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And while this ruler of men was committing such manifold deeds of wickedness, the Sinhalese that were incensed against him, and the 27 inhabitants of Colombo, came hither; and they all joined themselves 28 together and took the wicked and unjust king captive in the eighteenth year of his reign, and banished him to the opposite coast. And after 29 that they had banished the king, who was a scourge to the country, the English took possession of the whole kingdom.
THE END OF THE MAHÁVANSA.
May there be Prosperity!
I. Translation of Chapter XXXIX. by Professor Rhys Davids published in the Royal Asiatic Society's Journal, 1872.
(Referred to in page 8.)1
1 THEN that wicked king called Kasyapa, having sent a housekeeper and a cook to kill his brother, and being unable to do so, became afraid and went to the Lion Rock (Sígiri); and having thoroughly cleared the place difficult for men to climb, and surrounded it by a rampart, built there a climbing gallery ornamented with lions, whence it acquired its
Having collected his wealth, he buried it there carefully, and put guard over the treasures he himself had buried in different places, and built a palace there beautiful to look at and pleasant to the mind, like a second Álakamandá, where he lived like Kuvéra.
The general called Migára built there a monastery of the same name, and a coronation hall, where he asked that the coronation should take place with more splendour than the Silásambuddha; but being refused, kept quiet, thinking "I shall know about it when the rightful heir comes to the kingdom."
Having repented (the king) did no little charity, thinking "How shall I get free from the deeds I have done?" He spent much wealth on the gates of the city, and made a mango garden every eight miles throughout the land; and having built the Issarasamana monastery as a place sacred to Buddha, he bought still more fruitful land and gave to
He had two daughters, "The Wise One " and " The Lotus-coloured.” and he gave their names and his own to this vihára. When he gave it the faithful priests would not have it, fearing the blame of the world that it was the work of a parricide. But he still intending to give it them, bestowed it on the image of Buddha; then the priests received 14 it, saying "It (has become) the property of our Master." In the same manner, in a garden near the rock, he made a monastery, and it was called by their name. He gave that vihára, abounding with the four necessary gifts, and a garden in the Northern Province, to the Dhammarucis.
He having tasted a dish given to him, and prepared by a woman with king-coconut milk and ghee, and seasoned with excellent curry, thought: "This would be good for priests, I will give them some," and gave (accordingly) a meal like that and a suit of robes to all the priests.
18 He observed the eight rules, and meditated much and vowed vows, and had books written, and made many images, and dining halls for priests, and such like things. Yet he lived on in fear of the other world and of Moggallána.
1 The italics are mine, to indicate where material differences occur between his and my translation.
Then, in the eighteenth year, Moggallána, that great warrior, by 20 the advice of the naked mendicants, came here from Jambudvipa with twelve chiefs as friends, and collected his army at Kuṭhári vihára ("the axe temple "), in the district Ambaṭṭhakólaka. The king hearing this, saying "I will catch and eat him," started forth with a large army, although the fortune-tellers said "You cannot do it."
And Moggallána, too, marched out with his armed force and hero 23 friends, like the god Sakra going to the battle field of the Titans. The two armies met one the other, like oceans when their waves are broken, and began the mighty battle. Kásyapa, then, seeing right in front a marshy hole, turned aside his elephant to go another way. Seeing him, his army gave way, saying "Our master is flying." But the soldiers of Moggallána cried out, saying "We see his back" ; and that king cutting off (Kasyapa's) head with his sword, threw it into the air, and put back his sword into its sheath.
Then, performing the funeral rites, and confirming the acts of the late 28 king, and taking all the baggage, he entered the wonderful city. The priests hearing this news, well clothed and well robed, swept the vihára, and stood in order. He entered the Maháméghavana, like the king 30 of the gods entering his garden Nandana, and stopping his mighty army outside the elephant wall, and approaching and saluting them, he was well pleased with the priesthood there, and offered his kingdom to the priests, and the priests gave it back to him. They began to call that place "The gift of the Kingdom," and the vihára which had been made there acquired the same name.
He went to the citadel, and having entered both the viháras and bowed 33 low to the priesthood, he took to himself the supreme sovereignty, in righteousness protecting the people. Being angry with the priests, saying They assisted at the death of my father, these bald heads!" he took away the tooth, and thence acquired the name of “ Devil.”
He slew more than one thousand ministers, cut off the noses and 35 ears of others, and many he banished from the land. After that he listened to the Law, became quiet and of a good heart, and gave great treasure, as a rain-cloud to the broad earth. He gave gifts every year on the full-moon-day of January; and the custom continues in the Island up to this day.
Then the charioteer (see Mahávansa, page 260) who had given the 38 juicy fried rice to his father, brought his father's letter and gave it to Moggallána. Having seen this, he wept, remembering his father's love to himself, and gave the man the dignity of chief gate-keeper. The Governor Migáro, having told him (all) as it had happened (before), performed the coronation (anointing) even as he had wished.
The king built on Sigiri rock the viháras called Dalha and Dáthá- 41 konḍañña, and gave them to the Dhammaruci and Ságali Orders; and having made a rock vihára, he gave it to the théra, to Mahánáma of the Díghasanda vihára. (See footnote, page 196.) Also he, the largehearted, made a residence called Rájiní, for nuns, and gave it to the priestesses of the Ságali Order.
