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On the third day, the théra, after taking his repast at the king's palace, stationing himself in the Nandana pleasure garden, and having expounded the "ásívisópama" discourse (of Buddha), and established a thousand persons in the superior grades of blessings of the faith; and thereafter the théra having at the Tissáráma expounded a discourse to the king, he (the monarch) approaching the théra, and seating himself near him, inquired: "Lord! is the religion of the vanquisher established or not?" "Ruler of men, no, not yet. O king! when, for the purpose of performing the upósatha and other rites, ground has been duly consecrated here, according to the rules prescribed by the vanquisher, (then) religion will have been established."

Thus spoke the mahá théra, and thus replied the monarch 'to the chief of the victors over sin : "I will steadfastly continue within the pale of the religion of Buddha: include therefore within it the capital itself: quickly define the boundaries of the consecrated ground." The mahárájá having thus spoken, the théra replied to him: "Ruler of the land, such being thy pleasure, do thou personally point out the direction the boundary line should take we will consecrate (the ground)." The king, replying "Most willingly," departing from his garden Mahámégha, like unto the king of the dévas sallying forth from his own garden Nandana, entered his royal residence.

On the fourth day, the théra having been entertained at the king's palace, and having taken his seat in the Nandana pleasure garden, expounded the "anamatagga" discourse (of Buddha); and having poured out the sweet draught (of his discourse) to thousands of persons, this Maháthéra departed for the Mahámégha pleasure garden.

In the morning, notice having been (previously) given by beat of drums, the celebrated capital, the road to the théra's residence, and the residence itself on all sides, having been decorated, the lord of chariots, decked in all the insignia of royalty, seated in his chariot, attended by his ministers 2mounted, and escorted by the martial array of his realm, repaired to the temple constructed by himself, accompanied by this great procession.

There having approached the théras worthy of veneration, and bowed down to them, proceeding together with the théras to the upper ferry of the river, he made his progress, ploughing the ground with a golden plough (to mark the limits for the consecration). The superb state elephants Mahápaduma and Kuñjara 3having been harnessed to the golden plough, commencing from the5 Kuntamálaka, this monarch, sole ruler of the people, accompanied by the théras, and attended by the four constituent hosts of his military array, himself holding the plough shaft, defined the line of boundary.

Surrounded by exquisitely painted vases (carried in procession), and gorgeous flags tinkling with the bells attached to them; 7(sprinkled) with red sandal dust; (guarded) by gold and silver staves; (the procession decorated with) mirrors of glittering glass and festoons, and baskets borne down by the weight of flowers;9 triumphal arches made of plantain trees, and females holding up umbrellas and other (decorations); excited by the symphony of every description of music; encompassed

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by the martial might of his empire ; overwhelmed by the shouts of gratitude and festivity, which welcomed him from the four quarters of the earth;-this lord of the land made his progress, ploughing1 amidst enthusiastic acclamations, hundreds of waving handkerchiefs, and the exultations produced by the presentation of superb offerings.

Having perambulated the vihára (precincts) as well as the city, and (again) reached the river, he completed the demarkation of the consecrated ground.

If ye be desirous of ascertaining by what particular marks the demarkation is traced, thus learn the boundary of the consecrated ground.

It went from the Pásána ferry of the river to the Pasánakuḍḍaváṭaka (lesser stone well); from thence to the Kumbalaváța; and from thence to the Mahádípa; from thence proceeding to the Kakudhapáli; from thence to the Mahá-angana; from thence to the Khujjamadhula; from thence to the Marutta reservoir, and skirting the northern gate of the Vijayáráma pleasure garden, to the Gajakumbhakapásána; then proceeding from the centre of Thusavaṭṭhi to the Abhayabalákapásána; hence through the centre of the Mahásusána (great cemetery) to the Díghapásána, and turning to the left of the artificers' quarters, and proceeding to the square of the nigródha tree near the Hiyagulla, turning to the south-east at the temple of the brahman Diyavása, ‘ran from thence to Telumapáli; from thence to the Tálacatukka and to the left of Assamandala to Sasavána ; from thence to the Marumba ferry, and proceeding up the stream of the river ran to the south-east of the first dágoba (Thúpáráma) to the two kadamba trees.

In the reign of Senindagutta, the Damilas (to ensure) the cleanliness which attends bathing, considering the river to be too remote for that purpose, forming an embankment across it, brought its stream near the town.

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'Having brought the line of demarkation so as to include the living kadamba tree and exclude the dead kadamba tree on the bank, it proceeded up the river, reaching the Sihasána ferry; passing along the bank of the river and arriving again at the Pásána ferry, the isi united the two ends of the line of demarkation. At the instant of the junction of these two ends, dévas and men shouted their "sádhus " at the establishment of the religion (of Buddha).

