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who dwelt there, to be killed. And when the king heard of these 97 things he was exceeding wroth, and sought diligently how he might bring him to the capital. And then he sent and called his 98 brother's son, the sub-king Kassapa, and spake thus unto him: “O thou, who are the favourite of fortune! I pray thee, help me." And 99 he answered and said, "What doth your majesty desire of me?" And the king said: Thy son Mahinda is even now come of age, and he is a mighty man, and the Róhana is the inheritance of his father and his 100 mother. He is a valiant man also, and can bear all things. And as he he is brave and clever, and skilled in all the uses of weapons of war, he is fit to go forth to battle. Moreover, he is an expert and prudent 101 man, and well acquainted with the ways of warfare. Let us send him to Róhana that we may fetch hither that wicked man, the slayer of his uncle." And Kassapa heard the king's words and answered him 102 thus, with all respect: "Your majesty, O king! hath sought my help. What need is there of my son? I will go even myself (to Róhaṇa). And when I have departed on this errand, I know that the king's 103 favour and the safety of my household are assured unto me. Let, 104 therefore, no time be lost, but let it be as thou wilt." And the king was exceeding glad when he heard these words, and he did everything that lay in his power, and gathered together a great army. And he 105 appointed Vajiragga, the captain, to watch over the young prince Mahinda, to whom he gave command of the whole army, fully equipped 106 with all the instruments of war, whereby the city itself looked empty. And the king himself followed Mahinda on foot, giving him courage, 107 saying, "O highly favoured of fortune! Go thou and save the country.' And Mahinda shone at the head of his army with great splendour, 108 even as Mahinda,1 as he proceeded at the head of his celestial hosts to the great battle of the gods and the giants. And soon he reached 109 Guttasála. And all the folks of the country, and the chiefs of the 110 provinces and of the districts whom the wicked slayer of his uncle had cruelly treated, joined themselves unto him, saying, "Now have we received our rightful lord and master." And the traitor, while he yet 111 tarried at Girimandala, felt that his fall was at hand. And so he 112 seized all the royal costly treasures and fled to the mountains, taking all his elephants and horses with him. And Mahinda's host crushed the enemy on every side, and pursued the fugitive step by step, even to 113 the foot of the mountain. And then they came upon his elephants and horses, and captured them. And saying to themselves, "Here must 114 he be also," they ascended the mountain, treading under foot the whole forest, and making the rivers and marshy places look like highways. And the foolish man, seeing that Mahinda's men were following hard 115 after him, waxed exceeding wroth, and throwing all the jewels that he had into ponds and rivers and other such places, hid himself alone in 116 a cave in the rock. And there his pursuers found him, and seized the

1 The chief of the gods, the great Indra.

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117 miscreant. And they brought him sraightway with great joy to 118 Mahinda, who was at Guttasálaka. And when Mahinda saw him, he

laughed him to scorn, and spake to him, saying, "Hast thou then possessed the Róhana?" And then he gave him in charge to Vaji119 ragga, the king's chief captain, and proceeded at the head of the army 120 to Mahágáma and made himself lord of the Róhana. And he bestowed

favours on his subjects with a free hand, and restored the people, whom the foolish tyrant had oppressed, to their former condition, and estab121 lished as aforetime the religion which he had injured. And he planted orchards and gardens of flower trees in divers places, and built a dam 122 across the great river, and formed tanks, and thereby made it easy for the Order to obtain everywhere the four necessaries of a monastic life. And he removed all the wicked chiefs of provinces and of districts from 123 their offices, and drove away the robbers from the country and freed it from the thorns of danger, and made merry the hearts of all the 124 people from the fullness of his riches and his great bounty. And this man, who was worthy of being honoured by the prudent and of being served by the needy, and like unto the wish-conferring tree in the 125 comfort that he bestowed on the poor, forsook the evil ways that aforetime had been followed throughout the land, and walked in the path of righteousness, and took up his abode there.


And Vajiragga, the king's chief captain, brought the rebellious 127 governor to Anuradhapura, and took him before the king. And when the king saw him, his anger was kindled against him, and he straightway put him in prison and set a guard over him, and treated him severely in every way.


Three times did this famous king give gifts of precious things equal to his weight in the balance. And he covered also the thúpa at the 129 Thúpáráma with a band of gold. He built a lofty house there, and caused a chapter of monks to dwell there, and repaired the breaches in this vihára, and also in the city.

