 the office of sub-king the governor of the same name. And he 2 gave a village to the Maricavatți vihára, and maintained in the city the customs of former kings. Howbeit the king enjoyed not the earth 3 long, because of his former sins. And so he entered within the gate of death in the seventh month of his reign.

Thereupon Dappula,2 the sub-king, became king. And he bestowed 4 the office of sub-king on Udaya. Now, at that time king Pandu, 5 because he feared the Cólians, left his country and got into a ship, and landed at Mahátittha. And the king sent unto him, and was well 6 pleased to see him, and gave him great possessions, and caused him to live outside the city. And while the king of Lanká was yet preparing 7 for war, thinking unto himself, "Now shall I make war with the Cólian king and take two sea-ports, and give them unto king Pandu," it came to

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8 pass that a fierco strife arose, from some cause, among the princes of 9 the island, to the great misfortune of Pandu. And king Pandu thought thus to himself: "I shall reap no advantage by dwelling here." So he left his crown and other apparel, and went to the Keralaite.1

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And when the strife was ended, the king gave a village, hard by the city, to the great bódhi-house at the Maháméghavana. And Rak11 khaka, the chief of his army, surnamed Ilanga, built the house Rája 12 near the Thúpáráma. And the king maintained all the works that had been done by former kings, and reached the twelfth year of his reign, and passed away according to his deeds.

13 And Udaya2 the sub-king, then became the chief over the people of 14 Lanká. And he anointed Séna, the governor, as sub-king. Now, in those days the ministers who (had offended and) feared the king took refuge in the Tapóvana.3 And the king and sub-king followed them 15 thither, and had their heads cut off. And the holy ascetics who dwelt there were sorely disgusted with this deed, and they left the country 16 and went to the Róhana. Whereupon the people of the country and the dwellers of the city, and all the men of war, were roused to anger, like 17 the sea raging with a fierce storm; and they ascended the Ratanapásáda at the Abhayagiri vihára, and after they had terrified the king 18 and overawed him greatly, they cut off the heads of the ministers who had taken a part in the crime at the Tapóvana, and threw them out of 19 the window. And when the sub-king and his friend the governor heard the tumult that was made, they leaped over the walls (of the city) 20 and escaped, and hastily fled to the Róhana. And the men that were strong and valiant pursued after them until they came to the border of the Black river. But the fugitives had crossed the river before them, and they returned (without following after them), because they had no 21 boats (wherewith to cross the river). And the princes who had broken 22 the peace in the sacred forest went thither, and fell down on their faces, in their wet raiments and hair, at the feet of the holy monks, and made a great wail, and left not off weeping until they had constrained the 23 ascetics to forgive them. The great kindness and long suffering of 24 these lords of religion moved the king towards the two offenders. And when the fury of the great army was appeased, the forces of the subking, accompanied by the brethren of the three fraternities, set out 25 to bring them back. And the two princes were prudent men, and well learned, and so they prayed the Pansukúlika brethren, and 26 brought them back to the city. And the king also went out and met the monks on the way, and obtained forgiveness from them. And then he returned with them, and when he had left them in their 27 forest he went back to the king's house. And from that time forth the king observed the customs of former kings, and passed away according to his deeds in the third year.

1 The king of Kerala.

a The Second.

3 The Forest of Ascetics." The Kalu-ganga.

Thereupon Séna, a prudent man, was anointed king over Laņká. 28 And he appointed Udaya, the governor, who was his friend, as subking. And he gave a thousand kahápanas1 to the poor on the upósatha 29 day, and himself observed it also. And this the chief of men observed to his life's end. And this lord of the land gave to the brethren rice 30 and cloth in honour of the images, and to the needy and to artificers he gave gifts out of the charity called Dandissara.2 This king caused 31 beautiful houses also to be built in fit places for the use of the brethren, and gave them lands for their support. And he restored the ancient 32 viháras throughout the island, each at a cost of one thousand or five hundred kahápanas. And for paving with stones (the fore-ground) 33 at the Abhayagiri cétiya, this king spent forty thousand kahápanas. And the decayed outlets for the passage of water3 at the great tanks in 34 Lanká he repaired, and strengthened the bunds thereof with stone and earth. He built also a costly row of rooms in the king's house, of 35 surpassing beauty, and strictly performed the charities established by former kings. And to the Nágasála vihára that the minister 36 Aggabódhi, the rájá of Malaya, had built, he gave a grant of lands on the occasion that he had seen it. He made also goodly halls and fine 37 paintings and images at the four viháras, and held relic festivals continually. And after these and divers other acts of merit, he passed 38 away according to his deeds in the ninth year.

