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28 if he had entered into Nibbána. And he lifted up the two relics in great pride of heart, as if he had obtained possession of the wealth of Mandhátu,1 and carried them in great procession from hamlet to hamlet and from city to city.



And the ruler of the land brought the self-same relics to the beautiful city of Jambuddóni, where the good people had already begun to hold a joyful festival.

Thereafter the wise king continued to make great offerings daily according to a fixed course. And in this wise did this king think within 31 himself: "A place of safety shall I build with great care, strong and 32 most difficult of access, that so, if in time to come an interreign might occur no danger shall happen unto the two relics of the sage from the 33 foe and the stranger." And having thought thus within himself, he caused the Billaséla2 rock to be encompassed and defended with ramparts and gates, so that no enemy in the earth could enter therein, 34 save the gods of the sky. And on the top of the rock he built the 35 temple of the tooth-relic with great splendour, like unto a heavenly

mansion that had descended from the world of the gods. And he built around it dwelling-places for the Order, consisting of noble houses and 36 halls, lakes and ponds, and beauteously furnished retreats both for the 37 day and the night. And amid great feasting the king placed in the relic-house the two relics consisting of the tooth and the alms-bowl. 38 And he gave that house over to such of the elders as adhered most strongly to the laws of discipline; to whom also he entrusted the keeping 39 of the relics and provided means for their support. And he ordained a course of daily offerings and ceremonies to be duly performed in honour of the relics.


And to them

Thereafter the lord of the land began to render services unto the religion of the supreme Buddha with great devotion. that might ask in what manner, it shall now be told. The king being exceedingly grieved in mind that a great number of 42 the books of the holy law were destroyed by the enemy throughout the 43 island of Lanká, gathered together a number of pious men of great


learning from among the people, and many scribes also, men who were not given up to sloth but were gifted with good manners and wrote 44 skilfully and with great speed. And the lord of the land set them to 45 work to transcribe the sacred book of the law, which consisted of eight and four thousand divisions. And to them he paid in money as many gold kahápanas as there were divisions in the book of the law. He held a festival also in honour of the scriptures, and so heaped for himself much merit.


And if there dwelt anywhere in the three Síhalas any who were elders, great officers of the church renowned for their zeal and devotion, any 47 of the second degree also of priests that had been ordained, and any

1 A Cakravarti Rájá of the first kalpa. He is said to have enjoyed the highest earthly happiness. 2 Beligala.

novitiates, yea, all such as supported the religion of the master did he bring together; and them also that were at variance with each other did he reconcile.

Again he bethought himself, saying, "The ordination of priests is 48 the chief means whereby to advance religion. Now, therefore, it would be well if it could be done in good order." And having communed 49 thus with himself, he gave unto the great priesthood, yea even unto all who dwelt together in unity, the eight requisites of the monastic life. And being greatly delighted in mind therewith, he caused the 50 ceremony of ordination to be performed for seven days, beginning with great rejoicings and festivals held in honour thereof.

And the lord of the land built an áráma, called after his own name 51 and known through all the land as Vijayasundara áráma, which he gave to the Order after that he had ordained that it should belong to the priesthood in common. And he sent to the priests, saying "If any 52 pious priest or novitiate study the Three Piṭakas and give up his whole time in learning them, let not such person be subject to the trouble of 53 procuring the wherewithal to live, but let him graciously come to my 54 door and receive thereat whatever thing he may stand in need of." 55 And having reverently sent unto them in this manner, the lord of the land, who was a liberal giver, gave alms of great value unto a great number of monks who went up to the palace gate (for relief). And for the 56 cost of cooking the food for the elders and superior elders that held offices in the church, he made provision also. In this manner indeed did the 57 defender of the land encourage religion, and by this means did he, of a truth, honour the Three Sacred Gems, the chiefest of which is Buddha.

And for the priests he made a vihára, as it became them, at Vattala- 58 gáma, and called it Vijaya Báhu, after his own name. At the Kalyáni 59 vihára also the king renewed the great cétiya which the mighty men of the Tamils had destroyed, and set a golden pinnacle on it, and built 60 a gate also on the eastern side thereof. He also repaired the breaches 61 in the image-house and the rampart and all the other buildings that stood there. And he sent forth a command that all the temples and 62 image-houses and viháras and parivéņas and cétiyas and their terraces 63 and the ramparts and gates that were in the country of Máyá should be thoroughly repaired and restored as they had been before.

