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he), having decorated the city and the highway, 'attended by 2a retinue of devotees, mounted on thy state elephant, bearing the canopy of dominion, and cheered by the music of the tálávacara' band, repair in the evening to the Mahánága pleasure garden. There, O king! wilt thou find relics." Thus to the piously devoted monarch spoke Sumana, who fully knew how the relics of Buddha had been distributed.


"The delighted théra proceeding from the palace to the Cétiya mountain, 'consulted with the equally delighted Sumana sámanéra, to whom this important mission was to be confided. 10 Hither, thou piously virtuous Sumana proceeding to the celebrated city Pupphapura, 'deliver unto the sovereign (Dhammásóka) 11the head of thy family, this my injunction. Mahárájá, thy ally the Mahárájá surnamed Maruppiya (Tissa-the-delight-of the dévas), converted to the faith of Buddha, is anxious to build a dágoba. Thou possessest many corporeal relics of the muni; bestow some of those relics, and the dish used at his meals by the divine teacher.' 'Taking (continued Mahinda, addressing himself to Sumana) that dish filled with relics, and repairing to the celebrated capital of the dévas, thus deliver my message to Sakka, the déva of dévas: King of dévas, thou possessest the right canine tooth-relic, as well as the right collar bone relic, of the deity worthily worshipped by the three worlds: continue to worship that tooth-relic, but bestow the collar bone of the divine teacher. Lord of dévas! demur not in matters (involving the salvation) of the land of Lanká." " Replying," Lord, most willingly," this supernaturally gifted sámanéra instantly departed to the court of Dhammásóka. There he had his audience of (the king), who was in the midst of the celebration of the festival of "kattika," after having effected the transfer of (the right branch of) the supreme bó tree to the foot of the sal tree. Delivering the message of the théra, and taking with him the relics and the sacred dish obtained from the king, (Sumana) departed for (the mountain in the confines of Himavanta). Depositing the sacred dish together with the relics at the Himavanta (mountains), and repairing to the court of the déva of dévas, he delivered the message of the théra. Sakka, the ruler of dévas, taking the right collar bone from the Cúlámani dágoba, presented it to the sámanéra. The disciple Sumana thereupon bringing that relic, as well as the sacred dish and (other) relics, and reaching the Cétiya mountain, presented them to the théra (Mahinda).

According to the injunction given (by Sumana) before his departure, in the afternoon the king, attended by his state retinue, repaired to the Mahánága pleasure garden. The théra deposited all these 13(cétiya) relics there, on that mountain: from that circumstance the Missaka

'Insert" and taken the vows of abstinence ('upósathi ')."

thy retinue."

346 accompanied by music and dancing."

"the relics ( dhátu ') of him (Buddha') who knew how to distinguish the elements of things ('dhátu ')."

511 spake the sámanéra Sumana to the king, who was well pleased." "Then the théra proceeded."

• Dele.

Insert" and."

"" whose mind was well disposed (to the work that was to be confided to him)." 10" Come hither, thou good Sumana; proceed." 11thy grandsire."

12 Transferred from Dantapura to Ceylon in A.D. 310, and now enshrined in the Daladá-máligáwa temple in Kandy.-[Note by Mr. Turnour.]

13 " ( dhátus ')." It is by reason of this collection of relics having been deposited in it that the mount obtained the name of "Cétiya." Cétiya, from ci, to collect or heap up.

mountain obtained the name of the " Cétiya." Leaving the sacred dish and the relics (it contained) at the sacred mountain, the théra attended by his disciples repaired to the appointed place, taking the collar bone relic with them.

"If this be a relic of the divine sage, may my canopy of state of itself bow down-may my state elephant of his own accord (go down) on his own knees-may the relic casket, together with the relic, alight on my head." Thus inwardly the king wished: those wishes were accordingly fulfilled.

The monarch, as if he had been overpowered by the delicious draught (of nibbuti), exulting with joy and taking it from his head, placed it on the back of the state elephant. The delighted elephant roared, and the earth quaked. The elephant, as well as the thera, together with the state pageant, having halted awhile, the théra, entering the magnificent city by the eastern gate, and passing through it (in procession) by the southern gate; thereafter repairing in the direction of the Thú páráma Cétiya to an edifice of many apartments (built for the yakkha named Pamojjó), halted at the spot where the branch of the bó tree (was afterwards planted).

The multitude stationed themselves near the spot where the Thúpáráma (was subsequently constructed), which at that period was overrun with the thorny creeper called kadamba.


The déva of men (Dévánampiya Tissa) causing that spot, which was guarded by dévas, to be instantly cleared and decorated in the utmost perfection, prepared to take the relic down himself from the back of the elephant. The elephant (however) not consenting thereto, the monarch inquired the reason thereof from the théra. (Mahinda) replied, (The elephant) is delighted in having it exalted on the summit of his back on that account he is unwilling that the relic should be taken down and placed in a lower position)." The king causing to be brought instantly, from the dried up Abhaya tank, dried lumps of mud, had them heaped up to the elephant's own height; and having that celebrated place decorated in various ways, lifting the relic from the elephant's back, deposited it there.

