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The king (Elára), hearing of this event, despatched his warrior (Nandisárathi) to seize him, mounted on the next best charger (Sirigutta). That warrior chased (the fugitive). (Vélusumana) stationed himself in ambuscade in a forest (called the nigródha forest in the Róhana division), retaining his seat on his horse. On the approach from behind of his pursuer, he drew his sword, and held it out (neck high). From the impetus of the horse, the pursuer's head was struck off. Taking possession of the head and of both chargers, on the same evening he entered Mahágáma; and the queen, according to her desire, gratified her longing. The king conferred favours on the warrior proportionate to his great services.

This queen, in due course, gave birth to 1a son endowed with marks predictive of the most propitious destiny. By the preternatural good fortune of the (infant prince), on the same day, seven ships laden with treasures arrived in different (parts of the island). By the same good fortune, a state elephant of the" Chaddanta " breed, bringing a young elephant (of the same breed) and depositing it here, departed. On the same day, an angler named Kandula, finding this (young elephant) in a 3marsh near the harbour, reported it to the king. The rájá sending elephant keepers and having it brought, reared it. From its having been discovered by the fisherman Kandula, it was named Kandula. Report having been made to the king that ships had arrived laden with golden utensils and other goods, the monarch caused them to be brought (to Mahágáma).

At the festival held on the day on which the king conferred a name on his son, he invited about twelve thousand priests, and thus meditated: "If my son be destined, after extending his rule over the whole of Lanká, to cause the religion of Buddha to show forth, let at least eight thousand priests, all provided with robes and with uncovered dishes, now enter (the palace). Let them uncover with one hand their drinking basins, and let them cross the threshold with their right foot foremost. Let the théra Gótama undertake the office of naming my son, and let him inculcate on him the life of righteousness which leads to salvation." All (these silent supplications) were fulfilled accordingly. Seeing every anticipation realized, the monarch exceedingly rejoiced, presenting the priesthood with rice dressed in milk, caused the ceremony to be performed of naming his child. Uniting in one the appellations of “Mahágáma”" the seat of his government, and ("Abhaya ") the title of his own father, he called him "Gámaní-Abhaya." On the ninth day (from that event), while residing at Mahágáma, (the king) renewed connubial intercourse with the queen, whereby she became pregnant. On a son being born, in due course, the rájá conferred on him the name of Tissa. Both these children were brought up in great state.

146 a noble son endowed with good fortune; and there was great joy in the king's household thereat."

2 from divers countries."

3" thicket on the border of a pond."

4" catchers."

5 "shine."


This is rather a broad rendering. 'Impart the confession of faith (' sarana ') and the precepts of the law ('sikkhá ')," would be literal. It must here be borne in mind that it is customary with the priesthood to administer the confession of faith ('sarana') and the five precepts ( pañca síla ') to the assembly before the commencement of any ceremony: otherwise one would be led to suppose that these were administered to the child.

7" rule over."

On the day of the festival of 1piercing the ears of the two (princes), this affectionate (parent) again bestowed the alms of milk-rice on five hundred priests. The monarch, assisted by the queen, having collected into a golden dish a little from each of the partially consumed contents of the priests' dishes, and bringing (this collection to the princes) he put (a handful thereof in the mouth of each) and said: "My children, if ye ever become subverters of the true faith, may this food, when admitted into your stomachs, never be digested." Both the royal youths, fully understanding the imprecation addressed to them, accepting the milk-rice, as if it had been heavenly food, swallowed it. When these two boys had respectively attained their tenth and twelfth years, the king, wishing to ascertain their sentiments, having as before entertained the priesthood, gathering the residue of their repast into a dish, and placing it near the youths, thus addressed them, dividing the contents of the dish into three portions: "My children, eat this portion, vowing ye will never do injury to the priests, who are the tutelar dévatás of our dynasty. Again vowing 'We two brothers will ever live in amity without becoming hostile, eat this portion." " Both of them ate these two portions, as if they had consisted of celestial food. (The king then said,) Eat this, vowing we will never make war with the Damilas."" On being called upon to make this vow, Tissa flung the portion from him with his hand. Gámaní also spurned away his handful of rice, and retiring to his bed laid himself on it, with his hands and feet gathered up. The princes' mother following Gámaní, and caressing him, inquired," My boy, why not stretch thyself on thy bed and lie down comfortably?" "Confined (replied he) by the Damilas beyond the river (Mahaveliganga) and on the other side by the unyielding ocean, how can I (in so confined a space) lie down with outstretched limbs ?" The monarch on hearing the import of his reply, was speechless (from surprise).


The prince, in due course, increasing in piety, prosperity, wisdom, 3good fortune, and martial accomplishments, attained his sixteenth year.