And after that the king again desired earnestly to make yet more 64 changes for the benefit of the church and the people. But he thought to himself in this wise: "The pleasures of the kingly office have come 65 to me in my old age when the days of my youth have passed, and verily I have enjoyed them. Now, therefore, the time that remaineth unto 66 me is short, wherein I can defend the people by subduing all the cruel 67 foes who have survived the conquerors and advance the welfare of the land by causing all the repairs to be finished in the viháras that have been pulled down and destroyed." Having thought thus within 68 himself, the wise king and those who were skilled in the interpreting of 69 signs (whom he had called together unto him) examined the signs (on

the bodies) of Parakkama Báhu and Bhuvanéka Báhu, both of them his true-born sons. And when he was satisfied that there were signs 70 on the body of Parakkama Báhu which showed that he would conquer his enemies by his might and glory and bring the whole of Lanká, to 71 an extent that had never before been exceeded, under the dominion of one canopy, and that he would also advance the prosperity of the exceedingly pure religion of the omniscient one, and would spread his 72 fame abroad through all the corners of the earth, so that he would receive gifts, from divers countries, of princesses for his inner palace, 73 and flourish as the monarch of the whole island,-then the king's eyes 74 were filled with tears of joy thereat, and he seated him on his lap and poured kisses on the crown of his head. And ofttimes also he looked 75 tenderly towards the younger prince, his brother, who stood near unto him, and gave excellent counsel to them twain on divers matters. And 76 he commanded that they twain should be well instructed and made 77 skilful in all knowledge. And to the priests who had assembled themselves together for that purpose, with the great and renowned Sangha Rakkhita as their leader, he afterwards gave the elder of his two sons, Parakkama Báhu, that they should have the charge of him. Likewise also he gave unto them the two relics of the tooth and the alms-bowl 78 that belonged unto the sage, and the care also of all the priesthood and people of Lanká, and himself ruled righteously over them.



Thus did this ruler of men sow the seeds of the kingly office in the great field of Lanká, and having reigned over it for four years he departed to heaven.

And in like manner as this chief ruler of men, Viajya Báhu, defended the whole land and the religion of the conqueror, so may kings also who come after him defend them both, and give none occasion for fear.

Thus endeth the eighty-first chapter, entitled "The Reign of one King," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.



AND when his father was dead the prince Parakkama Báhu joinea

together all the people of the three Síhalas into one body, and after that he had adorned the beautiful city, he, who was as it were equal unto the king of the gods, held the feast of his coronation before 3 all things. And because he was a man of much learning he received 4 the great name, Kalikála Sáhicca Sabbaññu Pandita.1 And he gave the office of sub-king to his younger brother Bhuvanéka Báhu together with half of the kingdom.

5 And saying to himself, "The damsel Lanká shall I make mine, yea even wholly mine, and give her not to another," he cherished in his

6 heart the noble desire of crushing out the enemy. And he said in his


The all-knowing pandit of the Kaliyuga era of literature."

heart, "But before all things must I hold a feast in honour of the toothrelic of the sage, and after that shall I go to war against the Tamils." And so he brought forth the tooth-relic from the Billa mountain1 with great pomp and ceremony unto the noble city of Jambuddóni. And he 8 caused a tooth-relic house of great beauty to be built nigh unto his palace, at great cost, seeing that he had a great desire to worship the relic whenever he thought thereof, even during the three periods of the day. And 9 he raised a costly altar in the midst thereof, and covered it with a cloth of great value, and caused a receptacle for the tooth-relic to be 10 cut out of a precious stone of great size; and to cover it he made a large 11 casket of exceeding great beauty, of precious gems of divers colours; 12 and a second casket of great brightness made he of five thousand 13 nikkhas2 of gold to cover this; and a third of twenty-five thousand 14 nikkhas of silver to cover the last. And after he had caused the city 15 to be decorated, commencing from the relic-house, he held the great feast of the tooth-relic with great honours. And when he had taken 16 the tooth-relic into his own hands that were like unto a lotus, he made a solemn declaration3 in the midst of the great priesthood in this wise : "Our blessed lord Buddha, the god of gods, the saint possessed of 17 miraculous power, came three times to this island of Lanká. And 18 because that he seated himself in divers spots on those times, sixteen places has he made holy here as his páribhógika shrines. Wherefore 19 it is that Lanká remaineth not under the rule of kings that are followers of false creeds, but prospereth only under such as are of the true faith. Aforetime also, in this island, did Aséla the son of Muṭasíva, who was 20 skilled in all policy, reign over this land and defend the religion of the 21 conqueror after that he had vanquished Séna and Guttika, the sons of the horse merchant. Abhaya the king also, known to all men as Duṭṭha 22 Gámani, defended the religion and the country after that he had vanquished Elára the Cólian. And after him did Vaṭṭa Gámani protect 23 the religion and the country after that he had routed the five fierce Tamil tyrants in open battle. Thereafter did that chief of men (Dhátuséna) 24 protect the religion and the land after that he had prevailed over the six Tamil kings with their mighty men. Likewise also the great Vijaya 25 Báhu protectedt he religion and the land after that he had routed the

