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a daughter of royalty, and proved that she was the child of 1the rájá Subha by the 2vestments and other articles in his charge. The monarch delighted, bestowed her on his son, at a splendid ceremonial of festivity. On the death of Vasabha, his son Vankanásika Tissa reigned three years in the capital at Anuradhapura. This rájá Vankanásika Tissa built the Mahámangala vihára on the banks of the Góna river.

The queen, Mahámattá, bearing in mind the injunction of the théra, commenced to collect the treasures requisite for constructing a vihára. (In the meanwhile) on the demise of Vankanásika Tissa, his son Gajábáhuka Gámaní (succeeded, and) reigned twelve years. This rájá, in compliance with the solicitation of his mother, and according to her wishes, built the Mátu vihára in the Kadamba forest. This wellinformed queen-mother, for the purpose of purchasing land for that great vihára, gave a thousand pieces, and built the vihára. He himself (the rájá) caused a thúpa to be constructed there entirely of stone; and selecting lands from various parts of the country, dedicated them for the maintenance of the priesthood; and raising the Abhayuttara thúpa, he constructed it of a greater elevation; and 3at the four gates he restored the four entrances to their former condition.

This monarch, forming the Gámanitissa tank, bestowed it on the Abhayagiri vihára, for the maintenance of that establishment. He caused a new coating to be spread on the Maricavaṭṭi vihára; he also made a dedication for the maintenance of its fraternity, obtained at a price of one hundred thousand pieces. He built also Rámaka vihára 5in the western division, and the Mahá-ásana hall in the capital.

On the demise of Gajabáhu, that rájá's ““ sasura " named Mahallaka Nága, reigned six years. This monarch, surnamed, from his advanced years, Mahallaka Nága, constructed the following seven viháras2 : in the eastward, the Péjalaka; in the southward, the Kóṭipabbata; in the westward, the Udakapásána; in the isle of Nágadípa, the Sálipabbata; at Bíjagáma, the Tenavéli; in the Róhana division, the Tobbalánágapabbata, and Háli viháras at Antógiri.

Thus wise men, by means of perishable riches, performing manifold acts of piety, realise imperishable rewards: on the other hand, those who are rendered weak by their sinful passions, for the gratification of those passions commit many transgressions.

The thirty-fifth chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "The Twelve Kings," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous



By the demise of Mahallaka Nága, his son, named Bhátika Tissa (succeeded, and) reigned over the monarchy of Lanká for twenty-four years. This ruler built a wall round the Mahávihára, and having constructed the Gavaratissa vihára, 10and formed the Mahágámaní tank, dedicated it to that vihára; he built also the vihára named Bhátiya Tissa.

2" robe."



1 Subha Rájá.
3" caused arches (ádimukhá ') to be built at the four gates thereof."
"In the latter part of his reign he built the."
5 Dele.
"Add" during the short period of his reign."
8" and Girihálika vihára in the interior country."
9.41 Reigns of."

10 dedicated."

This monarch constructed also an "upósatha" hall at the delightful Thúpáráma, as well as the Rattannannéka tank. This sovereign, equally devoted to his people, and3 respectful to the ministers of religion, kept up the mahádánan offerings to the priesthood of both sexes.

By the death of Bhátika Tissa (Tissa the elder brother), Kaniṭṭha Tissa (Tissa the younger brother) succeeded, and reigned eighteen years over the whole of Lanká.

Pleased with Mahánága théra of Bhútáráma, he constructed (for him) at the Abhayagiri vihára 'a superb gilt edifice. He built, also, a wall round, and a great parivéņa at Abhayagiri; a great parivéņa at Manisóma vihára also; and at the same place an edifice over the Cétiya; and in like manner another at Ambatthala. He repaired the edifice (constructed over the Cétiya) at Nágadípa. Levelling a site within the consecrated limits of the Mahávihára, this monarch constructed the range of parivénas called Kukkuṭagiri, in the most perfect manner. On the four sides of the square at the Máhávihára this ruler constructed twelve spacious and delightful edifices, splendid in their appearance.10 He constructed a covering for the thúpa at the Dakkhiņa vihára, and levelling a site within the limits of the Mahámégha garden, he constructed a refection-hall there. Taking down the wall of the Mahavihára on one side, he opened a road to Dakkhiņa vihára. In like manner he built Bhútáráma vihára, the Rámagónaka, as also the vihára of Nánátissa. In the south-eastern direction, the Anulatissa-pabbata vihára "the Gangarájiya, the Niyélatissáráma, and the Pilapiṭṭhi vihára. This monarch also constructed the Rájamahá vihára and upósatha halls at the following three places: viz., Kalyáni vihára, Mandalagiri, and at the vihára called Dubbalavápitissa.

By the death of Kaniṭṭha Tissa, his son called Cúlanága (succeeded, and) reigned two years. The younger brother of Cúlanága, named Kudḍanága, putting that rájá to death, reigned one year. This monarch during the "Ekanálika" famine kept up, without intermission, alms-offerings to the principal community, consisting of five hundred priests.

The brother of Kuddanága's queen, named Sirinága, who was the minister at the head of the military, turning traitor to the king, and supported by a powerful army, approached the capital. Giving battle to the royal army, and defeating the king, the victor reigned in the celebrated capital of Anuradhapura for nineteen years.


