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hast been to me the giver of victory!" And he returned thence to his 27 own city and held a feast in honour of his victory, and rewarded the army of Mánavamma with all the honours that were due. And in 28 course of time the king thought thus within himself : This my friend

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has left naught undone to prove his love for me; he is no longer my 29 debtor. My debt to him must I now repay by what it is my duty to do, even though grateful men are hardly found who know the value of 30 services done for them." He then assembled his officers together and spake to them in this wise: "You yourselves are witnesses of the 31 deeds of valour done by my friend here. And now it is my duty to do for him that which will be a benefit unto him, remembering that to give help unto one who had given help in the past is the duty of the right32 eous man." And when these words were said, all the ministers replied,

"Whatsoever your majesty desireth, even that is our desire also." 33 And the king then granted unto Máṇavamma an army with all the equipage and materiel and all kinds of artificers, and gave him leave to proceed (to his country and gain for himself the sovereignty thereof). 34 And when Máṇavamma was leaving the country together with his army, the king wept sore as if he had been separated from his


own son.

Mánavamma then took ship and crossed over the sea (with his army), 36 and, having made a fast voyage, landed at Lanká with his forces, and began to subdue the country (around).

And when Dáṭhópatissa heard of this invasion, he fled (from the 37 capital); and Máṇavamma entered the city and took it, and tarried not to be crowned, but straightway closely pursued the fugitive king 38 (taking only with him a small force). (But he was soon compelled to give up the pursuit, for) that portion of his Tamil army that he had left in the city deserted from him when the false tidings were brought that he 39 had been stricken with a serious illness. And Dáṭhópatissa also, when he heard of this defection, raised a large army and prepared for war 40 against Mánavamma, who, when he saw that (save a few followers) his whole army had deserted from him, and that (if he should carry on the war with so small a force) his enemy might get a chance to triumph 41 over his defeat and his death, resolved to return to India and persuade his friend to help him yet another time, by giving him an army to 42 conquer the kingdom. Accordingly he returned to India, and showed 43 himself again to his friend Narasíha, and entered his service a second time, and, having regained his favour, dwelt at his court until four kings had reigned in this island.1


And Narasiha thus thought within himself: "This my friend, who seeketh most resolutely after fame, hath now spent many years of his life in my service that so he might get back his kingdom. And lo! he will soon have grown old. How then can I now reign (in comfort) and see

1 They were--1, Hatthadáṭha or Dáțhópatissa; 2, Aggabódhi or Sirisanghaboihi; 3, Datta, the minion of Potthakuttha; 4, Unhanágara or Hatthadáțha.

him (thus miserable). Assuredly I shall this time restore to him his 45 kingdom by sending my army thither. Else what advantageth my life to me?" Thereupon the king gathered his army together, and having 46 equipped it well, gave Mánavamma all things that he desired to have, and himself accompanied the army to the seacoast where a mighty 47 array of ships of burden, gaily ornamented, had been prepared for them. And when the king reached the harbour he gave orders to all his 48 officers that they should embark and accompany Máṇavamma; but they all showed unwillingness to do so (without their king).

And Narasíha, having pondered well over the matter, resolved on 49 this stratagem. Keeping himself so that his army might not see him, he gave over to Máṇavamma all his retinue and insignia of royalty 50 together with the ornaments with which he adorned his person, and sent him (secretly) on board the ship, bidding him take the royal drum, the kottha, with him, and sound it from the deck of the vessel. And 51 Máṇavamma did as he was directed; and the soldiers thinking that it was the king (who was sounding the call), embarked, leaving him alone on 52 land. Then Mána began his voyage with the army and all the materiel of war, which, with the ships in which they were borne, was like unto 53 a city floating down the sea. And in due time he reached the port and disembarked with the army. And after the men had been made 54

to rest there for a few days, he began to fight, and took the northern. country and subdued the inhabitants thereof, and then put himself at 55 the head of his invincible army and marched against the city. And Potthakuṭṭha, having heard thereof, went forth with a large army to meet the enemy. And the two armies encountered each other like 56 unto two seas that had burst their bounds. And Mánavamma clad himself in his armour, and led his men, mounted on his elephant ; and 57 he broke through the forces of Potthakuṭṭha and the king (Hatthadáṭha), and scattered them on all sides. And Hatthadátha, the king, as he was fleeing from the field of battle, was seized by some country people. And they cut off his head and brought it to Mánavamma.