The eminent saint, the mahá théra, distinctly fixed the points defining the boundary prescribed by the king. Having fixed the position for the erection of the thirty-two (future) sacred edifices, as well as of the Thúpáráma dágoba, and having, according to the forms already observed, defined 10the outer boundary line also (of the consecrated

1 Insert" and exhibiting the furrows."

266 pottery of Kammáradéva."

3" went by the south-east of Hiyagalla to." • Dele.

5" Pathama cétiya."


"The minister-protected sovereign." In Sinhalese " Mittaséna," deposed in A.D. 433 by the Malabars, by whom this alteration was made in the course of the river, between that year and A.D. 459, when Dásenkeliya succeeded in expelling the invaders. It was during his reign, which terminated in A.D. 477, that the first portion of the Mahávansa was compiled.-[Note by Mr. Turnour.]

'The living kadamba tree was included within the boundary which passed above the bank on which the dead kadamba tree stood. The théra then crossed the Sihasinána ferry, and passing along the bank thereof arrived again at the Pásána ferry, and thus connected the two ends of the boundary line.


as marked by the furrows made by the king's plough." "Malakas."

10 the inner boundaries thereof."

ground), this (sanctified) 1sojourner on that same day completed the definition of all the boundary lines. At the completion of the junction of the sacred boundary line the earth quaked.

On the fifth day, the théra, having been entertained at the king's palace, taking his seat in the Nandana pleasure garden, expounded the "khajjaníyaka" discourse (of Buddha) to the people; and having poured forth the delicious draught to thousands of persons, tarried in the Mahámégha garden.

On the sixth day, the théra, the profound expounder of the doctrine, having been entertained at the king's palace, taking his seat in the Nandana garden, and expounding the "gomayapindika" discourse (of Buddha), and procuring for a thousand persons who attended to the discourse the sanctification of the faith, tarried in the Mahámégha garden.

On the seventh day, the théra, having been entertained at the king's palace, taking his seat in the Nandana garden, and having expounded the "dhammacakka-p-pavattana" discourse (of Buddha), and procuring for a thousand persons the sanctification of the faith, tarried in the Mahámégha pleasure garden.

The supreme saint having thus, in the course of seven days, procured for nine thousand *munis, and five hundred persons, the sanctification of the faith, sojourned in the Mahámégha garden; and from the circumstances of its having been the place where religion had first 5(jóti) shone forth, the Nandana pleasure garden also obtained the name of " Jótivana."

The king caused in the first instance an edifice to be expeditiously constructed for the théra's accommodation, on the site of the (future) Thúpáráma dágoba, without using (wood), and by drying the mud (walls) with fire. The edifice erected there, from the circumstance (of fire having been used to dry it expeditiously), was stained black (kála). That incident procured for it the appellation" Kálapásáda parivéņa.

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Thereafter, in due order, he erected the edifice attached to the great bó tree, the Lóhapásáda, the Salákagga, and Bhattasálá halls. He constructed also many parivéņas, excellent reservoirs, and appropriate buildings both for the night and for the day (for the priesthood). The parivéna, which was built for this sanctified (théra) in the bathing reservoir (by raising a bank of earth in the centre of it), obtained the name of "Sunháta" (earth embanked) parivéņa. The place at which the perambulatory meditations of this most excellent luminary of the land were performed obtained the name of Dighacankamana parivéņa. Wherever he may have indulged the inestimable bliss ("phalagga ") of "samapatti" meditation, from that circumstance that place obtained the name Phalagga parivéna." 10Wherever the thera may have (apassiya) appeared unto those who flocked to see him, that spot obtained the name of Thérápassiya parivéņa. "Wherever many (maru) dévas may have approached him for the purpose of beholding him, that place from that circumstance obtained the name "Maruganá parivéņa."

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"The parivéņa built at the place where he."

10" Where the théra appeared." This passage is omitted in the SumangalaBațuvantuḍáve Recension: no reason is given for the omission.

11" Where multitudes of dévas approached and ministered unto him, by reason thereof was that place called."

Díghasandaka, the (sénápati) minister of this king, erected for the théra the Cúlapásáda on eight lofty pillars. Of all the parivéņas, both in order of time and in excellence of workmanship, this parivéna called the 2"Dighasandasénápati" was the first.

Thus this king of superior wisdom, bearing the profoundly significant appellation of Dévánampiya Tissa, patronising the théra Mahá-Mahinda of profound wisdom, built for him here Mahávihára in the (Mahámégha pleasure garden), this first vihára (constructed) in Lanká.

The fifteenth chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "The Acceptance of the Mahavihára," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.


