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of the Kannavadḍhamána mountain. Cúlódara was his son. grandmother having bestowed this invaluable gem-throne on his mother, that nága queen thereafter died. From that circumstance this conflict of the nephew with the uncle was on the eve of being waged. mountain nágás were moreover gifted with supernatural powers.


The déva Samiddhisumana instantly, at the command of Buddha, taking up the rájáyatana tree which stood in the garden of Jéta, and which constituted his delightful residence, and holding it over the vanquisher's head like an umbrella, accompanied him to the abovenamed place.

This déva (in a former existence) had been born a human being in Nágadípa. On the spot where the rájáyatana tree then stood he had seen Paccéka Buddhas taking refection. Having seen them he had rejoiced, and presented them with leaves to cleanse their sacred dishes with. From that circumstance he (in his present existence) was born in that tree, which stood at the gate of the delightfully agreeable garden of Jéta. Subsequently (when the Jéta vihára was built) it stood without (it was not built into the terrace on which the temple was constructed). The déva of dévas (Buddha), foreseeing that this place (Nágadípa) would be of increasing advantage to this déva (Samiddhisumana), brought this tree to it.

The saviour and dispeller of the darkness of sin, poising himself in the air over the centre of the assembly, caused a terrifying darkness to those nágas. Attending to the prayer of the dismayed nágás, he again called forth the light of day. They, overjoyed at having seen the deity of felicitous advent, bowed down at the feet of the divino teacher. To them the vanquisher preached a sermon on reconciliation. Both parties rejoicing thereat, made an offering of the gem-throne to the divine sage. The divine teacher, alighting on earth, seated himself on that throne, and was served by the nága kings with celestial food and beverage. The lord of the universe procured for eighty kótis of nágás dwelling on land and in waters, the salvation of the faith, and the state of piety.

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The maternal uncle of Mahódara, Maniakkhika, the nága king of Kalyani, proceeded thither to engage in that war. Having, at the first visit of Buddha, heard the sermon on his doctrines preached, he had obtained the state of salvation and piety. There he thus supplicated the successor of preceding Buddhas: Oh! divine teacher, such an act of mercy performed unto us is indeed great. Hadst thou not vouchsafed to come, we should al! have been consumed to ashes. All compassionating deity! let thy protecting mercy be individually extended towards myself in thy future advent to this land visit thou the place of my residence." The sanctified deity, having by his silence consented to grant this prayer in his future visit, on that very spot he caused the rájáyatana tree to be planted. The lord of the universe bestowed the aforesaid inestimable rájáyatana tree, and the gemthrone, on the nága kings, to be worshipped by them. "Oh! nága

kings, worship this my sanctified tree; unto you, my beloved, it will be a comfort and consolation." The deity of felicitous advent, the comforter of the world, having administered, especially this, together with all other religious comforts to the nágás, departed to the garden of Jéta. The visit to Nágadípa concluded.

In the third year from that period, the said nága king, Maniakkhika, repairing to the supreme Buddha, supplicated his attendance (at Kalyani) together with his disciples. In (this) eighth year of his buddhahood, the vanquisher and saviour was sojourning in the garden of Jéta

with five hundred of his disciples. On the second day, being the full moon of the delightful month of Vésákha, on its being announced to him that it was the hour of refection, the vanquisher, lord of munis, at that instant, adjusting his robes and taking up his sacred dish, departed for the kingdom of Kalyáni, to the residence of Maniakkhika. On the spot where the Kalyáni dágoba (was subsequently built), on a throne of inestimable value, erected in a golden palace, he stationed himself together with his attendant disciples. The overjoyed nága king and his retinue provided the vanquisher, the doctrinal lord and his disciples, with celestial food and beverage. The comforter of the world, the divine teacher, the supreme lord, having there propounded the doctrines of his faith, rising aloft (into the air) displayed the impression of his foot on the mountain Sumanakúța (by imprinting it there). On the side of that mountain he, with his disciples, having enjoyed the rest of noon-day, departed for Díghavápi; and on the site of the dágoba (subsequently erected) the saviour, attended by his disciples, seated himself; and for the purpose of rendering that spot celebrated, he there enjoyed the bliss of "samádhi." Rising aloft from that spot, the great divine sage, cognizant of the places (sanctified by former Buddhas), departed for the station where the Méghavana establishment was subsequently formed (at Anuradhapura). The saviour, together with his disciples, alighting on the spot where the sacred bó tree was (subsequently) planted, enjoyed the bliss of the "samádhi" meditation; thence, in like manner, on the spot where the great dágoba (was subsequently built). Similarly, at the site of the dágoba Thúpáráma, indulging in the same meditation; from thence he repaired to the site of Silá dágoba. The lord of multitudinous disciples preached to the congregated dévas, and thereafter the Buddha, omniscient of the present, the past, and the future, departed for the garden of Jéta.