And Potthakuṭṭha, who escaped from the field of battle, took refuge in Merukandara. And the lord of that country (from whom he sought 59 protection), when he saw him (under his roof), communed thus within himself, "Yea, now for a long time has this man been my friend: how 60 can I reject him, nor yet, how can I keep clear of offence to my lord the king and to this my friend?" And so (as he could not escape from this position by reason of its hardship, he resolved to kill himself, and) ate of some poisoned cakes, so that he died. And when Potthakuṭṭha 61 heard what had befallen his friend, he ate also of one of the cakes and died. Thus did the island fall into the hands of Mánavamma, freed from dangerous foes that are like unto thorns.

And Máṇavamma then lifted his parasol of sovereignty over the 62 island, as if he thereby sheltered the inhabitants thereof from the afflictions which had rained on them. And the good deeds that he did were 63

many in number and of great value.

Who can enumerate them all one

64 by one? And this great and renowned man built these buildings: the terraced house called Kappagáma, Sépanni, Siriat Padhánarakkha vihára, and the beautiful terraced house at Siri Sanghabódhi vihára. 65 He covered also the roof of the Lóhapásáda and the roof of the house at Thúpáráma. And he built a terraced house at the Thúpáráma and 66 gave it to the Pansukúlika monks.1 He repaired also the old canopy on the top of the cétiya and many buildings there that had gone to decay.

[Here there appears to be a gap in the history of Máṇavamma. The succeeding chapter commences with a portion of the reign of Aggabódhi the Fifth.2]



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E having built a monastery with all the conveniences of a monastic life, gave it to the Dhammaruci fraternity along with the village 2 Rájinidípaka. He detached, too, a portion of the Mahánettádipáda monastery, and gave it also to them, as also the monastery Dévatissaka 3 at Kokaváta. He built the vihára Kádambagóna at Maháthala; the 4 town Giri in the district of Dévapáli; the vihára Déva at Antarasobbha; and the áráma called Rájamátika; and all these he bestowed on the 5 Pansukúlika monks. He built a house of devotion at the Gókannaka vihára, and repaired the dilapidated house near the bódhi tree, Vaḍ6 dhamánaka. This celebrated king made new additions to the Sangha7 mitta vihára and to many others in different parts of the country. He 8 spent six and twenty suvannas in repairing the dilapidated structures at the Cétiyapabbata, and also built the vihára Tálavatthu, also named Pannabhatta, and annexed it to the vihára called after king 9 Maháséna. He rebuilt the tank Gondigáma, and restored it to its former condition. To all living things he gave alms of whatsoever was necessary for their support.

10 He observed the upósatha (sabbath) together with all the inhabitants of the island, and preached to them the doctrine in order to ensure for 11 them supreme happiness, so that all the people in his kingdom were most diligent in the performance of those acts that lead the way to heaven.

Whatsoever line of conduct is pursued by the ruler of a nation, the 12 same is followed by his subjects; therefore should a wise king always walk in the path of righteousness. Such a king, wheresoever he may 13 dwell, soon acquires great renown. He is surrounded with followers,

1 An order of monks who wore robes made out of cast-off clothes.

2 These remarks are made by the learned editors.

3 The beginning of this chapter appears to be missing.

4 A weight or coin of gold equal to about 175 grains troy, according to Wilson.

and at the end attains supreme happiness. Hence also a wise man should look equally after his own welfare and that of others. For, if 14 by the example of one man, whose mind is disciplined, a whole nation becomes orderly in conduct, what wise man will condemn that discipline?

Hence the king Aggabódhi, diligent in good works both by day and 15 night, left no act undone that tended to the welfare of beings in this world and in the world to come. Even the fine garments that he wore 16 he gave away to the Pansukúlika monks to be made into robes. The 17 love of impropriety, the injurious exercise of patronage, the enjoyment of unlawfully acquired property; these were not at all of his nature. On the contrary, whatever food animals lived upon, that he gave to 18 them; by whatsoever means living things could be made happy, by these means he secured their happiness. In this manner, this chief of 19 men, who spread peace on earth, after a course of good deeds extending over six years, departed this life to join the king of the gods.