HAVING made his alms-pilgrimage through the city, conferring the blessings of the faith on the inhabitants; and having been entertained at the palace, and bestowed benedictions on the king also; the théra, who had tarried twenty-six days in the Mahámégha pleasure garden, on the thirteenth day of the increasing moon of " ásálhi," having (again) taken his repast at the palace and expounded to the monarch the "maháppamáda " discourse (of Buddha); "thereupon being intent on the construction of the vihára at the Cétiya mountain-departing out of the eastern gate repaired to the said Cétiya mountain.

Hearing that the théra had departed thither, the sovereign, mounting his chariot, and taking the two princesses (Anulá and Síhalí) with him, followed the track of the théra. The théras, after having bathed in the 5Nágacatukka tank, were standing in the order of their seniority on the bank of the pond preparatory to ascending the mountain. The king instantly alighted from his carriage and bowed down to the eight théras. They addressed him :" Rájá! what has brought thee in this exhausting heat?" On replying, "I came afflicted at your departure," they rejoined, "We came here to hold the 'vassa.'

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The théra, perfect master of the "khandhas," expounded to the king the "vassúpanáyika" discourse (of Buddha). Having listened to this discourse (on the observance of “vassa ") the great statesman Maháriṭṭha, the maternal nephew of the sovereign, who was then standing near the king, together with his fifty-five elder and younger brothers, 8(the said brothers only) having obtained his sanction, on that very day were 'ordained priests by the théra. All these persons who were endowed with wisdom attained, in the apartment where they were shaved (ordained), the sanctification of "arhat."

1 66

There (at the establishment of the Mahávihára) it was called Dighasanda Sénápati Parivéņa (the college of the chief captain Dighasanda '). It became a great seat of learning and the home of great men."

At which this history was compiled, by its incumbent Mahánáma théra, between A.D. 459 and 477.-[Note by Mr. Turnour.]

3" Dévánampiya ( beloved of the dévas') patronised the great théra Mahinda, of excellent wisdom and spotless mind, and built for him this first great vihára in Lanká (the Mahávihára ')."

4" and afterwards."

5" tank at the Nágacatukka."

"The théra, who was a perfect master of the Khandhakas (sections of the Vinaya'), expounded to the king the section relating to the observance of the vassa.'"

7" thereto."

8 Dele.

• “admitted to the priesthood."

On that same day, the king, 1enclosing the space which was to contain (the future) sacred edifices (at Mihintalé), and commenced the execution of his undertaking for the construction of sixty-eight rock cells,2 returned to the capital.

These benevolent théras continued to reside there, visiting the city at the hours of alms-pilgrimage (instructing the populace).

On the completion of these cells, on the full moon day of the month "Asálhi," repairing thither, in due form the king conferred the vihára on the priests. The théra, versed in the consecration of boundaries, having defined the limits of the thirty-two sacred edifices, as well as of the vihára aforesaid, on that very day conferred the upasampadá ordination on all those (sámanéra priests) who were candidates for the same, at the edifice (called) Baddhetumbaru, which was the first occasion on which (it was so used). All these sixty-two holy persons, holding their "vassa at the Cétiya mountain, invoked blessings on the king.

The host of dévas and men, having with all the fervour of devotion flocked to this chief of saints, the joyful tidings of whose piety had spread far and wide, as well as to his fraternity, acquired for themselves preeminent rewards of piety.

The sixteenth chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "The Acceptance of the Dedication of the Cétiya Mountain Vihára," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.


"The "vassa "which had been held, having terminated on the full moon day of the month of "kattika," this great théra of profound wisdom thus spoke: "Mahárájá, our divine teacher, the supreme Buddha, has long been out of our sight: we are sojourning here unblessed by his presence. In this land, O ruler of men! we have no object to which offerings can be made." (The king) replied, "Lord, most assuredly it has been stated to me that our supreme Buddha had attained' nibbuti,"1 (and that a lock of his hair and the 'givaṭṭhi' relic have been enshrined at Mahiyangana).' 10" Wherever his sacred relics are seen our vanquisher himself is seen" (rejoined Mahinda). "I understand your meaning (said the monarch), a thúpa is to be constructed by me. I will erect the thúpa do ye procure the relics." The théra replied to the king, "Consult with Sumana." The sovereign then addressed that sámanéra: "From whence can we procure relics?" "Ruler of men (said

1 Dele.

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Insert around the site of the (future) Kantaka-cétiya and."

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3" The théra, who had crossed the boundary (of sinful desire), set up the boundary of that vihára and of the thirty-two Málakas, and on the selfsame day conferred the rite of ordination on all of them who were looking forward thereto, first of all at the Tumbaru Málaka which had been set up by himself."


566 conferred."

• "And hosts of dévas and men came unto this chief of théras and to his disciples, whose fame for piety had spread abroad, and ministered unto them, and thus laid up for themselves heaps of merit."


"Having observed the vassa,' and terminated it by holding the pavárana." without our master." Whenever."


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