Thus the lord of Lanká, knowing by divine inspiration the inestimable blessings vouchsafed to Lanká, and foreseeing even at that time the future prosperity of the dévas, nágás, and others in Lanká, the allbountiful luminary visited this most favoured land of the world thrice. From this circumstance this island became venerated by righteous men. Hence it shone forth the light itself of religion.

The visit to Kalyáni concluded.

The first chapter of the Mahávansa, entitled "The Visits of the Successor of former Buddhas," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.


1The great divine sage, the descendant of the king Mahásammata, at the commencement of this "kappa," was himself the said king named Mahásammata.

Rója, Vararója, in like manner two Kalyáņas (Kalyana and Varakalyáṇa), Upósatha, two Mandhátus, Caraka, and Upacaraka, Cétiya,

1 The error of construction here, though slight, is seriously misleading. It is not said here that Buddha was born as Mahásammata, but that he was descended from that mythical personage. The passage ought to be construed thus :-"Now this great sage was born of the race of king Mahásammata. In the beginning of this kalpa there was a king named Mahasammata. And these were his sons and grandsons." Then follows the genealogy.

also Mucala, Mahámucala, Mucalinda, also Sagara, and Ságaradéva, Bharata, Bhágírasa, Ruci, Suruci, Patápa, Mahápatápa, and in like manner two Panádas, Sudassana and Néru, likewise two of each name, these above-named kings were (in their several generations) his (Mahásammata's) sons and lineal descendants.

These twenty-eight lords of the land, whose existence extended to an asankhya of years, reigned (in the capitals) Kusávati, Rájagaha, Mithila.

Thereafter (in different capitals reigned) one hundred, fifty-six, sixty, eighty-four thousand, then thirty-six kings; subsequently thereto, thirty-two, twenty-eight, twenty-two; subsequently thereto, eighteen, seventeen, fifteen, and fourteen; nine, seven, twelve, twenty-five; again in the same number (twenty-five), two twelves and nine. Makhádéva, the first of eighty-four thousand; Kalárajanaka, the first of eighty-four thousand kings; and the sixteen sons and lineal descendants terminating with Okkáka: these were those (princes) who separately, in distinct successions, reigned each in their respective capital.

Okkákamukha, the eldest son of Okkáka, became sovereign. Nipura, Candimá, Candamukha, Sirisañjaya, the great king Vessantara, Cámí, Síhaváhana, and Síhassara, in like manner,-these were his (Okkákamukha's) sons and lineal descendants.

There were eighty-two thousand sovereigns, the sons and lineal descendants of king Sihassara. The last of these was Jayasena. These were celebrated in the capital of Kapilavatthu as Șákya kings.

The great king Síhahanu was the son of Jayaséna. The daughter of Jayasena was named Yasódhará. In the city of Dévadaha there was a Sákya ruler named Dévadaha. Unto him two children, Añjana, then Kaccáná, were born. This Kaccáná became the queen of king Síhahanu.

To the Ṣákya Añjana the aforesaid Yasodhará became queen. To Añjana two daughters were born, Máyá and Pajápatí, and two sons of the Sákya race, Dandapáni and Suppabuddha.

To Síhahanu five sons and two daughters were born, Suddhódana, Dhótódana, Sukkódana (Ghaṭṭitódana), and Amitódana; Amitá and Pamitá;-those five, these two. To the Sákya Suppabuddha, Amitá became queen. Subhaddakaccáná and Dévadatta were her two


Máyá and Pajápatí both equally became the consorts of Suddhódana. Our vanquisher was the son of the Mahárájá Suddhódana and Máyá. Thus the great divine sage was, in a direct line, descended from the Mahásammata race, the pinnacle of all royal dynasties. To this prince Siddhattha, a bódhisatta, the aforesaid Subhaddakaccáná became queen. Ráhula was his son.

The princes Bimbisára and Siddhattha were attached friends. The father of both those (princes) were also equally devoted friends. The bódhisatta was five years the senior of Bimbisára. In the twentyninth year of his age the bodhisatta departed (on his divine mission). Having for six years gone through the probationary courses, and having in due order of succession attained buddhahood, he repaired in the thirtyfifth of his age to Bimbisára.

The eminently wise Bimbisára had been installed himself in the fifteenth year of his age, by his father (Bhátiya), in the sovereignty of his realm. In the sixteenth year of his reign the divine teacher

1 "Having striven for six years and duly attained buddhahood."

propounded his doctrines (to him). He ruled the kingdom for fifty-two years-fifteen years of his reign had elapsed before he united himself with the congregation of the vanquisher; 1after his conversion, thirtyseven years during which period this successor of former Buddhas still lived.

The weak and perfidious son of Bimbisára, Ajátasattu, having put him to death, reigned for thirty-two years. In the eighth year of king Ajátasattu's reign the divine sage died. Thereafter he reigned twentyfour years.

