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134 And he gave away the vessels for holding rice that were in the Mahápáli to his Tamil followers, who, again, destroyed all the king's palaces and 135 the relic-house. And afterwards, when he repented himself of his acts, he built the vihará Sákavatthu and endowed it with land, that he might purge himself thereby of the wicked deeds that he had done. And his nephew (sister's son), who was known among the people by the name of Ratanadáṭha, became the chief governor, and gave him 137 much help. And when the fortune of war turned, and Aggabódhi took 138 the government into his hands, Kassapa, his sub-king, rashly pulled 139 down the cétiya at the Thúpáráma and robbed it of all the rich offer
ings that had been made to it by Dévánampiya Tissa, Aggabódhi the younger, and other ancient kings, that so he might support his army, 140 being incited thereto by wicked men and bad advisers. He also pulled down the cétiya of the Dakkhiņa vihára and took therefrom much substance of great value. In like manner did he pull down many other 141 cétiyas also. And so ill-advised was he of his friends, that they say the king had it not in his power to stop him from doing these wicked deeds. 142 Oh! how difficult it is to restrain evil-minded men. Wherefore the king who had been unable to restrain him, spent a thousand pieces of money and re-built the Thúpáráma cétiya that was destroyed by the sub-king, and held a festival in honour thereof.
143 And when Aggabódhi was defeated by Dáṭhópatissa he went to 144 Róhana to raise an army there. And during his sojourn there he was attacked by a disease which caused him his death after an interrupted reign of sixteen years. His younger brother Kassapa, the sub-king, 145 then defeated Dáṭhópatissa and drove him into India, and brought the whole country under the dominion of one king, though he wore not the 146 crown himself. And having joined himself to the virtuous, he repented him afterwards of all that he had done; and in order that he might avert the evil consequences of the deeds that he had aforetime 147 committed, he laid out gardens of flowers and of fruits, and built many 148 tanks. He made great offerings to the three cétiyas and to the Thú
páráma, to which he dedicated a village also. He caused the doctrines of religion to be preached by holy monks who lived not among the 149 habitations of men. He built a great house also at Maricavaṭṭi, and 150 made the great elder of Nágasála to dwell in it. He attended also to all the wants of that abbot while he lived there, by providing him with the four monastic requisites, and prevailed on him so that he 151 recited the Abhidhamma with the Aṭṭhakathá also. He built another house for this same elder at Nágasála, and gave it to him as a present with the village Mahániṭṭhila, for his support.
152 And Dáṭhópatissa returned afterwards from India with a large army 153 and made war against Kassapa. But Kassapa, with the help of his army that he equipped and made fit for battle, defeated and killed him. Thus did the reign of this king Dáṭhópatissa extend over a period of 154 twelve years. And at this great battle Dáṭhópatissa's sister's son, who bore the same name, fled to India for fear of Kassapa.
So uncertain, indeed, are all earthly possessions! They are gotten 155 with great difficulty, and their splendour lasteth but for a moment. Therefore, he who seeks after his own well-being should abandon all his affection for them, and devote himself to the precepts of religion. Thus endeth the forty-fourth chapter, entitled "The Reigns of Six Kings," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.
AND Kassapa, after he had gained the victory, and having ful- 1
filled all his desires (turned his mind to the improvement of
the things within the kingdom). He increased the food that had been given to the Order at the Mahápáli alms-hall, and made great 2 offerings to the holy monk Mahá Dhammakathí, who dwelt at Nágasála, and made him preach the sacred doctrines. And for the monk of 3 Kaṭandhakára, who dwelt in the monastery that the king's brother had built, he caused the whole Páli scripture to be written together with the lesser books. He repaired the buildings that had been broken down and added new works to the cétiya, and made gifts of land in divers places to the Order. He made three crest-jewels glittering with 5 divers gems for (the pinnacles of) the three cétiyas, and fulfilled the desires of one hundred Pandupalásas2 with gifts of cloth.
He had many children, of whom the eldest was Mánaka.3 But they 6 were all young, and not having come of age lacked understanding. So 7 when he was laid low with an incurable disease, he thought within himself that all his sons, by reason of their tender years, were not fitted to take the government into their hands. He sent, therefore, for his 8 nephew, who dwelt in the Róhana country, and who was a man of great understanding, and gave the whole kingdom into his care, together with his sons. And after he had worshipped at the cétiyas with 9 offerings of scents and flowers, he gave to the Order the four monastic requisites and obtained their forgiveness. And the king having thus 10 conducted himself righteously towards his friends and his ministers and his subjects, passed away according to his deeds in the ninth year of his reign.
