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the head of a great host, lay nigh unto the city of Pulatthi, and Gaja 324 Báhu's officers that Dévádhikári had led fought against them, and were defeated. Likewise also they defeated great numbers of the 325 enemy at a place called Kálapilla, and destroyed them, and took up their abode at Madhúkavanaganthi. And they all then moved 326 quickly in divers directions, and spread over the country with the intent to seize the king, who, when he heard that the armies had over- 327 whelmed the country and were descending upon him from all sides, and seeing none other course left to him, sent messengers to the Order 328 of all the three fraternities that dwelt in the city of Pulatthi, saying

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'I see none other refuge now but in my lords: I beseech you, there- 329 fore, take compassion on me and save me in my distress." And the 330 brethren received the message and were moved with compassion, and proceeded (in a body) to Giritațáka, and went up before the presence of the king (Parakkama Báhu); and when they had spoken civilly to 331 each other and the king had asked them of the reason of their visit, they made answer to him in these words of peace : "The blessed and 332 merciful Buddha hath, in divers discourses, spoken at length of the evils of strife and of the blessings of peace. The (vanquished) king 333 hath neither a son nor any brethren; moreover, it seemeth clear that by reason of his age he standeth now at the gates of death, insomuch 334 that your vow to establish the kingdom with the intent to advance the welfare of the country and the religion thereof will soon be fulfilled. Therefore is it meet that you should abandon the strife and return to 335 your own country, having respect to the counsels of the Order."

So the king (Parakkama Báhu), who had subdued the country with the utmost difficulty, hearkened to the words of the Order, and yielded it to the vanquished king (Gaja Báhu), and returned to his own country. Oh, how marvellous was the fulness of his compassion!

Thus endeth the seventieth chapter, entitled "The giving away of the Kingdom," in the Mahávansa, composed equally for the delight and amazement of good men.


AND the king Gaja Báhu then came to Gangátatáka and made it

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his royal city and dwelt there in peace. Thereupon king 2 Máṇábharana sent presents unto him, and assayed to enter into an alliance and live with him in friendship; but king Gaja Báhu wished 3 not to enter into an alliance with Máṇábharaṇa, and went up to the 4: vihára Mandalagiri, and made a solemn declaration there, saying, "I have given the king's country to king Parakkama." And when he had caused this to be inscribed on a table of stone he returned to Gangátatáka, and died there of a certain disease with which he had 5 been afflicted after he had reigned two and twenty years.


Thereupon the foolish ministers of king Gaja Báhu joined themselves together, and caused his body to be taken to a stronghold 7 abounding with grain, and sent messengers to king Máṇábharana to 8 come up quickly whilst they yet tarried there. King Parakkama also, having heard of the king's death, set his army in array and came up to the city of Pulatthi.


And then king Máṇábharana, because that he had under him a 10 great host from among those who had come from the king's country and had taken refuge in Róhaṇa, and being advised thereto by wicked men, thought to himself, saying " I surely will take the king's country." 11 And being overpowered by this foolish ambition, he set out from Róhana with a great host and reached the stronghold (where the 12 generals of Gaja Báhu had tarried till he should come). And Parakkama Báhu also, the ruler of the land whose valour no man could even conceive or surpass, having heard thereof, thought within himself in 13 this wise: "Even Gaja Báhu, the generous king, and his chief captains 14 had resolved not to continue the war; but the people say that this 15 Mánábharana hath now come to war (against me), trusting on the

vain talk of the cowards from the king's country, who had fled thither in all haste with not so much as the cloth round their bodies 16 which belonged to them. Him indeed will my ministers humble, yea, even two-fold more than the humiliation that the king Gaja Báhu was 17 made to endure. Nor will I let him to cross over to this side of the 18 river Maháváluka." And when the king had pondered within himself


in this wise and with the wisdom and skill that he showed in making ready for war, he placed his armies with commanders over them at every ford, even from the ford of Saragáma unto the Gókanna sea.