The successor of former Buddhas, who had attained the perfection of every virtue, arrived at the final death (from which there is no regeneration by transmigration). Thus, from this example, whosoever steadfastly contemplates terror-inspiring death, and leads a righteous life, he will be transported (after death) beyond the realms of transmigratory misery.

The second chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "The Mahásammata Genealogy," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous



"The supreme incomparable, the vanquisher of the five deadly sins, who was gifted with five means of perception, having sojourned for forty-five years (as Buddha), and fulfilled in the utmost perfection every object of his mission to this world, in the city of Kusinárá, in the sacred arbour formed by two "sal" trees, on the full moon day of the month of Vésákha,-this luminary of the world was extinguished. On that spot innumerable priests, princes, brahmins, traders, and Șudras, as well as dévas, assembled. There were also seven hundred thousand priests, of whom the théra Mahákassapa was, at that time, the chief.

This high priest having performed the funeral obsequies over the body and sacred relics of the divine teacher; and being desirous of perpetuating his doctrines for ever, on the seventh day after the lord of the universe, gifted with the ten powers, had demised; recollecting the silly declaration of the priest Subhadda, who had been ordained in his dotage; and, moreover, recollecting the footing of equality on which he had been placed by the divine sage, by conferring on him his own sacred robes, as well as the injunctions given by him for the propagation of his doctrines;-this all-accomplished disciple of Buddha, for the purpose of holding a convocation on religion, convened five hundred priests, who had overcome the dominion of the passions, of great celebrity, versed in the nine departments of doctrinal knowledge, and perfect in every religious attribute. On account of a disqualification (however) attending the théra A'nanda, there was one deficient of that number. Subsequently the théra A'nanda also, having been entreated by the other priests to take part in the convocation, was likewise included. That convocation could not have taken place without him.

1" and he reigned thirty-seven years while yet the Buddha lived."

* " and succumbed not to evil passions, did submit to the law of mutability." 3" the transitory nature of things."

• Dele.


"The incomparable (Buddha) who was gifted with five kinds of vision."


These universe-compassionating (disciples) having passed half a month,-in celebrating the funeral obsequies seven days, and in the festival of relics seven days,-and knowing what was proper to be done, thus resolved: "Keeping vassa' in the city of Rájagaha, let us there hold the convocation on religion-it cannot be permitted to other (priests) to be present."

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These disciples, making their pilgrimage over Jambudípa as mendicants, administering consolation in their affliction (at the demise of Buddha) to the vast population spread over the various portions thereof, in the month 'asala, during the increase of the moon, 3 being the appropriate bright season, these supports of the people in their faith reached Rájagaha, a city perfect in every sacerdotal requisite.

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These théras, with Kassapa for their chief, steadfast in their design, and perfect masters of the doctrines of the supreme Buddha, having arrived at the place aforesaid to hold their vassa, caused, by an application to king Ajátasattu, repairs to be made to all the sacred buildings, during the first month of "vassa." On the completion of the repairs of the sacred edifices, they thus addressed the monarch: "Now we will hold the convocation on religion." To him (the king) who inquired" What is requisite ?" they replied: "A session hall. The monarch inquiring " Where?" in the place named by them, by the side of the Vébhára mountain, at the entrance of the Sattapanni cave, he speedily caused to be built a splendid hall, like unto that of the dévas.

Having in all respects perfected this hall, he had invaluable carpets spread there corresponding with the number of the priests. In order that, being seated on the north side, the south might be faced, the inestimable, pre-eminent throne of the high priest was placed there. In the centre of that hall, facing the east, the exalted preaching pulpit, fit for the deity himself of felicitous advent, was erected.

The king thus reported to the théras: "Our task is performed." Those théras then addressed A'nanda, the delight (of an audience): "Aʼnanda, to-morrow is the convocation; on account of thy being still under the dominion of human passions, thy presence there is inadmissible. Exert thyself without intermission, and attain the requisite qualification." The théra, who had been thus enjoined, having exerted a supernatural effort, and extricated himself from the dominion of human passions, attained the sanctification of " arhat."

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On the second day of the second month of " vassa these disciples assembled in this splendid hall.

Reserving for the théra A'nanda the seat appropriate to him alone, the (other) sanctified priests took their places according to their seniority. While some among them were in the act of inquiring "Where is the théra A'nanda ? "-in order that he might manifest to the (assembled) disciples that he had attained the sanctification of "arhat "(at that instant) the said théra made his appearance,

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4.66 men who sought to ground themselves on the truth." on the words sukkha-pakkha: in the one place meaning the the other, truth or virtue, represented by brightness.

5 "south."

• "north."

There is a play here

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bright side," in

7" without being confined to any of the four ascetic postures." This refers to his having attained arhatship while he was in the act of laying down his head on his pillow. He was neither walking, sitting, standing,or lying down at the moment.

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