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Gámaní's preparations to invade the North-Account of his campaign against the Damilas-Defeat and death of Elára-Defeat of Bhalluka, Elára's ally.
Building of the Maricavaṭṭi (Mirisvetiya) Dágoba.
Building of the Lóhapásáda (Lóvá-mahápáya).
Discovery of materials and precious things preparatory to the building of the Ruvanveli Dágoba.
Ceremony of the laying of the foundation stone of the Ruvanveli Dágoba.
Erection of the Ruvanveli Dágoba-Incidents connected therewithThe great stone coffer for the Relics-Description of the precious things deposited therein.
The procuring of the relics by Sónuttara-History of the Relics-The enshrinement thereof with great ceremonies.
Serious illness of Duttha Gámaní-Deathbed scene-His visible departure to heaven-Cremation of his body.
Reigns of Saddhá Tissa; Thullatthanaka; Lajji Tissa; Khalláṭanága ; Vatta Gámaní-Defeat of Vaṭṭa Gámaní by the Tamils, and his flightRule of five Tamil usurpers-Incidents during Vaṭṭa Gámaní's flight and exile His resumption of the sovereignty, and subsequent acts-Schisms in the Buddhist Church-The Buddhist Canon reduced to writing.
Reigns of Mahácúļi Mahátissa; Córanága; and Tissa-Reign of Queen Anulá and her paramours-Reigns of Káļakanni Tissa; Bhátiya I.; and Mahá Dáṭhika.
Reigns of Amanda Gámaní; Kanijánu Tissa; Cúlábhaya; Sívalí; Пlanága; Candamukha Síva; Yasalálaka Tissa; Subha; Vasabha ; Vankanásika Tissa ; Gaja Báhu ; and Mahallaka Nága.
Reigns of Bhátika Tissa; Tissa II.; Cúlanága; Kudda Nága ; Siri Nága ; Vóhára Tissa; Abhaya Tissa; Siri Nága II.; Vijaya II.; Sanghatissa; Siri Sanghabódhi; Góthábhaya, surnamed Méghavanna Abhaya; and Jeṭṭha
Reigns of Maháséna; Siri Méghavanna; the Tooth-relic: Jeṭṭha Tissa; Buddhadása; Upatissa II.; and Mahánáma-Account of Buddhaghósa.
Reigns of Sotthiséna; Chattagáhaka; Mittaséna Pandu, the Tamil usurper; five other Tamil usurpers; and Dhátuséna.
LIST OF THE KINGS
Noticed in Part I., and Approximate Dates of their Reigns.
Panduvásudévå or Pandu
4 Abhaya Interregnum
7 Dévánampiya Tissa Devenipé Tis
Mahá Síva ..
23 Córa Nága
24 Tissa or Kudá Tissa 25 Anulá
Séna and Guttika (foreign
Elára (a Tamil usurper)
Thullatthana or Tuluná 17 Lajji Tissa or Ladé Tis 18 Khalláta Nága
19 Vaṭṭa Gámaní Abhaya or Valagambáhu
28 Mahá Dáthiya
22 Mahácúla Mahátissa or
Makalan Tissa or Kála
30 Kanijánu Tissa
31 Cúlábhaya Tissa or Kudá Abá
45 161 46
137 47 119 48
29 Amanda Gámaní Abhaya 21
Dhátuséna or Dásenkeliya 463
[The italics are intended to denote the faulty words and passages which I have substituted by others in the foot-notes. In compliance with the wishes of Government I have added these mostly to such passages as contain grave or glaring errors. The only alterations made in the text are in the transliteration of Páli words and the substitution of the crude form a for the case termination o, as adopted by modern Páli scholars. The text still admits of great improvement throughout.-L.C.W.]
ADORATION to him, who is the deified, the sanctified, the omniscient, supreme Buddha !
Having bowed down to the supreme Buddha, immaculate in purity, illustrious in descent; 1without suppression or exaggeration, I celebrate the MAHÁVANSA.