Then the chief ministers of state, who were men of great wisdom, came together to the presence of the ruler of the land, and made obeisance to him with their hands lifted up to their heads, and prayed 20 that he might be anointed king. "Great king," they said, "the 21 victorious monarchs of old caused the ceremony of anointing to be

performed on them even in the field of battle, that so they might impress fear and affection among the people, and that their exceeding great 22 power and majesty might be made known everywhere. Therefore also it should be the duty of our lord to preserve the customs of those great and good men, because that he is learned in the law and knows 23 its precepts. O king! although thou art young in years, yet it is hard for thy enemies to bear the weight of thy might and majesty, 24 and to overcome the strength of thine arm. With the dawn of thy prosperity thou wilt be able to exercise dominion over the whole 25 continent of India, let alone the island of Lanká. From the first ages of the world unto this day hath thy race continued as pure as the 26 milk that is poured into a cleansed chank. Wherefore, let it please thee to ordain that the anointing be held on a day of good omens,that anointing which of a certainty will bring blessings upon the whole world."

And the king Parakkama Báhu, of thoughtful men the most excellent, 27 whose enemies could be subdued only by his frown, hearkened to this request; and on a day that seemed of good omen, when the stars 28 on the moon's path signified excellence, he put the crown on his head, and arrayed himself in all the royal apparel. And although the tidings 29 came to him at that moment that Máṇábharana had crossed over to this side of the river, he cared not so much as a blade of grass for him; but himself ascended the ornamented pavilion, and placing his 30 armour and his weapons near him, he went in great state from his 31 palace and, like unto a fearless lion, marched round the city, astonishing 32 the people who were drawn to the ceremony by the splendour thereof, and entered the royal palace that was the home of the goddess of prosperity.

[This seems to be the end of the chapter. From some cause or another there appears to be a slight omission.]1


AT that time the great scribe Mahinda came with a great army 33

(on Máṇábharana's side) and carried on a great fight with the 34 famous Rakkha Késadhátu who was left at the ford of Sarógáma. But Rakkha Késadhátu, the mighty chief of the army, like unto a lion amid a herd of elephants, slew a great number of Mahinda's 35 mighty men in battle and drove away the great scribe and all his host, as doth the wind a tuft of cotton. And when he essayed again 36 to cross over at the ford of Talanigáma with the intent to renew 37 the contest, the self-same Rakkha Késadhátu fought a great battle with him and put him to flight.

In the same manner also did Buddha Késadhátu, who was charged 38 to defend the ford of Púna, encounter the king Máṇábharaṇa, when 39 he essayed to cross that ford with the intent to make war; and in a 40 fierce battle that took place with the commanders of Máṇábharana, he slew many of his mighty men and utterly defeated the enemy so that they wished not to return to cross by that ford any more.

Likewise also did a certain chief of a district, who was left to defend 41 the ford of Samírukkha, defeat the army of the chief captains Máyágéha 42 and Gaja Bhuja, who came thither to carry on the war, and put them to flight.

And a chief of Márágiri, by name Mattatála, came up with an army 43 and essayed to cross the ford called Mahárukkha; but Ráma, the 44 commander who was left at Nílagiri, which was his birthplace, a

1 The words within brackets are remarks made by the editors of the text. I may add, that probably the concluding verse, which is generally either laudatory or hortatory, is the only one that is missing.

45 man of great prowess, fought a terrible battle there, and took him alive with the other mighty men who were worthy of being taken captive, and put the remnant to flight, who lost heart and desired not to fight again.


And a certain other chief who was left at the ford of Nálikéravatthu 47 fought a battle with the forces of the king their enemy, who sought the fight, and killed many of his men, and defeated and scattered on all sides the remnant of the army.


A certain other brave and valiant chief of a district, who was left 49 at the ford called Anantarabhandaka, gave battle to an exceeding 50 great army of the king their rival, who had come to wage war there with the chiefs of the army, and made the field of battle to look like a heap of mangled flesh, and drove away the remnant of the army with its commander, as the wind doth a gathering cloud.


A certain other mighty commander of a district, who was chosen 52 to defend the famous ford Kánatálavana, with a well-equipped army and materiel of war, fought fiercely with the host of the enemy who had come by the way of that ford to wage war, and defeated them so that they wished not to renew the fight.