5Stationing the elephant there for the protection of the relic, the monarch in his extreme anxiety to embark in the undertaking of constructing the dágoba for the relic, having engaged a great number of men to manufacture bricks, re-entered the town with his state retinue, to prepare for the relic festival.

The chief théra Mahinda, repairing, together with his fraternity, to the delightful Mahámégha garden, tarried there.

This state elephant 'during the night watched without intermission over this place, as well as over the relic. During the daytime he remained with the relic in the hall in which the bó branch was (subsequently) planted.

1" After that the elephant turned back with the théra and the military array, and entered the splendid city by the eastern gate; passing out again from the city by its southern gate he proceeded to the temple Pamója-vatthu, which was built behind the site of the (future) Cétiya at the Thúpáráma, and halted," &c. 2 Now at that time the site of that thúpa was overrun with the creepers of the kadamba-pupphí and ádári; but the déva of men," &c.

3" desirous that it should be placed on a summit as high as his own back; he desires not," &c.

4" eminence."

5" Having made arrangements for the protection of the relic and stationed the elephant there."

6.66 pondering over the things necessary."



was wont during the night to walk round about the place in which the relic was placed, and during the day to remain,” &c.

The sovereign pursuing the directions of the théra, (incased it in a dágoba,) on the summit of which (sacred edifice), having excavated (a receptacle) as deep as the knee, and having proclaimed that in a few days the relic would be enshrined there, he repaired thither. The populace, congregating from all quarters, assembled there. In that assemblage, the relic rising up from the back of the elephant to the height of seven palmyra trees, and remaining self-poised in the air, displayed itself; and, like unto Buddha at the foot of the gaṇḍamba tree, astonished the populace, till their hair stood on end, by performing a 1two-fold miracle. From it proceeded, at one and the same time, flames of fire and streams of water. The whole of Lanká was illuminated by its effulgence, and was saturated by its moisture. 2While seated on the throne on which he attained " parinibbána" these five resolutions were formed by the vanquisher endowed with five means of perception :

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Let the right branch of the great bó tree, when Asóka is in the act of removing it, severing itself from the main tree, become planted in the vase (prepared for it).

"Let the said branch so planted, delighting by its fruit and foliage, glitter with its six variegated colours in every direction.

"Let the enchanting branch, together with its golden vase, rising up in the air, remain invisible for seven days in the womb of the snowy region of the skies.

3" Let a two-fold miracle be performed at Thúpárámaya, (at which) my right collar bone is to be enshrined.


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In the Hémamáliká dágoba (Ruvanveli), the jewel which decorates Lanká, there will be enshrined a dóna' full of my relics. Let them, assuming my form as Buddha, and rising up and remaining poised in the air, perform a two-fold miracle."

The successor of former Buddhas (silently) willed these five resolves : on that account, in this instance, this relic performed this miracle of two opposite results.

Descending from the skies (the collar bone relic) placed itself on the crown of the monarch's head. The delighted sovereign deposited it in the shrine. At the enshrining of the relic in the dágoba (on the full moon day of the month of Kattika) a terrific earthquake was produced, making the hair (of the spectators) to stand on end.

5" Thus the Buddhas are incomprehensible; their doctrines are incomprehensible; and (the magnitude of) the fruits of faith, to those who have faith in these incomprehensibles, is also incomprehensible."

Witnessing this miracle the people were converted to the faith of the vanquisher. The younger brother of the king, the royal prince Mattábhaya, being also a convert to the faith of the lord of " munis," Bentreating of the lord of men (the king) for permission, together with a thousand persons, was ordained a minister of that religion.

1" biform." The "miracle said to have been performed by Buddha at the foot of the gandamba tree is regarded as the greatest feat of supernatural phenomena he ever displayed before a multitude. It was a manifestation of a series of multiform phenomena in simultaneous pairs of opposite forms, such as streams of fire and water, &c.

2" While he laid himself down on his bed of final emancipation.”

3" Let my right collar-borne, while being enshrined at the Thúpárámaya, rise up to the sky and display a biform miracle." 4" biform."

This is a quotation from a commentary on a passage of the " pitakattaya."— [Note by Mr. Turnour.]

"the reward of them that trust."

7" also became."

8 Insert" and.”



In like manner, five hundred youths from each of the villages Cétápi, Dváramandala, Vihirabíja, Gallakapíṭha, and Upatissa, impelled by the fervour of their devotion and faith, entered into the priesthood of the religion of the successor of former Buddhas.

Thus the whole number of persons who entered into the ministry of the religion of the vanquisher at that period were thirty thousand priests.

