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Out of benevolence entertained towards the inhabitants of the island, the sovereign provided hospitals, and appointed medical practitioners thereto, for all villages. The rájá having composed the work " Sáratthasangahá," containing the whole medical science,3 ordained that there should be a physician for every twice five (ten) villages. He set aside twenty royal villages for the maintenance of these physicians ; 5and appointed medical practitioners to attend his elephants, 'his horses, and his army. On the main road, for the reception of the 'crippled, deformed, and destitute, he built asylums in various places, provided with the means of subsisting (those objects). Patronising the ministers who could expound the doctrines of the faith, he devotedly attended to their doctrines, and, in various parts, provided the maintenances required by the expounders of the faith. 10 Earnestly devoted to the welfare of mankind, disguising himself by gathering his cloth up between (his legs), he afforded relief to every afflicted person he met.

Subsequently, on a certain occasion, the rájá was moving in a procession, arrayed in royal state, and escorted by his army, like unto Vásava surrounded by his heavenly host; when a certain 11person afflicted with a cutaneous complaint, who had formed an enmity against the rájá in a former existence, beholding him thus endowed with regal prosperity, and resplendent with the pomp of royalty, enraged, struck the earth with his hand, and loudly venting opprobrious language kept striking the ground with his staff. This superlatively wise (ruler) noticing this improper proceeding from afar, thus (meditated): 12" I resent not the hatred borne me by any person. This is an animosity engendered in a former existence; "I will extinguish it:" and gave these directions to one of his attendants: "Go to that leper, and 13thoroughly inform thyself what his wishes be." He went accordingly, and seating himself near the leper, as if he were a friend of his, inquired of him what had enraged him so much. He disclosed all. "This Buddhadása (in a former existence) was my slave; by the merit of his piety he is now born a king. To insult me, he is parading before me in state on an elephant. 14Within a few days he will be in my power. I will then make him sensible of his real position, by subjecting him to every degradation that slaves are exposed to. Even if he should not fall into my hands, I will cause him to be put to death, and will 15suck his blood. This imprecation will be brought about at no remote period."

(The messenger) returning reported these particulars to the monarch. That wise personage, being then quite convinced, remarked, "It is the enmity engendered in a former existence; it is proper to allay the animosity of an exasperated person"; 16and gave these instructions to

1 This work, which is composed in the Sanskrit language, is still extant. Native medical practitioners profess to consult it.-[Note by Mr. Turnour.] 24 substance of all.

3" Insert circulated it among the physicians of the island for their future guidance. He," &c.

4.66 and set apart one-twentieth of the produce of fields."

5" he."

864 on the."

6" on."
9"lame and the blind."

7 Dele.

10 64 This man of great compassion was want to carry his case of (surgical) instruments within the folds of his cloth (in his waist), and afford relief," &c. 11 44 leper."

13" I do not remember having done harm to any being. Surely this," &c. 13 ascertain the state of his mind."

14" if he should fall into my hand, I will make him know himself." 1544 certainly suck up his blood. Thou shalt see it in a few days."

16 Add" by some device."

the said attendant: "Do thou take especial care of him." Returning to the leper again, in the character of a friend, he said: "All this time I have been thinking of the means of putting the rájá to death, which I have been prevented effecting from the want of an accomplice. By securing your assistance in his assassination, I shall be able to accomplish this much-desired wish: come away; residing in my house, render me thy aid. Within a few days I will myself take his life." After having thus explained himself, he conducted the leper to his own house, and provided him with the most luxurious means of bathing and anointing his body; fine cloths for raiment; savoury food for his subsistence; 2and on a delighted bed, beautifully decorated, he arranged that a lovely female of fascinating charms should recline.