53 And the commander Kitti Adhikári, who was left at the ford Yakkha54 súkara, fought a terrible battle with the enemy who landed there for the fight, and killed a great many men and put the remnant to flight. 55 And while he yet held this ford, in obedience to the commands of the great king Parakkama, he appointed a great officer in his stead, and 56 returned; and this officer also fought three times with the hosts of the enemy (who returned to the fight), and utterly scattered them so that they had not the heart to renew the fight.


And Jitagiri Santa, the great captain who defended the ford Vihára 58 Vejjasála, and whose army consisted of proud and haughty men, waged a terrible war with the enemy who had come thither to cross the ford and utterly destroyed the army of the king their rival.


And Kitti Potthaki, who was at the ford Assamandala, and Mahí60 náma, who had a great army, and Lankágiri, with his mighty host-even these and other great armies destroyed the hosts of the enemy who came against them, and returned to the king.


And the valiant men who were nigh unto the river Sakkharálaya 62 crossed the bridge there, and entered the grove Sakkunda, and straightway fought a battle and put an end to the lives of many men, and brake the spirit of the enemy so that he had not the courage to essay to break through that way any more.


Moreover, the general Sankhanátha, who was left at the ford of Sarógáma, checked the hosts of the king their rival who came thither 64 to fight through that way, and himself crossed the river, and destroyed 65 a great number of the enemy and returned to his position. In the same 66 manner also did a great army that was left at the ford Samí make a

slaughter of a great number of the hosts of the enemy who essayed to 67 cross it, and thereby stop the enemy from coming any more to the

attack. A great host of the king that kept the ford at Cullanága destroyed many of the enemy who essayed to cross it with their armour and weapons of war. At Burúdatthali also the two generals who 68 were brethren withstood the attack of the enemy who came from that side to cross it. And the great hero Rakkhádhikári, who guarded 69 the ford Nigguṇḍiváluká, withstood a great host who came to cross thereat, and maintained the fight without ceasing for two months, 70 and, unmoved by any fear whatsoever, destroyed them utterly.

Likewise also the mighty hero Lankápura, who was known by the 71 name of Kaḍakkúḍa, and who had fought great battles and become exceeding powerful, utterly destroyed a great host of the enemy, and 72 with a mighty effort utterly destroyed the army of the enemy so that there was no hope left in them. And Rakkhaka Sankhanayaka, the 73 chief captain who remained at Bhillapattaka Khanda, utterly routed the hosts of the enemy who had come thither to carry on the war. A certain great chief also, who was left at Titthagáma with a great 74 army to defend it, began the strife with the enemy with great vigour 75 when he essayed to make his way through it, and fought a very great battle and put the enemy to flight, and so weakened him that he cared not to renew the fight; and a powerful commander, who had 76 fought many great battles, and who was left at Nandigáma, drove back a great host that essayed to pass through it.

And the commander Déva Sénápati was left at the Hedilla Khanda; 77 and when the prince Mahinda came up to give battle there with an army that was well equipped, four times he fought with him; and 78 he covered the field of battle with the bodies1 of the enemy's mighty men who were slain, and brought the prince into great danger. And 79 with his host of men and with his materiel in no wise diminished, he 80 pursued after the prince as he fled with his army, and made haste and crossed the ford at Bhillagáma. And there he carried on a terrible 81 war for two months, and prevailed everywhere and drove the enemy from their position in that place.

And the chief of the district who withstood the enemy at the ford 82 of Málágáma, and was constrained to play the game of war ten times over, routed an exceeding great number of the enemy who had come 83 thither to cross at that point, and scattered them like as the rising sun scattereth a thick darkness.

And a certain chief of a district, of great might, who was appointed 84 to guard the ford at Golabáha, defeated the army of the enemy in 85 battle that had come to fight their way through that ford, and put them to flight with their leader, even as a lion putteth to flight a herd of deer. A mighty chief alsó who was left at the ford Dípála, fought 86 with the enemy and routed the hosts that had come to cross the river at that place.

And while the war was being carried on in this manner, the great 87

1 Lit. skeletons.



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