That which was composed by the ancient (historians) is in some respects too concise, in others too diffuse, abounding also in the defects of tautology. Attend ye to this (Mahávansa) which, avoiding these imperfections, addresses itself to the hearer (in a strain) readily comprehended, easily remembered,2 and inspiring sentiments both of pleasure and of pain; giving rise to either pleasing or painful emotion, according as each incident may be agreeable or afflicting.
Our vanquisher (of the five deadly sins) having, in a former existence, seen the supreme Buddha Dipankara, formed the resolution to attain buddhahood, in order that he might redeem the world from the miseries (of sin).
Subsequently, as in the case of that supreme Buddha, so unto Koṇḍañña, the sage Mangala, Sumana, the Buddha Révata, and the eminent sage Sóbhita, the supreme Buddha Anómadassí, Paduma, Nárada the vanquisher, the supreme Buddha Padumuttara, and Sumédha the deity of similar mission,3 Sujáta and Piyadassí, the supreme Atthadassí, Dhammadassí, Siddhattha, Tissa, and, in like. manner, the vanquisher Phussa, Vipassí, the supreme Buddha Sikhí, the supreme Buddha Vessabhú, the supreme Buddha Kakusandha, in like manner Kónágama, and Kassapa of felicitous advent,-unto all these twenty-four supreme Buddhas likewise (in their respective existences),
This is not the sense of the compound term nánánúnádhikárakan, qualifying Mahávansan. It ought to be rendered thus: "I celebrate the Mahávansa, replete with divers comprehensive chapters." Such is the explanation given in the Tíká: anekehi adhikárehi paripunnádhikáranʼti attho.
2 The words sutitoca upágatan, come down by tradition," contained in the text, have been omitted in this enumeration of the characteristics of the Mahá
Original, Tathagata. Here, as elsewhere throughout the work, I have not thought it necessary to notice the English rendering of the Páli epithets and of words appertaining to Buddhist terminology.
the indefatigable struggler having vouchsafed to supplicate, by them also his admission into buddhahood was foretold.
The supreme Gótama Buddha (thus in due order) fulfilled all the probationary courses, and attained the supreme omniscient buddhahood, that he might redeem mankind from the miseries (of sin).
At the foot of the bó tree, at Uruvéla, in the kingdom of Magadha, on the day of the full moon of the month of Visákha, this great divine sage achieved the supreme all-perfect buddhahood. This (divine) sojourner, displaying the supreme beatitude derived by the final emancipation (from the afflictions inherent in the state of transmigration), tarried in that neighbourhood for seven times seven days.
Proceeding from thence to Báráṇasí, he proclaimed the sovereign supremacy of his faith; and while yet sojourning there during the vassa," he procured for sixty (converts) the sanctification of "arhat." Dispersing abroad these disciples for the purpose of promulgating his doctrines, and thereafter having himself converted thirty (princes) of the inseparably-allied tribe of Bhadda, the saviour, with the view to converting Kassapa and the thousand Jațilians, took up his abode at Uruvéla during the "hémanta," devoting himself to their instruction. When the period had arrived for celebrating a religious festival (in honour) of the said Kassapa, of Uruvéla, perceiving that his absence from it was wished for, the vanquisher, victorious over death, taking with him his repast from Uttarakuru, and having partaken thereof at the lake of Anótatta (before midday) on that very afternoon, being the ninth month of his buddhahood, at the full moon of the constellation phussa, unattended, visited Lanká for the purpose of sanctifying Lanká.
It was known (by inspiration) by the vanquisher that in Lanká, filled by yakkhas, and therefore the settlement of the yakkhas,—that in the said Lanká would (nevertheless) be the place where his religion would be glorified. In like manner, knowing that in the centre of Lanká, on the delightful bank of a river, on a spot three yójanas in length and one in breadth, in the agreeable Mahánága garden, in the assembling place of the yakkhas, there was a great assemblage of the principal yakkhas in Lanká; the deity of happy advent, approaching that great congregation of yakkhas,-there, in the midst of the assembly, immediately above their heads, hovering in the air, over the very site of the (future) Mahiyangana dágoba, struck terror into them, by rains, tempests, and darkness. The yakkhas, overwhelmed with awe, supplicated of the vanquisher to be released from their terror. To the terrified yakkhas the consoling vanquisher thus replied: "I will release ye yakkhas from this your terror and afflication; give ye unto me, here, by unanimous. consent, a place for me to alight on." All these yakkhas replied to the deity of happy advent: "Lord, we confer on thee the whole of Lanká, grant thou comfort (in our affliction) to us." The vanquisher thereupon, dispelling their terror and cold shivering, and spreading his carpet of skin on the spot bestowed on him, he there seated himself. He then caused the aforesaid carpet, refulgent with a fringe of flames, to extend itself on all sides; they, scorched by the flames (receding), stood around on the shores (of the island) terrified.