After he had been entertained in this manner for some days, (the messenger) having satisfied himself that this happy (leper), restored to the enjoyment of health, was brought to a tractable frame of mind; *still, however, withholding the information for two or three days; (at last) he presented him his meals, saying that they were provided by the rájá. 5 By this means the (messenger), who rendered him these acts of kindness. succeeded in pacifying him; and by degrees he became a most devoted subject to the rájá. On a certain occasion, on hearing (a false rumour) that the king was put to death, his heart rent in twain.

*Thus the rájá, for the future medical treatment of the diseases with which the bodies of the people of this land might be afflicted, provided physicians.


He built at the Mahávihára the parivéņa called Mora, in height twenty-five cubits, and conspicuous from its upper story; and to the priests resident there, who could propound the doctrines, he provided 9servants to attend on them 10and dedicated to them the two villages Samana and Goļapánu, as well as viháras, parivéņas, the four sacerdotal requisites most fully, and tanks, refection halls, and images.

In the reign of this rájá, a certain priest, 11profoundly versed in the doctrines, translated the Suttas (of the Piṭakattaya) into the Síhala12 language.

He had eighty sons, valiant, energetic, well-formed, and of engaging appearance, to whom he gave the names of the eighty (contemporary) disciples of Buddha. The rájá, Buddhadása, surrounded by his sons, who were called Sariputta, and so on (after those eighty disciples), was as conspicuous as the supreme, royal, Buddha (attended by his disciples).

1 Add" saying."

2 Insert" charming females to attend on him."

3" well prepared with comfortable bedding and linen, he caused him to lie down."

4" he set before him food and other daintiful things."

"He refused them two or three times, but being entreated by the messenger partook of them at last."

"In this manner it was that the king treated the diseases pertaining to the body and to the mind."

Generally called the Mayúra parivéņa, or Monara pirivéņa, the remains of which still exist.


Insert" dedicated to it the two villages Samana and Golapánu. To" &c.
Insert food and."

10" He also built viháras and parivéņas abounding with the four monastic requisites."

11" by name Mahá Dhammakathi."

13 Several portions of the other two divisions also of the Pitakattaya have been translated into the Sinhalese language, which alone are consulted by the priests who are unacquainted with Páli.-[Note by Mr. Turnour.]

Thus this ruler of men, Buddhadása, having provided for the welfare of the inhabitants of the island, passed 1to the Dévalóka in the twentyninth year of his reign.

His eldest son, Upatissa, who was endowed with every royal virtue, constantly devoted to acts of piety, and pre-eminently benevolent, became king. Avoiding the ten impious courses, the rájá conformed to the ten pious courses; and fulfilled both his duties as a monarch, and the ten probationary courses of religion. To all the four quarters (of his dominions) the rájá extended his protection, according to the four protective rules; and provided the 3principal alms-offerings from the royal stores. He built extensive stores and alms-houses for the crippled, for pregnant women, for the blind, and the diseased.

In the northern direction from the Mangala cétiya, he constructed a thúpa, 'image apartments, and an image. This rájá adopted this course, in the expectation of securing the attachment of his subjects. He had confectionery also prepared, which he caused to be distributed by the youths in his suite.

In various parts of his kingdom he executed the following unexampled works of piety: the Rájuppala, Gijjhahuța, Pokkharapásaya, Váláhassa, Ambuṭṭhi, and the Gondigáma tanks; as well as the Khandaráji vihára and tank, which should constantly contain water.

This individual (before he ascended the throne), while it was pouring with rain, passed a whole night in solitude, seated on his bed. The minister having ascertained that this proceeding was intended for the injury of the people, caused him to be brought to the royal garden, and imprisoned him. In resentment of this proceeding he did not (on his accession) inflict any penalty on his subjects.