130 And he made a waterfall with a strong dam on the Kadamba river, 131 and enlarged the bounds of the tank at Mayetti, and every year made therein an outlet for water. And this preserver of the country gave cloth of fine texture, that garments might be made therewith for the 132 brethren. And in years of famine he caused dining halls to be built, and gave abundantly in charity, and made the Mahápáli alms-hall to 133 flourish. To the brethren of the three establishments he gave curdled milk and rice. And every day he gave alms-rice, and even gruel, with sweetmeats.


And when he had done these and other like good works which lead to heaven, he went to join the assembly of the gods in the eleventh year 135 of his reign. And the sum that he spent on good works during these eleven years was reckoned at three of one hundred thousand and ten times that number in gold.


Thus did one king, after he had brought under his subjection the great king of Paṇḍu that could not be easily conquered, and the other,

after he had reduced Róhana and its mighty strongholds,-even thus did these lords of men themselves yield to the power of death.

Thus endeth the fifty-first chapter, entitled "The Reigns of Two Kings," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.



`HEN Kassapa1 sat upon the throne and gave the southern country 1 to the wise sub-king, whose name was Kassapa. And he caused 2 the sub-king's daughter, even his own wife, the royal princess Tissá, to be anointed chief queen. He also caused donations to be given 3 continually to the needy and to the artificers who came from divers parts; and this charity was called Dandissara.


And Mahinda, the governor, who then dwelt at Róhana,2 came with 4 an army to seize the king's country. And when the king heard of it his 5 anger was kindled, and he sent his own army against him. But that mighty man fought and routed that army. Whereupon the king, in 6 order that he might restrain him, sent his father Kassapa, the subking, unto him. And he went up and told him all that was right, 7 proving the same from divers stories from the (book of the) law. And when he had restrained his son from warring any further, he returned (to the king). But after that Mahinda, the governor, slew certain 8 chiefs of provinces, and perceiving that it roused the fury of the provinces, he fled to the neighbourhood of the city. And the brethren in 9 a body took him to the king's presence. And the king gave him his daughter to wife, and sent him again to Róhaṇa. This king drove out 10 the lewd brethren from among the dwellers of the three brotherhoods, and ordained others in their stead, whom he caused to dwell in the several viháras. And the bódhi tree at the Mahávihára he filled 11 anew with earth at the hands of the governor, the son of the twiceanointed queen, and held great feasts in honour thereof. And then he made halo-ornaments of gold, and a parasol, and a jewel for the crest, 12 for each of the solid stone images at the three religious houses. He 13 made a stately house, called after his own name, at the Abhayagiri vihára, and caused brethren to dwell there, and gave villages for its support. To the cétiya at the Mahiyangana vihára also he gave a 14 village. And in honour of the images he gave rice and cloth to all the brethren. And from all living things on land and in water removed 15 he then the fear (of death); and the customs of former kings he observed with much care.

And Ilanga Séna, the chief captain of his army, who was a prince of 16 the blood, built a house for the Thériya brethren behind the Thúpáráma.

1 The Fourth.

2 See chap. LVII., vv. 119–125.

3 Ibid, v. 98 et seq.

17 And the Dhammáráma he built for the Dhammarucikas,1 and like18 wise the Kassapa Séna for the Ságalikas. At the Cétiyapabbata

he built the vihára Hadayunha, and gave it also to the Dhammarucika 19 brethren. And for the use of the priests that dwelt in groves he built 20 cells, in each grove a cell; and at the Rattamálagiri he built a goodly room and pleasant, and gave it to the hermits, who were the guardians 21 of religion. And he built also the beautiful parivéņa at the Mahá22 vihára, which he called Samuddagiri, and gave it to the Pansukúlika monks. And he made a habitation in the forest after the name of his own lineage, and gave it to the brethren of the Mahávihára brother23 hood, who dwelt in forests. Moreover, he repaired the viháras that were old, and caused patches to be put on the old garments of the 24 brethren. And for the sisters he built a dwelling-house, Tissáráma, and appointed them to have the care of the Maricavatți thúpa 25 and the great bódhi tree. And at Anuradhapura and the city of Pulatthi he built hospitals for the prevention of pestilential diseases. 26 And to these buildings he granted fruitful lands and gardens, with

keepers, and furnished them also with means for the support of images. 27 In divers places in the city he built dispensaries3 for medicine, and 28 caused rice and cloth to be given to the Pansukúlika monks. He set

at liberty also many beasts that were bound. The chief captain of 29 the army also caused great gifts to be given to the poor, and savoury rice and curry and gruel, and divers kinds of food and hog-shaped 30 jaggery to be given to the brethren. And by these and other like good deeds the fame of Séna, the chief captain of the army, shed light on all the country like unto the rays of the moon.