1 Beligala.

* A weight equal to five suvannas, according to the Abhidhánappadípiká. It seems, however, to be applied to different quantities.

3 Saccakiriyá. Declaring a truth solemnly, and invoking the accomplishment of some benign object by virtue thereof.

• Shrines containing relics which were articles worn or used by Buddha in his lifetime, in contradistinction to sáririka or bodily relics :-e.g., in the case of Buddha, the tooth-relic and the collar-bone relic are sáririka; the alms-bowl and the bodhi tree, &c., are páribhógika. The sixteen holy places alluded to in the text are Mahiyangana, Nágadípa, Kelaniya, Adam's Peak, Diváguhá, Díghavápi, Mutiyangana, Tissamahá vihára, Mahá Bódhi, Mirisavețiya dágoba, Ruvanveli Mahá Seya, Thúpáráma, Abhayagiri, Jétavana, Segiriya, and Kataragama.

26 Cólians in battle and put them to flight. And even now, Mágha and 27 Jaya Báhu, the haughty Tamil usurpers, dwell in the Patiṭṭhá country,1 and are destroying the religion of the master and the viháras and dwelling-places therein. Them, even them, do I hope to vanquish and 28 to advance the religion and the welfare of the land. This is indeed a true saying.

"But now shall I speak of another matter. The renowned and 29 prosperous kings of Kósala and others hearkened to the discourses of the master while he yet lived, and beheld divers miracles; 30 and their desires were thus fulfilled. And Dhammásóka, the mighty 31 king, and others who arose after Buddha was dead, beheld also the wondrously created form of the supreme one, and they all, even 32 each of them, made their lives worthy. And when the chief of the world had finished his ministry as Buddha, and had laid him down on 33 his bed of final emancipation in the garden of the Mallas, many lesser resolves also did he doubtless make above the five great ones, which were to come to pass in future times. Wherefore cometh it that even 34 unto this day all the relics that are of that lord's body, and those that 35 are connected with his memory, do manifest wonders in this world by


the operation of his will. Wherefore also it seemeth to me that the 36 blessed one, the chief of sages, when he made each separate resolve, 37 and beheld kings in the remote future who were to stand as faithful and obedient followers of the religion which was to last for five thousand years, with the eye of wisdom beheld he me also among that number. Now, therefore, if it be so that I too have been seen by the sanctified 38 one, and if I also have been included in the number of those faithful 39 kings and mighty men who have gone before me, and if it hath been

ordained that I should crush the enemy in fierce battle and advance the 40 welfare of the religion of the land and the kingdom, then indeed would it be well if this tooth-relic should now manifest to me a miracle whereby I may be assured." And when the king had thus made an end of speaking he stood in deep thought.


And at the self-same moment the tooth-relic leaped from his lotus 42 hand into the sky, shaped like a crescent, creating a likeness of the great sage, of exceeding beauty, and lighting the whole city with the 43 thick rays of six colours that sprang therefrom. And after that it had manifested this great miracle and delighted the king it descended from the sky and lighted on his hand.


Then the whole city was filled with confusion because of the cheers 45 and applause that rose from all sides from among the great multitude

1 Pihiti-rata. The northern country. Hitherto this division of the kingdom has been called Rája-raṭṭha or Raja-rața.

• Parinibhána-mañcasmiņ.

3 They are, the three miracles in connection with the severance of the branch of the great bó tree; the miracle at the Thúpáráma on depositing the collar-bone relic; and the miracle of the Ruvanveli dágoba on depositing a dróna full of Buddha's relics. See Mahávansa, chap. XVII.

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