1 There is nothing to indicate that they were " inseparably allied."
"For it was known by the vanquisher that Lanká would be the place where his religion would be most glorified, and that it was needful that the yakkhas by whom Lanká was inhabited should be removed therefrom."
* Yakkha-sangáma-bhúmiya. In the battle-field of the yakkhas." Sangáma is war, battle, &c., quite distinct from samúgama, which means an assembly, &c. 4" and darkness," or confusion."
The saviour then caused the delightful isle of Giri to approach for them. As soon as they transferred themselves thereto (to escape the conflagration) he restored it to its former position. Immediately the redeemer folded up his carpet and the dévas assembled. In that congregation the divine teacher propounded his doctrines to them. Innumerable kóțis of living creatures received the blessings of his doctrines asankhyas of them attained the salvation of that faith and the state of piety.
The chief of the dévas, Sumana, of the Sumanakúța mountain, having acquired the sanctification of "sótápatti," supplicated of the deity worthy of offerings, 1for an offering. The vanquisher, out of compassion to living beings, passing his hand over his head, bestowed on him a handful of his pure blue locks from the growing hair of his head. Receiving and depositing it in a superb golden casket on the spot where the divine teacher had stood, adorned (as if) with the splendour of innumerable gems, comprehending (all) the seven treasures, he enshrined the lock in an emerald dágoba, and bowed down in worship.
The théra Sarabhú, disciple of the théra Sáriputta, at the demise of the supreme Buddha, receiving at his funeral pile the "givaṭṭhi " (thorax bone relic) of the vanquisher, attended by his retinue of priests, by his miraculous powers, brought and deposited it in that identical dágoba. This inspired personage, causing a dágoba to be erected of cloud-coloured stones, twelve cubits high, and enshrining it therein, departed.
The prince Uddachúlábhaya, the younger brother of king Dévánampiya Tissa, discovering this marvellous dágoba, constructed (another), encasing it, thirty cubits in height.
The king Duṭṭha Gámaní, while residing there during his subjugation of the Malabars, constructed a dágoba encasing that one, eighty cubits in height.
This Mahiyangana dágoba was thus completed.
In this manner, the supreme ruler, indefatigable as well as invincible, having rendered this land habitable for human beings, departed for Uruvéla.
The visit to Mahiyangana concluded.
The vanquisher (of the five deadly sins), the great compassionating divine teacher, the benefactor of the whole world, the supreme Buddha, in the fifth year of his buddhahood, while residing at the garden of (the prince) Jéta, observing that on account of a disputed claim for a gem-set throne between the nága Mahódara and a similar Cúlódara, 5ɑ maternal uncle and nephew, a conflict was at hand between their respective armies; on the last day of the last quarter of the moon of the month Citta, at daylight, taking with him his sacred dish and robes, out of compassion to the nágás, visited Nágadípa.
At that time, this Mahódara aforesaid was a nága king in a nága kingdom half a thousand (five hundred) yójanas in extent, bounded by the ocean; and he was gifted with supernatural powers. His younger sister (Kidabbiká) had been given in marriage to a nága king
1" for something worthy of worship,"
"Receiving it in a superb golden casket he placed it on a heap of divers gems, seven cubits in circumference, where the Teacher had stood, and raised a stúpa of emerald over it, and bowed down unto it in worship."
"Cloud-coloured stones." The original is Méda-vanna-pásána, “stones of the colour of fat": white marble?