And one of the kinsfolk of this self-same captain of the army, a chief, Rakkhasa by name, built a very goodly vihára in the village Saváraka, 32 and ordained an excellent course of exercise to be followed daily by the dwellers therein, and gave it unto the monks of the Mahávihára, who were perfect in discipline.



And the chief scribe Séna built a noble house, called Mahálékhakapabbata, for the use of the monks of the Mahávihára.

And the king's minister named Cólarájá rebuilt a parivéņa that had been altogether ruined, and made it a goodly and lasting place to dwell in. 35 In all the three fraternities the king made beautiful halls, like unto 36 the Véjayanta, and ornamented them with fine paintings, and held feasts of relics pleasing to the minds of his people, and passed away according to his deeds after he had sat seventeen years on the throne.


Then Kassapa,4 the sub-king, who was born of the twice-crowned queen' was anointed king over Lanká, the crown whereof descended in

1 The Abhayagiri fraternity.

3 Bhésajja géhan, "medicine-house."

a The Jétavana fraternity. 4 Kasyapa the Fifth.

vv. 1, 2, 11. Tissá, the queen

5 Cf. chap. LI., vv. 91-93; chap. LII., dowager of Udaya, having been raised to the rank of queen by Kásyapa IV., was twice anointed or twice crowned.


the order of inheritance.

And he was endued with faith, and had a 38 knowledge of the true way, and was wise as one of surpassing wisdom. He was of ready speech, like unto the minister of the gods,1 and of a free 39 hand, like unto the giver of wealth. And he was a learned expounder of the law,3 and skilled in all arts, and gifted in discerning between right and wrong. He was versed in policy, and grounded firmly in the 40 faith like unto an immovable pillar, so that he remained unshaken by the winds of contrary doctrines. He harboured neither pride nor guile, 41 nor deceit, nor such-like sins, but was a mine of virtue like unto the ocean for all sorts of gems.


And this ruler of men, who was like unto a moon in the world, con- 42 ferred the office of sub-king on the governor Dappula, who was born of his own house. By the practice of the ten virtues of kings and the 43 four means of conciliation, he watched over his people like his own eye. And he purged the whole religion of the Teacher by enforcing the rules 44 of discipline, and appointed new priests to fill up the vacant places in the viháras.4 And he rebuilt the Maricavatți vihára that king 45 Duṭṭhagámaní had built, and which had gone to ruin, and adorned it 46 with divers dwellings for the brethren, and after holding a great feast in celebration thereof he gave it to the Théravansaja brethren.5 And 47 to five hundred of them he gave lands for their support. And that so he might display a likeness unto Metteyya, the chief of the world, preaching the noble doctrines to a multitude of gods in the Tusita 48 heaven, this chief of Lanká, surrounded by his subjects and all the 49 brethren, in the goodly hall adorned with divers jewels, at the richlydecorated vihára, expounded the Abhidhamma with the glory of a Buddha. And then he caused the Abhidhamma Piṭaka to be written 50 on plates of gold, and embellished the book Dhammasanganí with divers jewels, and built for it a house in the midst of the city, and placed 51 it there, and caused feasts to be held in honour thereof. And he gave 52 the office of Sakka Sénápati' to his own son, and charged him that he should take the oversight of feasts for the book of the law. year the king caused the city to be decorated like the city of the gods, and adoring himself all over with jewels, so that he shone like the king 54 of the gods, he marched through the streets of the city seated on an

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And every 53

The authorship of the Eļu work called the Dampiyá Geṭapada, or a Glossary on the Dhammapada, should, I think, be rightly attributed to this king (Kásyapa V.) and not to Kásyapa the Parricide, as I have erroneously done elsewhere. The doubtful expression debisavajá, occurring at the end of that work, can now be easily explained by the Páli Dvayábhiséka-sañjáta in our text, meaning, “born of the twice-crowned queen."

4 Evidently showing that the enforcement of the rules of discipline (Dhamma kamma) resulted in the exclusion or excommunication of many dissolute monks from the ranks of the Order.

5 Sometimes Théravádí or Thériyá. All these terms are used to denote the monks of the Mahávihára fraternity.

The Buddha who is to come next.

7 Şakra's general.



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