And his nephew Mána having performed with all honour everything 11 that was due to the dead body of his uncle, reconciled himself to his subjects, and drove away the Tamils (from their offices and from all power). Whereupon they conspired together to expel him (from the 12
1 Sasangahan, lit." with epitomes."
• A Pandupalása is a lay candidate for holy orders living in the vihára until he could get his robes and alms-bowl made.
3 He subsequently became king and reigned for thirty-five years. The interesting history of his life is narrated in the forty-seventh chapter.
chief place in the government); and while he was absent from the capital, they took it and sent a message unto Hatthadáṭha1 who had 13 fled to India, asking him to return hither and take up the government 14 of the kingdom. And Mána, likewise, made all haste and sent unto his father (Dappula) in the Róhana country (telling him of all that had happened). And when the (regent's) father heard thereof, he bastened out from the Róhana country (to take counsel with his son as to these 15 things). And they agreed among themselves and sowed strife among the Tamils. (And the Tamils then sought the friendship of the regent,) 16 and all of them lived peacefully together. Mána then raised his father to the throne and crowned him. And soon after Dappula had been made king he gave three thousand pieces for the service of the three fraternities, and when he had conciliated the Order and the people, 17 he sent the royal treasures to Róhana, so that they might not fall into the hands of the enemy.
And when Hatthadáṭha had received the message that was sent to 19 him, he made haste to the island with an army of Tamils. Whereupon all the Tamils who dwelt in the island returned from their allegiance to the king and joined themselves to Hatthadáṭha, who was yet on his way 20 to the capital. Mána, hearing of these things, determined that it was not then a meet opportunity for war, and having sent his father to 21 Róhana together with all precious things that belonged to him, betook himself to the eastern country, and dwelt there, and laboured greatly to win the goodwill of the people therein.
And Hatthadátha, having now gained over the great men of the 22 Tamil party, seized the royal city and proclaimed himself king by the
name of Dáṭhópatissa. The people also called him by that name, as it 23 was well known to them, that being the name of his uncle. He sent unto his cousin Aggabódhi and appointed him sub-king, and gave him 24 the southern country. And he bestowed offices, according to their deserts, on all those who had served him faithfully, and did all things that were needful for the advancement of religion, and the good of his 25 subjects. And he gave gifts of curdled milk, and rice and milk, and milk rice, and clothes, at the Mahápáli. And he observed the sacred. 26 days and heard the preaching of religious doctrines. He caused all the festivals also to be observed, and took heed that the doctrines of religion were duly expounded. And by these acts of great merit he did much good to himself also.
To the vihára of Kassapa he gave the village Séna; to the Chief of the Padhánaghara the tank Mahágalla; to the Mayúra parivéņa the 28 village Kasagáma ; and the village Punnóli to the Thúpáráma, the which 29 cétiya he honoured also (in other ways). He built the Kappúra
parivéņa at the Abhayagiri vihára, and to the same brotherhood he gave, moreover, a vihára called Tiputhulla. And while this vihára was 30 in building, the Thériya brethren objected, saying that it encroached
1 See chap. XLIV., v. 154.
upon their sacred boundary. But the king gave no heed to them, and built it on the same ground (that he had chosen). Thereupon the 31 Thériya priests were displeased with the conduct of the king, and they looked upon him as a wicked disciple, and inflicted upon him the punishment of the inversion of the alms-bowl (as set forth in the Vinaya). And, indeed, it has been said by the great sage that any lay 32 disciple who shal! impiously endeavour to cause loss or injury to the Order, or shall abuse or revile them, to him shall the inversion of the alms-bowl be done. The Thériya priests therefore acted in this manner 33 towards the king, but the foolish multitude understood otherwise, and thought that the monk who goes his begging rounds, carrying the bowl 34 in the proper way, inverts it at the gate of the palace (disdaining the king.) But soon after the king was afflicted with a sore disease, and 35 came to his life's end in the ninth year of his reign.
And in the meanwhile the late king Dappula dwelt in his own Róhaṇa 36 country, and was gaining much merit to himself there.
And here it seemeth best to us to show clearly his descent, inasmuch 37 as the record when made in this very place will not cause confusion (hereafter).
