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IN the land of Vanga, in the capital of Vanga, there was formerly a certain Vanga king. The daughter of the king of Kálinga was the principal queen of that monarch.
That sovereign had a daughter (named Suppádéví) by his said queen. Fortune-tellers predicted that she would connect herself with the king of animals (the lion). She grew up lovely in person, and was ardently inflamed with amorous passions. By both the king and queen a degrading sense of shame was felt.
This (princess) while taking a solitary walk, unattended and disguised decamped under the protection of a caravan chief who was proceeding to the Magadha country.
In a wilderness in the land of Lála, a lion chased away the caravan chief; the rest fled in opposite directions: she (advanced) in that in which the lion approached.
The lion, prowling for prey, observing her approaching from a distance, inflamed with passion, wagging his tail and lowering his ears, approached her. She observed him; and recollecting the prediction she had heard of the fortune-tellers, freed from all fear, exciting him, caressed him. By her having thus fondled him, his passion being roused, the lion placed her on his back, and conveying her to his den, he lived with her. In due course of time, by her connection with him, this princess gave birth to twins-a son and a daughter. They partook of the nature of the lion in the formation of 10their hands and feet. She consequently called him by the name of Síhabáhu, and the daughter 11Síhasívalí.
This son, in his sixteenth year, inquiring of his mother regarding a doubt raised in his mind-" My mother," said he, " from what circumstances is it that between thyself, our father, and ourselves there is a dissimilarity ?"-she disclosed all to him. Why then do we not depart?" replied he. "Thy father," she rejoined, "closes up the mouth of the den with a stone."
He, taking 12that which closed the mouth of the great den on his shoulders, proceeded and returned a distance of fifty yójanas on the same day. When the lion had gone to prowl for prey, placing his mother on his right shoulder and his sister on the left, he quickly departed.
Covering their nakedness with leaves, they proceeded to a provincial village. At that time (prince Anura), the son of the princess's maternal uncle, was there. This minister, standard-bearer of the king of Vanga, was present at this provincial village, superintending cultivation, seated under a vata tree. The royal standard-bearer seeing their condition, made inquiries. They replied, "We are the inhabitants of the wilderness." He bestowed clothing on them, which (clothes) by the virtue of their piety became of the greatest value. He gave dressed rice in leaves, which became vessels of gold.
The minister, astonished by this (miracle), inquired of them, "Who are ye?" The princess narrated to him her birth and lineage. This
7" returning from his prey." 10" his."
1" But she was looked upon with disgust by both the king and queen, who felt a degrading sense of shame (on her account)."
2" who longed for the pleasure of an independent life (one day)."
3" fled under disguise and joined a caravan that."
4" rushed at the caravan."
11" she called."
"while she (ran)."
12 the stone."
royal standard-bearer, taking with him this daughter of his father's (younger) sister, conducted her to the city of Vanga, and made her his wife.
The lion soon returning to his den, and missing these three individuals, afflicted with grief at the loss of his offspring, neither ate nor drank. Seeking these children, he entered the provincial villages; and whatever villages he visited he chased away the people. The inhabitants of the villages, repairing to (the capital), thus implored of the king: "A lion is laying waste thy country: sovereign lord, arrest this (calamity)." Not being able to find any person to slay him, placing a thousand pieces (of money) on the back of an elephant, he proclaimed through the city, "Let it be given to the captor of the lion." In the same manner, the king successively (offered) two thousand and three thousand pieces. The mother on two of these occasions prevented the lion-born youth (from undertaking the enterprise). On the third occasion, without consulting his mother, he accepted the offer; and a reward of three thousand pieces was (thus) bestowed on him to put his own father to death. (The populace) presented this prince to the king. The monarch thus addressed him: "On the lion being destroyed I bestow on thee that country." He having proceeded to the door of the den, and seeing at a distance the lion approaching, impelled by his affection for his child,-to transfix him, he (Síhabáhu) let fly his arrow at him. On account of the merit of the lion's good intentions, the arrow, recoiling in the air, fell on the ground at the feet of the prince. Even until the third effort it was the same. Then the king of animals, losing his self-possession (by which the charm that preserved his life was destroyed), the impelled arrow, transpiercing his body, passed through him. (Síhabáhu) returned to the city, taking the head of the lion with the mane attached thereto. This occurred on the seventh day after the death of the king of Vanga.
The monarch having left no sons, and his virtuous ministers exulting in this exploit (of the prince), having ascertained that he was the grandson of the king, and recognized his mother (to be the king's daughter), they assembled, and with one accord entreated of the prince Síhabáhu, "Be thou king." He having accepted the sovereignty, and conferred it on (Anura) the husband of his mother, taking with him Síhasívalí, he himself departed for the land of his nativity. There he founded a city, which was called Sihapura. In a wilderness a hundred yójanas in extent, he for medvillages (in favourable situations for irrigation). In that capital of the land of Lála, making Sihasívali his queen-consort, the monarch Síhabáhu administered the sovereignty. This queen in due course gave birth on sixteen occasions to twin children. The eldest was named Vijaya, the second was named Sumitta ;-altogether thirty-two children. At the proper age the sovereign installed Vijaya in the office of sub-king.