In his reign the island was afflicted with drought, disease, and distress. This benevolent person, who was like unto a luminary which expels the darkness of sin, thus inquired of the priests: "Lords! when the world was overwhelmed with the misery and horrors of a drought, was then nothing done by Buddha (in his time) for the alleviation of the world?" They then expounded the "Gangáróhana sutta" (of Buddha). Having listened thereto, causing a perfect image (of Buddha) to be made of gold, for the tooth-relic, and placing the stone refection dish of the divine teacher filled with water on the joined hands of that (image), and raising that image into his state car, he went through the ceremony of receiving síla," which confers consolation on all living beings; and made the multitude also submit to the same ceremony, and distributed alms. Having decorated the capital like unto a heavenly city, surrounded by all the priests resident in the island, he descended into the

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1" into paradise or heaven. Tidiva, S. Tridiva.

2 The individual name of Sáriputta before he became one of Buddha's disciples.[Note by Mr. Turnour.]

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Mahápáli alms-hall with food."


an image-house."

5 Lit. "This king constructed them, moreover, by (the labour of) boys, to whom he gave confectionery (as wages), saying, ('Let not men be unnecessarily) harassed.'

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"(On one occasion) when (in consequence of a leak) his bed was wetting while the rain was pouring down, he passed the whole night thereon (without causing the leak to be stopped) lest the workmen be put into trouble. The minister (of the king's household) having come to know thereof conducted (enticed) him to the royal park, and (in his absence from the palace) covered the house (stopping the leak in the roof). Thus this king inflicted not on other beings any suffering on account of himself (for the sake of his own comfort)." The original is very obscure from its exceeding brevity, as the parentheses in this rendering will show. 766 set forth the circumstance that gave rise to the preaching of." 8.66 by." • Dele.

main street. There the assembled priests chaunting forth the "Ratanasutta," and at the same time sprinkling water, 1arranged themselves in the street at the end of which the palace was situated; and continued throughout the three divisions of the night to perambulate round its enclosing wall.

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2At the rising of the sun a torrent of rain descended as if it would cleave the earth. All the sick and crippled sported about with joy. The king then issued the following command: Should there at any time be another affliction of drought and sickness in this island, do ye observe the like ceremonies."

3On visiting the cétiya (in the midst of the inundation), observing ants and other insects struggling on the flood with the feathers of a peacock's tail, sweeping them towards the margin (of the cétiya), he enabled these (insects) to rescue themselves; and continuing his procession he sprinkled water, as he proceeded, from his chank.

He constructed to the south-west of his palace an upósatha hall, a hall for the image of Buddha surrounded by an enclosing wall, and formed a garden. On the fourteenth and fifteenth days of each half month, as well as on the eighth and first days of each quarter, renewing the vows of the "aṭasil" order, and undergoing the ceremonies of the upósatha, he tarried there on those occasions; and during the whole of his life he subsisted on the alms prepared for the priesthocd (without indulging in more luxurious food); he had been also in the habit of setting aside rice, formed into lumps, for the squirrels which frequented his garden, which is continued unto this day.

8This benevolent (monarch) on seeing a culprit carried away to undergo his sentence procuring a corpse from the cemetery and throwing it into a cauldron, and bestowing money on the offender, allowed him to escape in the night; and at the rising of the sun, as if incensed against the criminal, boiled the corpse.

He celebrated a great festival for all the cétiyas in the island; and made a 10 metal covering, ornamented with gold, for the thúpa at the Thúpáráma. Having completed a reign of forty-two years, without having in a single instance indulged in a féte of festivity, confining himself to 12ceremonies of piety, he departed to be associated with the chief of the dévas.

His consort, who 13ought to have cherished him, caused him to be put to death by means of his younger brother Mahánáma, by plunging a weapon into him, in an unfrequented spot. During the lifetime of the late king

1" marched in procession in the neighbourhood of the palace, along the street and near the walls, and continued walking round (the city) throughout the three divisions of the night."

2" At the break of day the great clouds poured down rain upon the earth." 3" He was wont to visit the cétiya and, with a (broom made of the) peacock's tail, sweep away ants and other insects from the sides thereof, saying, Let them get down to the ground gently;' and then taking a chank filled with water he would walk about and wash (the stains left by them on the white plaster of the cétiya)."