Now there lived a man of the Okkáka race, the renowned Mahátissa. 38 And he was highly favoured by fortune and was like unto a mine for his innumerable virtues. And he had a wife, Sanghasívá by name, the 39 daughter of the lord of Róhana, a woman endowed with much wealth and great fortune. And she bore him three sons, of whom the first was 40 called Aggabódhi, and the second Dappula, and the third Maniakkhika. And she had also one daughter, who was led in marriage to the 41 king (of Róhana). The first-born established his authority over the Róhana. And having great wealth he built the Mahápáli alms-hall at 42 Mahágáma and the parivéna Dáṭhaggabódhi in the same place. And at 43 Kánagáma he built hospitals for the sick and the blind. This prudent man built a large image-house at the Pațimá vihára and a solid stone statue of Buddha, which he called Mahanta, so beautiful that it 44 looked as if it had been made by the power of the gods. He built also 45 the vihára Sálaváṇa, and called it after his own name, and another vihára and a house for the monks at Kájaragáma.2 This thoughtful 46 man added new buildings also to the Dhammasála vihára, and himself took the oversight of the work of cleansing a closet that was there. And having one day partaken of the remnants of food left by the Order, 47 and being much delighted therewith, he made to them a present of the village Mandagáma. And after he had done these and divers other 48 acts of merit he left this earth for heaven. Whereupon his younger brother Sámi Dappula, who was there at that time, became the chief of the Róbana, and made himself feared in the province. And he trod 49
1 This is a kind of punishment inflicted on laymen for a persistent course of unrighteous conduct towards the Order. The mendicant in passing the gate of such people inverts his bowl if food be offered to him, i.e., he refuses the food. 2 Kataragama.
his enemies under foot and gave gifts freely unto the people, and freed 50 Róhana from all danger. And his people were so well pleased with him that they said, This is our great lord." Thenceforth he was known throughout the land as "The great lord."
51 And king Siládáṭha1 heard of these things, and being much pleased 52 thereat gave him his daughter in marriage with a large portion; and considering him well-fitted to fill the throne, he gave him also the office of sub-king. And his sons were Mánavamma and others whose fame was very great.
And having learnt the doctrine at the feet of the great elder who 54 dwelt at Pásánadípa, and being much pleased with him, he built and dedicated to him a vihára in Róhana in token of his great reverence for him, but the elder left it for the monks in the four quarters of the earth.2 55 He built the Ambamála vihára and many others also, among them 56 the Khadiráli vihára, where he made offerings to the gods. He also repaired the buildings that were very old of the Anuráráma vihára, and ornamented it with festoons of pearls. This great and learned man 57 renewed the buildings Sirivaḍdha and Takkambila, wherein he established thirty-two monks, having provided for them all the necessaries 58 of monastic life. He gave to the Nága vihára the village Kévaṭṭa Gambhira; to the Rája vihára, Gonnagáma; to the Tissa vihára, 59 Kantikapabbata; and to the Cittalapabbata vihára, the village Gon
naviṭṭhi. In like manner, this king gave to the Ariyákari vihára the 60 village Málavatthuka, and built an exceeding beautiful image-house 61 there. For the statue of Buddha which stood there he made a very
costly ornament for the forehead, and a golden band, and celebrated 62 the giving of the gifts with all festivities that were due. He repaired
the cétiya when it broke down, and plastered it with white cement, and set up another statue of the blessed Buddha, fifteen cubits high, 63 which he named Metteyya. In this manner did this great ruler not only
give great heed himself to the performance of many good deeds, but 64 caused his servants to do the same, and he was fortunate in that he had a great number of men devoted to good works, by whom were built many viháras with the necessary furnishings thereof.
65 On one occasion when he was travelling through a forest in which no man dwelt, it happened that he had to pass the night there with all his 66 followers. And when he had washed and anointed himself with oil, and had eaten of a rich meal, he went to lay himself on the soft bed that 67 had been prepared for him in a fine tent. But seeing that sleep came not to him, he examined whether anything had befallen him during 68 the day by reason of which his slumbers could be disturbed. And finding no such cause, he concluded that the reason thereof lay without
1 This name does not appear in the list of preceding kings. Could it be a misnomer for Silámégha, who ascended the throne after slaying Dalla Moggallána ? See chap. XLIV., v. 60 et seq.
2 Literally, monks belonging to the four quarters of the earth, i.e., the general Order of monks throughout the world.