And after him the sub-king Udaya1 was anointed king over Lanká. 39 And he appointed Séna, the governor, to the office of sub-king. But 40 to the great misfortune of the people this king became a drunkard and a sluggard. And when the Cóla king heard of his indolence, his heart 41 was well pleased, and, as he desired to take to himself the dominion of the whole Pandu country, he sent emissaries to him to obtain the crown and the rest of the apparel that the king of Pandu left there when he fled. But the king refused to yield them. Whereupon the Cóla king, 42 who was very powerful, raised an army, and sent it to take them, even by violence. Now, at this time, the chief of the army was absent, 43 having gone to subdue the provinces on the border that had revolted. And the king commanded him to return, and sent him to make war. Accordingly the chief of the army went forth and fought against the 44 enemy, and perished in the battle. And the king (of Cóla) took the crown and the other things, and proceeded towards Róhana. But the 45 army of the Cólians succeeded not in entering that country. So they went not any further, but returned to their own country, leaving this island in great fear.

And the king, the chief of Lanká, appointed Viduragga, a man of 46 great authority and knowledge, to be chief of the army. And he 47 destroyed the borders of the dominion of the king of Cóla, and overawed him, and caused the things that were taken from this place to be

1 A certain coin: value uncertain.

Niddhamana.

This may mean either a sluice or spill.

2 See chap, LII., v. 3.

The Third.

48 brought back. And then he gave to all the Pansukúlika brethren in the island all such things as were needful and precious for them. 49 And the chief of Lanká then made a crest-jewel, that shone with gems and precious stones, for the image of the Teacher at the Mahá50 vihára. And Vidurá, a woman of the king's household, made an offering also to that stone image of a network for the foot, shining with jewels.

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And the king departed from this world in the eighth year, as he was rebuilding the palace called Mani, that the Cólian king had destroyed with fire.

Thus did these five kings enjoy the kingdom established under one canopy of dominion. And when they had subdued the whole world by a policy of repression and conciliation, they went under the sway of death, with their wives and their children, their ministers and their friends and followers. Let good men always remember this, that so they may cast off slothfulness and pride.

Thus endeth the fifty-third chapter, entitled "The Reigns of Five Kings," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.

CHAPTER LIV.

THEN Séna1 was anointed king over Lanká, according to the order of succession. And he bestowed the office of sub-king 2 on the governor, Mahinda. Now, this king was a man of wisdom and of great learning, and an able man withal. And he conducted himself towards his friends and his enemies with great moderation, 3 showing goodwill and affection at all times. In those days the heavens rained showers upon the land in due season, so that the people 4 who dwelt therein were happy and contented. And the king took his seat on one occasion in the Lóhapásáda, and expounded the Suttanta2 in the presence of the brethren of all the three brotherhoods that were 5 assembled therein. He adorned the casket of the tooth-relic with divers gems, and held great feasts also in honour of relics at the four 6 viháras. At Sitthagáma, where he had aforetime himself dwelt, he built a parivéņa; and after he had watched over his subjects, even as he would have watched over his son, he departed for heaven in the third year of his reign.

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Thereupon Mahinda,3 the sub-king, became king. By reason of his great fortune and glory, and the might of his arms and his renown, he 8 shielded himself from the danger of conspiracies, and brought Lanká under one canopy of dominion, and made the rulers of the provinces

1 The Fourth.

2 Buddha's sermons.

3 The Fourth.

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