Then the Khattiya Kassapa became king, a man able to bear the 20 weight of the kingdom and to govern it as in days of old. He loved 21 his people with the love of a father, and won their affections by his liberality, his courtesy, and his beneficent rule. He bestowed offices 22 also on those only who deserved them, and, freed from all the cares (of state), took his share of the pleasures of life. This noble ruler enforced 23 on laymen and monks and Brahmans the observance of their respective customs, and effectually prohibited the destruction of animal life.

He built two monasteries at Macchatittha, also the monastery 24 Héligáma; the áráma at Vanijjagáma; also that at Kassapagiri; another 25 which was called Ambavana, and a beautiful house of devotion to which * * he assigned a village for its support. [Here there appears to be some verses missing relating to the reign. of Kassapa.1]


The prince Mahinda, although the youngest of them, had the 26 kingdom conferred on him. But he wore not the crown although he assumed the kingly office, because, it is said, his old and faithful friend 27 Níla had died but a short time before he came to succeed to the throne. Brooding over this bereavement he had even no wish to accept the crown. Oh, how marvellous! He bestowed not a thought on the 28 pleasures of the kingly office of this island, because his friend was no more. True friends are indeed very rarely met with! For that very 29 reason has the sage (Buddha) declared in this wise: All those truths that relate to the natural world, all those truths that relate to the spiritual world, all those truths that relate to the progressive course of Nibbána-all these are attained among men by association with 30 virtuous friends. Hence loving-kindness should always be shown to them."

1 Editors' remark.-From the Pújávalí it appears that this Kásyapa reigned seven years.


And so he (Mahinda) governed the kingdom under the title of Ádipáda ("governor "), as if the object of his life was simply to protect the 32 people of the island. He raised Aggabódhi, the son of his brother Kassapa, to the dignity of sub-king, and having enriched him with 33 much wealth, gave him the charge of the eastern country and sent him to dwell there. But to his son he gave the southern country (only). 34 He caused ten cartloads of food to be given daily in alms at the Mahápáli alms-hall. All food that was set before him he partook of in equal 35 shares with the mendicants. He never ate of anything without setting apart a portion thereof for the beggars, and if, through forgetfulness, he ever failed to do so, he would give them of what he had fared twofold.



For the use of the nuns he built a convent after his own name, assigned to it the two villages Nagaragalla and Árámamariyádaka. 37 He built the Mahindataṭa áráma, and endowed it with the means of obtaining the four necessaries of monastic life. In various other ways 38 too were meritorious acts done by this lover of virtue. This magnanimous king having thus administered the government of the country for three years, left this life for the world of the gods, as if in search of his departed friend.


Prince Aggabódhi (the son of Mahinda), who was living in the 40 southern country, was in the capital on some business when the Governor 41 Mahinda died. The reins of government having thus fallen into his hands, he undertook the administration of the island, but sent to Aggabódhi, the sub-king, the nephew of Mahinda, asking him to hasten and 42 take possession of the kingdom. He accordingly came up and ascended the throne under the name of Silámégha (Aggabódhi VI.). He appointed prince Aggabódhi, the son of Mahinda, to the office of sub-king, 43 who immediately took upon himself the administration of the kingdom, addressing the king, his cousin, in this wise: " Banish from your mind all thoughts of the cares and anxieties of state and enjoy the pleasures of the kingly office (while I look after the affairs of the kingdom).” 44 This sagacious man showed favour or disfavour to his subjects according to their deserts, and turned into order all the lawlessness that was 45 rife in the land. So long as the king and sub-king lived on such friendly terms with each other, evil-doers found no opportunity for their misdeeds, and soon devised a plan by which to destroy their good under46 standing. Having secretly gained admission to the king's presence, they spoke all manner of evil things against the sub-king, saying, 47" Your majesty is only king in name, but another is king in reality, and doubtless this sub-king, after he has gained favour in the eyes of the people, will soon take possession of the kingdom."

48 The king gave ear to this calumny and lost all the trust he had in the prince, who, when he became aware of it, proved traitor to the king and 49 fled to his own country, where he gained over the people around him, and with a large army began a war. A great battle was fought at 50 Kadalíniváta, when the prince was defeated and fled to the Malaya.

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