Vijaya became a lawless character, and his retinue were the same: they committed numberless acts of fraud and violence. The nation at large, incensed at this proceeding, represented the matter to the king. He censured them (the prince's followers), and his son he severely reprimanded. In all respects the same occurred a second time. On the third occasion, the nation enraged, thus clamoured: "Execute thy son." The king, compelling Vijaya and his retinue, seven hundred in number, to have the half of their heads shaved, and having them embarked in a vessel, sent them adrift on the ocean. In the same manner (in a second vessel) their wives. In like manner their children (in a third). These men, women, and children, drifting in different
directions, landed and settled in different countries. Be it known, that the land in which the children settled is Naggadípa. The land in which the wives settled is Mahinda. Vijaya himself landed at the port of Suppáraka (in Jambudípa), but (dreading the hostility of the natives) on account of the lawless character of his band, he re-embarked in his vessel. This prince named Vijaya, who had then attained the wisdom of experience, landed in the division Tambapanni of this land Lanká, on the day that the successor (of former Buddhas) reclined in the arbour of the two delightful sal trees, to attain "nibbána."
The sixth chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled" The Arrival of Vijaya," composed equally to delight and to afflict righteous men.
THE ruler of the world, having conferred blessings on the whole world, and attained 'the exalted, unchangeable nibbána; seated on the throne on which nibbána is achieved, in the midst of a great assembly of dévatás, the great divine sage addressed this celebrated injunction to Sakka, who stood near him: "One Vijaya, the son of Síhabáhu, king of the land of Lála, together with seven hundred officers of state, has landed on Lanká. Lord of dévas! my religion will be established in Lanká. On that account thoroughly protect, together with his retinue, him and Lanká."
The devoted king of dévas having heard these injunctions of the successor (of former Buddhas), assigned the protection of Lanká to the déva Uppalavanna (Vishnu). He, in conformity to the command of Sakka, instantly repaired to Lanká, and in the character of a " paribbájaka" (devotee) took his station at the foot of a tree.
With Vijaya at their head, the whole party approaching him, inquired, "Pray, devotee, what land is this?" He replied, "The land Lanká." Having thus spoken, he blessed them by sprinkling water on them out of his jug; and having tied (charmed) threads on their arms, departed through the air.
A menial yakkhiņí (named Káli), assuming a canine form, presented herself. One (of the retinue), though interdicted by the prince, followed her, saying, "In an inhabited village (alone) are there dogs." There (near a tank) her mistress, a yakkhiní named Kuvéņi, was seated at the foot of a tree spinning thread, in the character of a devotee.
Seeing this tank and the devotee seated near it, he bathed and drank there; and while he was taking some (edible) roots and water from that tank, she started up, and thus addressed him: Stop! thou art my prey.' The man, as if he was spellbound, stood without the power of moving. By the virtue of the charmed thread she was not able to devour him; and though entreated by the yakkhiní, he would not deliver up the thread. The yakkhini then cast him bellowing into a subterraneous abode. In like manner, the seven hundred followers also she one by one lodged in the same place.
2" lying on the bed."
1" the most exalted state of rest." 4" When there is a village there are dogs in it"; meaning, that the appear ance of dogs denotes the existence of a village close by.
"as though she were."
All these persons not returning, Vijaya becoming alarmed, equipping himself with the five weapons of war, proceeded after them; and examining the delightful pond, he could perceive footsteps leading down only into the tank; and he there saw the devotee. It occurred to him: "My retinue must surely have been seized by her." 1" Pray, why dost thou not produce my ministers?" said he. "Prince," she replied, 2" from ministers what pleasures canst thou derive? Do drink and bathe (ere) thou departest." Saying to himself, " Even my lineage, this yakkhini is acquainted with it," rapidly proclaiming his title, and bending his bow, he rushed at her. Securing the yakkhiní by the throat with a 5" nárácana" ring, with his left hand seizing her by the hair, and raising his sword with his right hand, he exclaimed, Slave! restore me my followers, (or) I will put thee to death." The yakkhiní, terrified, implored that her life might be spared. "Lord! spare my life; on thee I will confer this sovereignty; unto thee I will render the favours of my sex, and every other service according to thy desire." In order that the might not be involved in a similar difficulty again, he made the yakkhiņí take an oath. (Thereafter), while he was in the act of saying, "Instantly produce my followers," she brought them forth. Declaring “These men must be famished," she distributed rice and a vast variety of other articles (procured) from the wrecked ships of mariners who had fallen a prey to her.