But a certain man named Dáthápabhúti of the family of the 44 "Hanging-ear'd ones," who had been dissatisfied in the service of Kásyapa, and was afraid of him, had gone with his relation Moggallána to Jambudvipa, and going to Mereliyavagga had settled there. He had a son named Silákála, who took the robes in the Bódhimanda vihára, and there lived a priest's life, loved of all and virtuous.
He gave a mango to the priesthood, and they, well pleased therewith, 48 cried out, A mango-pupil." So he was called by that name in future.
He having acquired the hair-relic in the manner related in the book, "The History of the Hair-relics," brought it hither in the reign of this king.
(The king) entertained him hospitably, and received the hair-relics and placed them in a crystal shrine of great price, and carried them in procession to the noble image-house of Dipankaranagara, and gave a great donation; making golden images of his wife and father-in-law, he 53 placed them there, and a beautiful statue of himself. And he made a casket for the hair-relic, and a canopy, and a jewelled shrine, and (figures of) the two chief apostles and of the sacred fan: and he gave it a greater retinue than that of the king himself, and made Silákála the sword bearer, and placed him in charge (over it): so he was called the sword bearer Silákála, and the king gave him his sister (to wife) and much wealth. This is said very shortly, but the whole is well described in the History of the Hair-relic, which the wise should read.
He saved the island from the fear (of inundation and encroachment by building a dyke against the sea). In righteousness he purified the doctrine and ethics of Buddhism; and having built towards the north a palace for his chiefs, called Sénápatighara, and done (other) good deeds, he came to his end in his eighteenth year.
Thus that powerful one, Kásyapa, when his merits failed, was not able to resist the approach of death, but became its slave. Therefore the wise will be happy only when they have overcome the power of death; and he who has attained to knowledge of himself will reach Nirvána, the excellent, eternal, place of bliss.
So is finished the thirty-ninth chapter, called the History of Two Kings, of the Mahávansa, which is made for the delight and agitation of righteous men.
II. Translation of Chapter XLVI. of the Mahavansa, by Professor Rhys Davids, published in the Journal of the Ceylon Branch
of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1871-72.1
AFTER the death of Hatthadáṭha Agra Bódhi, the eldest son of the king, also called Sri Sangha Bódhi, became king.
2. He was a righteous king, full of insight, and did innumerable acts of merit.
3. He superintended the maintenance of the priests of the three sects, preserved the canon of scripture, and forbade slaughter.
4. He gave offices impartially, according to merit, and favoured those who by birth or learning were worthy of favour.
5. Wherever he saw priests, he, the high-minded, did them honour, and asked them to say the liturgy (pirit) or talk of religion.
6. He studied under the wise, virtuous, and learned priest Dáthásíva of Nágasála monastery.
7. And there having thoroughly heard the teaching of the allwise one, being perfected in religion, he became a doer of all gentle deeds.
8. Having heard a discussion between priestesses, who (previous to their putting on the robes) were related to him, he quite turned away his favour from those who were wicked heretics.
1 For differences compare this with the same chapter in my translation.
9. He restored broken monasteries and parivéņas to their former state.
10. He restored alms fallen into abeyance, and gave slaves to the priesthood according to the necessities of each (sacred) place.
11. He made a splendid house for that priest called after his name; which, having received, he, the high-minded one, gave to the priesthood. 12. And the king gave to him villages for his maintenance, Bharattála and Kihimbila and Kataka and Tuládhára.
13. And Andhakára and Atturóli, and Balava and Dváranáyaka, and Mahá Nikatthika and Pelahála also.
14. These villages and others he, the lord of men, gave for maintenance; and he gave servants also of those related to himself.
15. Then, either seeing or hearing that monasteries of both sects were poorly provided for, he gave many villages for their maintenance. 16. But what is the use of much speaking? To the three sects he gave a thousand villages, fruitful ones, and undisputed.
17. And following the Three Gems in the highest virtue, he took a necklace and turned it into a rosary.
18. So in every way he followed after religion; and all men, taking him for their example, became doers of virtue.
19. A Tamil called Potthakuntha, who was his constant servant, made a splendid and wonderful house called Maṭambiya.
20. And the king gave him Ambavápi in Bukakalla, and the cloth weavers' village Catika, and the village Niṭṭhilavetti with the slaves (living therein).
21. And he built as residences the monasteries at Kappora and the places at Kurundapillaka.
22. In other places, too, the wealthy one divided villages among the monasteries; and the wise general named Potthasáta added to Jeta vihára.
23. A parivéņa called after the king's name; and Mahakanda, the Tamil, a parivéņa of the same name.
24. And the under-king Sanghatissa made a small house called Sehalaupa-rájaka for the king.
25. And in other places many people both built monasteries (of which these are only a few), and were full of goodness, following the example of the king.
26. For when the chief does evil or good the world does just the same let him who is wise note this.
27. This king had a most virtuous queen called Jeṭṭhá, who built the Jeṭṭhá monastery as a home for priestesses.
28. And gave to it two villages in very stony land called Tumbuddha and Helagáma, together with a hundred slaves.
29. And the king added a splendid relic-house to the dágoba in Mandalagiri monastery.
30. And he roofed in the inner chamber in the Brazen Palace (at Anuradhapura). The celebrated Bódhitissa built Bódhitissa monastery.
31. And all the provincial Governors throughout the island built monasteries and parivéņas not a few, according to their ability.
32. In the time of this chief of men everywhere in the island virtue alone was practised.
33. It seems bad to me (thought the king), according to the most important sign of goodness, to have passed so much time here.
34. So after a time he went to Pulastipura and there lived acquiring merit.