The ruler of the land having completed the celebrated 'dágoba, Thú páráma, constantly made many offerings in gold and other articles. The inferior consorts of the monarch, the members of the royal family, the ministers of state, and the inhabitants of the city, as well as of the provinces, all these, separately, made offerings.

Having in the first instance completed the dágoba (“ thúpa ”), the king erected a vihára (áráma) there. From this circumstance the vihára was distinguished by the appellation Thúpáráma.

Thus, the saviour of the world, even after he had attained “parinibbána," by means of a corporeal relic, performed infinite acts to the utmost perfection, for the spiritual comfort and mundane prosperity of mankind. While the vanquisher yet lived, what must he not have done?

The seventeenth chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled “ The Arrival of the Relics," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.



THE ruler of the land, meditating in his own palace, on the proposition of the théra, of bringing over the great bó tree as well as the thérí Sanghamittá; on a certain day, within the term of that vassa, seated by the théra, and having consulted his ministers, he himself sent for and advised with his maternal nephew the minister Ariṭṭha. Having selected him for that mission, the king addressed this question to him: "My child, art thou "willing, repairing to the court of Dhammasóka, to escort hither the great bó tree and the thérí Sanghamittá ?” "Gracious lord, I am willing to bring these from thence hither; provided, on my return to this land, I am permitted to enter into the priesthood." The monarch replying, "Be it so "-deputed him thither. He, 'conforming to the injunction both of the théra and of the sovereign, respectfully took his leave. The individual so delegated, departing on the second day of the increasing moon of the month Assayuja," embarked at Jambukóla paṭṭana.


Having departed, under the (divine) injunction of the théra, traversing the ocean, he reached the delightful city of Pupphapura on the very day of his departure.8

9" The princess Anulá, together with five hundred virgins, and also with five hundred of the women of the palace, having conformed to the pious observances of the 'dasa-síla ' order, clad in yellow garments and

1" dágoba at Thúpáráma."

3 Dele.

5" and."

• "able."

Add" by the power of the théra's will."

2" women of the king's palace."
4" seated in his palace by the side
of the théra."

7" taking charge of the message."
Insert" At that time."

strenuously endeavouring to attain the superior grades of sanctification, 1is looking forward to the arrival of the thérí to enter into the priesthood; leading a devotional life of piety in a delightful sacerdotal residence provided (for them) by the king in a certain quarter of the city (which had previously been the domicile of the minister Dóņa). The residence occupied by such pious (upásiká) devotees has become, from that circumstance, celebrated in Lanká by the name of 5" Upásiká." Thus spoke Maháriṭṭha, the nephew (of Dévánampiya Tissa), announcing the message of the king as well as of the théra to Dhammásóka; and added, "Sovereign of elephants! the consort of the brother of thy ally, the king (of Lanká), impelled by the desire of devoting herself to the ministry of Buddha, is unremittingly leading the life of a pious devotee. For the purpose of ordaining her a priestess, deputing thither the thérí Sanghamittá, send also with her the right branch of the great bó tree."

He next explained to the thérí herself the intent of the message of the théra (her brother Mahinda). The said thérí obtaining an audience of her father (Dhammásóka), communicated to him the message of the théra. The monarch replied (addressing her at once reverentially and affectionately): "My mother! bereaved of thee, and separated from my children and grandchildren, what consolation will there be left wherewith to alleviate my affliction?" She rejoined, "Mahárájá, the injunction of my brother (Mahinda) is imperative; and those who are to be ordained are many; on that account it is meet that I should repair thither."

The king (thereupon) thus meditated: 8" The great bó tree is rooted to the earth: it cannot be meet to lop it with any weapon: by what means then can I obtain a branch thereof?" This lord of the land, by the advice of the minister Mahádéva, having invited the priesthood to a repast, thus inquired (of the high priest): "Lord! is it, or is it not, meet to transmit (a branch of) the great bó tree to Lanká?" The chief priest, the son of Moggalí, replied, "It is fitting that it should be sent," and expounded to the monarch the five important resolves of (Buddha) the deity gifted with five means of perception. The lord of the land, hearing this reply, rejoicing thereat, ordered the road to the bó tree, distant (from Páṭaliputta) seven yójanas, to be swept, and perfectly decorated, in every respect; and for the purpose of having the vase made collected gold. Vissakamma himself, assuming the character of a jeweller and repairing thither, inquired, "Of what size shall I construct the vase?' On being told "Make it, deciding on the size thyself," receiving the gold, he moulded it (exclusively) with his own hand, and instantly perfecting that vase, nine cubits in circumference, five cubits in depth, three cubits in diameter, eight inches in thickness, and in the rim of the mouth of the thickness of the trunk of a fullgrown elephant, he departed.

The monarch causing that vase, resplendent like the meridian sun, to be brought; attended by the four constituent hosts of his military array, and by the great body of the priesthood, which extended over a space of seven yójanas in length and three in breadth, repaired to the great bó tree; which was decorated with every variety of ornament ;

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