*The destination of every mortal creature being involved in uncertainty (from the frailties of mortality), it is only by a life of piety that the desired destination can be ensured. Bearing this truth constantly in mind, the wise man should indefatigably exert himself to earn the rewards of a pious life.

The twenty-second chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled 5" Origin of Gámaní," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous


1" giving rice to." Alluding to the ceremony of weaning and making the child swallow a few mouthfuls of boiled rice as solid food.

2" Gotha sea."

3" strength."

4 I think this translation is rather too free. The following would accord better with the original: Even in this changeful life's journey men reach their desired destination by walking in the path of virtue. Remembering this, let the wise man strive with great earnestness to acquire virtue,”

"The Birth."


1The before-mentioned magnificent state elephant Kandula, supernaturally gifted with strength and symmetry of form, was invaluable from his speed and docility. (Gámaní) had also ten powerful warriors, viz., Nandimitta, Súranimila, Mahásóna, Góthaimbara, Théraputtábhaya, Bharaṇa, Vélusumana, as also Khañjadéva, Phussadéva, and Labhiya Vasabha.

King Elára had a minister named Mitta. In his native village Kammantagáma, situated in a division to the south-east, near the Citta mountain, lived his sister's son, who had a peculiarity of formation in certain members, and bore the name of his maternal uncle. (His parents) were compelled to tie a5 stone with a band round his waist, to this infant son of theirs, who had acquired the habit of wandering. far away. This thong (nandi) with which he was tied to the stone, by (the boy's) constantly rubbing it backward and forward against the ground at the threshold of the house, wearing through, was broken. Hence he obtained the appellation of Nandimitta, and acquired the strength of ten elephants. On attaining manhood, repairing to the capital, he attached himself to his uncle.

At that time, on a Damila being detected in offering any indignity to the dágobas or other sacred edifices, this powerful (Nandimitta) was in the practice, after placing his feet on one of his (the offender's) thighs, seizing the other with his hand, and splitting him in two, of pitching the corpse beyond (the barrier of the town). The dévas rendered invisible the corpses thus thrown away by him. Reports were made to the king of the obvious diminution of the Damilas; and on being answered, "Seize him with the aid of the warriors," they were not able to enforce that order. This Nandimitta then thus meditated: " From my present proceedings there is only a diminution of the people. There is no revival of the glory of our religion. In Róhana there are sovereigns, believers in the ratanattaya.' Establishing myself in their courts, and capturing all the Damilas, and conferring the sovereignty on those royal personages, I will bring about the revival of the glory of the religion of Buddha." With this view he repaired to the court of Gámaní and disclosed his project. The prince, having consulted his mother, received him into his service. The warrior Nandimitta, who was so befriended, established himself at the (prince's) court.

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The monarch Kákavanna Tissa, for the purpose of keeping the Damilas in check, established guards at all the ferries of the principal river. This king had a son named Díghábhaya by another wife (than

1" The elephant Kandula grew and became a huge beast, excelling others in strength, beauty, and form, in majesty, speed, and other great qualities." a" village of tenants." I think the word kammanta-gáma,

service village,"

is equivalent to the nindagama of the present day. It is a village, the tenants of which are liable to render services to the landlords.

3 Dele.

4 The original kósohita-guyha is too delicate to be literally translated. 5 Insert


"But he would (nevertheless) crawl along the ground dragging the stone after him; and in crossing the threshold (one day) the thong ('nandi '), wherewith he was tied to the stone, broke." The threshold of a native peasant's cottage generally forms part of the door frame, and projects a little above the level of the floor. What is meant here is, that the strength exerted by the child in hauling the rope, when the stone came in contact with the projecting threshold, was so great as to cause it to snap. So great was his natural strength even in childhood!

Vihára Déví); by him the passage of the Kacchaka ferry was guarded. In order that he might protect the country within the circumference of two yójanas, he called out, to attend that duty, a man from each family.

In the village Kahandaviṭṭhika, in the Koṭṭhivála division, there was an eminent caravan chief named Sangha; his seventh son Nimila had the strength of ten elephants, and the prince, desirous of enlisting him, sent a messenger for him. His six brothers derided his helplessness in every way, and his want of skilfulness; his parents therefore refused their consent to the invitation of the prince. Enraged with all his brothers, departing at dawn of day, before the rise of the sun, he reached that prince's post, a distance of three yójanas. (The prince) to put his powers to the test, imposed upon him the task of performing distant journeys. "In the village Dváramandala, near the Cétiya mountain (said he), my friend, the brahman named Kundala, resides. In his possession there are rich articles (such as frankincense, sandalwood, &c.) imported from beyond the ocean. Repairing to him, bring hither such articles as may be given by him." Having put this injunction on him, and given him refreshment, he despatched him, giving him a letter.