The followers having dressed the rice and victuals, and having served them to the prince, the whole of them also feasted thereon. She likewise having partaken of the residue of the meal bestowed on her by the prince, excited to the utmost pitch of delight, transformed herself (into a girl) of sixteen years of age; and decorating her person with innumerable ornaments, lovely as Máránga herself, and approaching him, quickly inflamed the passion of the chief. Thereupon, she caused a splendid bed, curtained as with a wall, and fragrant with incense, to spring up at the foot of a certain tree. Seeing this procedure, and foreseeing all the future advantages that were to result to him, he passed the night with her. There, his seven hundred followers on that night slept, outside the curtain, surrounding their sovereign. This (destined) ruler of the land, while reposing there with the yakkhiņí, hearing the sounds of song and music, inquired of the yakkhiní regarding the same. Thereupon, she being desirous of conferring the whole sovereignty on her lord, replied, "I will render this Lanká habitable for men.10 In the city Sirivattha, in this island, there is a yakkha sovereign (Kálaséna), and in the yakkha city (Lankápura) there is (another) sovereign. Having conducted his daughter (Pusamittá) thither, her mother (Kondanámiká) is now bestowing that daughter at a marriage festival on the sovereign there (at Sirivattha). From that
1" Woman, hast thou seen my attendants?" 2" What need hast thou of attendants"?"
4" quickly seizing."
"The word náráca-valaya appears to mean noose or ring attached to an arrow. An arrow tipped with a hook, or some similar weapon is probably meant.
"she might not prove herself treacherous."
From here as far as verse 68 there are two readings of the text. They do not, however, differ materially. Turnour has followed the reading found in most of the Sinhalese copies; the printed text, that of the Cambodian recension and one or two Sinhalese MSS. The latter reading agrees with the Tiká. The former is also prefixed to the printed text.
8"the bewitching woman." I would read varangana instead of marangana, the v and m being almost alike in Sinhalese writing. 9" and thinking within himself."
circumstance there is a grand festival in an assembly of yakkhas. That great assemblage will keep up that revel, without intermission, for seven days. This revel of festivity is in that quarter. Such an assemblage will not occur again: Lord! this very day extirpate the yakkhas. Hearing this advice of hers, the monarch replied to her : Charmer of my affections, how can I destroy yakkhas, who are invisible?" "Prince," replied she," placing myself in the midst of those yakkhas, I will give a shout. Guided by the direction of that signal deal out thy blows; by my supernatural power they shall take effect on their bodies." This prince proceeding to act accordingly, destroyed the yakkhas. The king having put (Kálaséna), the chief of the yakkhas, to death, assumed his (court) dress. The rest of his retinue dressed themselves in the vestments of the other yakkhas. After the lapse of some days, departing from the capital of the yakkhas, and founding the city called" Tambapanni" (Vijaya), settled there.
At the spot where the seven hundred men, with the king at their head, exhausted by (sea) sickness, and faint from weakness, had landed out of the vessel, supporting themselves on the palms of their hands pressed on the ground, they sat themselves down. Hence 1to them the name of "Támbawanna pánaya" (copper-palmed, from the colour of the soil). From this circumstance that wilderness obtained the name of "Tambapanni." From the same cause also this renowned land became celebrated (under that name).
By whatever means the monarch Síhabáhu slew the "siha" (lion), from that feat, his sons and descendants are called "Síhalá" (the lion slayers). This Lanká having been conquered by a Síhala, from the circumstance also of its having been colonized by a Síhala, it obtained the name of "Síhala."
Thereafter the followers of the prince formed an establishment, each for himself, all over Síhala. On the bank of the Kadamba river, the celebrated village called (after one of his followers) Anurádha. To the north thereof, near that deep river, was the village of the brahmanical Upatissa, called Upatissa. Then the extensive settlements of Uruvéla and Vijita; (each) subsequently a city.
Thus these followers, having formed many settlements, giving to them their own names; thereafter having held a consultation, they solicited their ruler to assume the office of sovereign. The king, on account of his not having a queen-consort of equal rank to himself, was indifferent at that time to his inauguration.
All these chiefs, incited to exertion by their anxiety for the installation of the prince, sent to the southern Madhura (a deputation with) gems and other presents.
These individuals having repaired thither, obtained an audience of (king) Pandava, and delivering the presents they announced their mission, thus addressing him: 4" It is for a royal virgin. The son of Síhabáhu, named Vijaya, has conquered Lanká to admit of his installation, bestow thy daughter on us."
The king Pandava having consulted with his ministers (decided that) he should send to him (Vijaya) his own daughter Vijayá; and for the retinue of that (king) one less than seven hundred daughters of his nobility.
1" their palms became copper-coloured ( Tambapánayó ')."