4 Supposed to be the Ruvanveli.-[Note by Mr. Turnour.] Insert " and a beautiful park."


• Dele.

7" and the eighth days thereof, as well as on the extraordinary season (páțiháriya pakkha) he would strictly conform himself to the eight precepts, and tarry there, behaving himself holily."


"This king, whose mind shrunk with horror at the sight of a culprit brought.” 966 Igreat festivals."

11" spent one moment in vain."


10 "golden pinnacle and covering.” 12" works."

was intimate with his younger brother Mahánáma, caused him to be slain by plunging a weapon into him."

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this younger brother had been a priest. On the assassination of the rájá, throwing off his robes, he became the sovereign; and made the queen, who had put his elder brother to death, his own consort.

He founded 1an asylum for the diseased, and kept up the alms-offerings for the priesthood. In the division of the Kóți mountains, at the Lohadváraralaggáma, he built three viháras, and conferred them on the priests of the Abhayagiri establishment. By the aforesaid queen a vihara was built at the Dhúmarakkha mountain for the schismatic priests.

This (monarch), devoted to deeds of charity and piety, repaired dilapidated viháras; and was a constant contributor towards the maintenance of religion.

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3A brahman youth, born in the neighbourhood of the terrace of the great bó tree (in Magadha), accomplished in the "vijjá" and "sippa; who had achieved the knowledge of the three "védas," and possessed 5great aptitude in attaining acquirements; indefatigable as a schismatic disputant, and himself a schismatic wanderer over Jambudipa, established himself, in the character of a disputant, in a certain vihára, and was in the habit of rehearsing, by night and by day, with clapsed hands, a discourse which he had learned, perfect in all its component parts, and sustained throughout in the same lofty strain. A certain mahá théra, Révata, becoming acquainted with him there, and (saying to himself), "This individual is a person of profound knowledge; it will be worthy (of me) to convert him;" inquired, "Who is this who is braying like an ass?" (The brahman) replied to him, "Thou canst define, then, the meaning conveyed in the bray of asses.' On (the théra) rejoining, "I can define it;" he (the brahman) exhibited the extent of the knowledge he possessed. (The théra) criticised each of his propositions, and pointed out in what respect they were fallacious. He who had been thus refuted, said, "Well then, descend to thy own creed; and he propounded to him a passage from the "Abhidhamma" (of the Pitakattaya). He (the brahman) could not divine the signification of that (passage); and inquired, "whose manta is this?" "It is Buddha's manta." On his exclaiming, Impart it to me; (the théra) replied, "Enter the sacerdotal order." He who was desirous of acquiring the knowledge of the Pitakattaya,10 subsequently coming to this conviction: "This is the sole road (to salvation); " became a convert to that faith. As he was as profound in his (ghosa) eloquence as Buddha himself, they conferred on him the appellation of Buddhaghósa (the voice of Buddha); and throughout the world he became as renowned as Buddha. Having there (in Jambudípa) composed an original work called Nánódaya, he, at the same time, wrote the chapter called "Atthasáliní" on the Dhammasanganí (one of the commentaries on the Abhidhamma).

Révata théra then observing that he was desirous of undertaking the compilation of a "Parittaṭṭhakathá" (a "general commentary on the

166 hospitals for the sick and supported the Mahápáli alms-hall. He built the three viháras, Lóhadvára, Ralaggáma, and Kóțipassávana.”

2" He built a vihára at the Dhúmarakkha mountain and gave it to the Théravádí (Mahávihára) brotherhood by means of his queen."

3 Insert

(In those days)."

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Insert and kalá.'”

544 a perfect knowledge of philosophy and religion, and was well versed in all the controversies of the day, wandered over Jambudípa as a disputant anxious for controversy. Having arrived at a certain vihára (and taken lodgings) he was rehearsing at night the aphorisms of Patanjali in all their perfection and completeness.' 7" I do know."

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• Manta Mantra, a division of the
11" concise."

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