Reaching this capital Anuradhapura in the forenoon, being a distance of nine yójanas from the (Kacchaka) ferry, he met that brahman. The brahman observed: My child, come to me after thou hast bathed in the tank." As he had never visited (the capital) before, bathing in the Tissa tank, making offerings at the great bó tree and the Thúpáráma dágoba, and for the purpose of seeing the whole capital, entering the town and purchasing aromatic drugs from the bazaars, he departed out of the northern gate, and gathering uppala flowers from the uppalaplanted marshes, presented himself to that brahman. On being questioned by him, he gave an account of his previous journey (in the morning) and his present one. The brahman astonished, having listened to his statements, thus thought: "This is a supernaturally gifted man. Most assuredly if Elára knew him, he would engage him in his service. It is therefore inexpedient that he should even lodge among the Damilas. It will be desirable that he should be established in the service of the father of prince (Gámaní)." Embodying all this in a letter (the brahman) gave it to him; committing also to his charge some "punnavaḍdhana " cloths and many other presents, and having fed him, despatched him to his prince (Gámaní). This (Nimila), reaching the prince's court at the hour at which shadows are most extended, delivered to the royal youth the despatch and the presents. Pleased (at his feat, the prince addressing himself to his courtiers), said, "Reward him with a thousand pieces." The prince's other courtiers (from jealousy) irritated him (by derision). He (Gámaní) pacified the young man by giving him ten thousand, (and issued these directions to these courtiers): "Let them reconduct him into my presence after having 5shaved his head and bathed him in the river, decked in two of the punnavadḍhana' cloths, in beautiful fragrant

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166 a chief named Sangha, who was the head of a family, and had seven sons. The prince, desirous of enlisting one of his sons, sent a messenger to him also. Now his seventh son, Nimila, although he had the strength of ten elephants, was naturally indolent; and on that account his six brothers despised him and wished that he should go; but his parents wished not. Being thefore enraged," &c. 2" blue lilies from the lily-marsh." 4" became jealous (and vexed him)." 5" cut his hair."



flowers, and in a rich silk turban." (These orders having been complied with,) the king caused his repast to be served by his own retinue. This royal personage moreover bestowed on the warrior, to sleep on, his own state bed, which had cost ten thousand pieces.

Collecting all the presents together, and conveying them to the residence of his parents, he bestowed the ten thousand pieces on his mother and the state bed on his father. On the same night returning to his post, he stationed himself there: (from which circumstance he derived the appellation of Súra-nimila).

In the morning, the prince hearing of this feat was exceedingly pleased, and bestowing 2(severally) ten thousand pieces for himself and for the formation of his own suite, deputed him to the court of his father (Kákavanna). The warrior conveying his ten thousand pieces to his parents and giving them to them, repaired to the court of Kákavanna Tissa. This monarch established him in the service of prince Gámaní, and the said warrior continued in his service.4

In a certain village Hunadari, which has a tank named Kannika, in the Kulumbari division (of Róhana), lived one Sóna, the eighth son of a person called Tissa, who in the seventh year of his age could pull up young coconut plants; and who in his tenth year, acquiring great bodily strength, tore up (full grown) coconut trees. In due course he attained the physical power of ten elephants. The king hearing of his being such a person, taking him from his father, transferred him to prince Gámaní. The young hero who had been thus sent, protected by (the prince), lived in his establishment.

In the village Niccelaviṭṭhika, in the Giri division (of Róhaṇa), one Mahánága had a son possessing the strength of ten elephants. Being of low stature he obtained the name Góṭhaka, and he was addicted to frivolous amusements. He had six brothers senior to himself, who having undertaken the cultivation of a crop of mása, and felled the forest trees standing on the ground,-reserving his portion of the forest, returning home, told him of it. He starting instantly, rooting up the imbara trees growing there, and levelling the ground, returning, reported the same. The brothers proceeding thither and beholding this wonderful feat, returned to his residence applauding his exploit. From that circumstance he acquired the name of Góthayimbara. As in the former instance, the king established him also in the service of the prince.

In the vicinity of the Kóti mountain, 10at the village Kittigáma, there lived a wealthy landed proprietor named Róhana. The son of king Góthákábhaya conferred on his (Róhana's) son the same name (Abhaya). He, about his tenth or twelfth year, acquired great strength. At that age he could toss about stones which four and five men could not lift, as if he were playing at hand balls. His father had made for him, when

1" And when they brought him, thus arrayed, before the king, he caused food to be served to him from his own repast."

2" on him arms and attendants and ten thousand pieces, sent him on." 3" the."

Add "being treated well (by his master)."

“Hundari-vápi in the Kulumbari-kaņņiká.” palm trees."


8" his six elder brothers were wont to jest at him."

766 9.64


10" there lived a landed proprietor named Róhana, who was lord of the village Kitti. He conferred on the son born unto him the same name as that of king Gothákábhaya. The child grew exceeding strong. At the age of ten or twelve years," &c.

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