This monarch having caused a chatta to be made for the Maháthúpa, had it gilt in a manner most beautiful to the sight; he also rebuilt the Lóhapásáda five stories high, and 12subsequently a flight of steps at each of the four entrances to the great bó tree. 13This personage, who was as regardful of the interests of others as he was indifferent to himself, having built a "chatta" hall at the isle of Kulambana, celebrated a great festival of offerings.

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Insert the Ratana-pásáda."

7" in a splendid manner."

8 Dele.

9 Insert "


10 Add " at the Mahavihára.”
11 66 at."

13" He built the Chattapásáda and made offerings at the inauguration thereof. Moved by compassion he released persons of good families in the island (from royal services)." This translation is doubtfully rendered, as the meaning of the word kulambana is obscure.

On the demise of Sirinága, his son Tissa, who was thoroughly (vóhára) conversant with the principles of justice and equity, ruled for twenty-two years.1 He abolished the (vóhára) practice of inflicting torture, which prevailed up to that period in this land, and thus acquired the appellation of Vóháraka Tissa rájá.

Having listened to the discourses of the théra Déva, resident at Kambugáma, he repaired five edifices. Delighted, also, with the Mahátissa théra resident at the Anurá vihára, he kept up daily alms for him at Mucélapaṭṭana.

This rájá Tissa having caused also to be formed two halls, (one) at the Mahávihára and (another) on the south-east side of the bó tree edifice, and two metallic images (for them), as well as a hall called the Sattapannika, most conveniently situated (within his own palace), bestowed offerings 2(there) worth a thousand (pieces) monthly to the priesthood of the Mahávihára. At the Abhayagiri vihára, the Dakkhiņamúla, the Maricavatți vihára, the one bearing the name of Kulatissa, at the Mahiyangana vihára, at the Mahágáma, the Mahánága vihára, as well as at the Kalyáni, and at the thúpas of these eight places, he caused improvements to be made with paid labour. The minister Mukanága, in like manner, built walls round the following six viháras: the Dakkhiņa, the Maricavatți, the Puttabhága, the Issarasamaṇa, and the Tissa, in the isle of Nága. He built also an "upósatha" hall at the Anuráráma vihára.

This ruler of men expending three hundred thousand, out of reverential devotion to religion, provided for every place at which the sacred scriptures are expounded the maintenance (for priests) bestowed by alms. This patron of religion relieved also the priests who were in debt from their pecuniary difficulties. He celebrated the great Vésákha festival, and distributed the three sacerdotal garments among all the priests resident in the island.

By the instrumentality of the minister Kapila, suppressing the Vétulya heresy, and punishing the impious members (connected therewith), he re-established the supremacy of the (true) doctrines.

This king had a younger brother named Abhayanága, who had formed an attachment for his queen. Being detected in his criminal intercourse, dreading his brother's resentment, he fled. Repairing to Bhallatittha with his confidential attendants, and pretending to be indignant with his (brother's) father-in-law (Subhadéva, the queen's father, with whom he was in league), he maimed him in his hand and feet. In order that he might produce a division in the rájá's kingdom (in his own favour), leaving the said (Subhadéva) here (in Lanká), and contemptuously comparing him to a dog (which he happened to kill

1 The Vétulya heresy originated in September, A.D. 209; A.B. 752; m 4. d. 10— in the first year of the reign of Vóháraka Tissa.-[Note by Mr. Turnour.] 2 Dele.

366 at the two great viháras, and two metallic images on the eastern side of the bódhi tree."

4" he."

"the 'chattas' ('parasols surmounting the spires ') to be repaired.” "lives of the saints, of the history of great men,' were read." The original is Ariyavansa-katha, which may be rendered either way. I find this term frequently mentioned in the Arthakatha. From the context in those places I gather that it was the practice in ancient times in this island to read in public the recorded lives of great men on stated occasions and fixed places.

7" indebtedness."

8" illustrating by the example of a dog the faithfulness he required of his followers he embarked on board a vessel with his faithful friends and," &c.



when he was on the point of embarking), accompanied by his most attached followers, and at that place (Bhallatittha) throwing himself into a vessel, (Abhayanága) fled to the opposite coast.

The said father-in-law, Subhadéva, repaired to the king, and assuming the character of a person attached to him, brought about a revolt in the country, (while resident in his court) there. Abhaya, for the purpose of ascertaining the progress made in this plot, sent an emissary over here. (Subhadéva) on seeing this (emissary), removing (the earth) at the foot of an areca tree with his " kuntanáli," and thereby loosening its roots, pushed the tree down with his shoulder, (to indicate the instability of the rájá's government), and then reviling him (for a spy) drove him away. The emissary returning to Abhaya reported what had occurred.

Thus ascertaining the state of affairs, levying a large force of Damilas for the purpose of attacking his brother, he advanced in person on the capital (Anuradhapura).

The rájá on discovering this (conspiracy), together with his queen, instantly mounting their horses, fled, and repaired to Malaya. His brother pursued the rájá and putting him to death in Malaya, and capturing the queen, returned to the capital. This monarch reigned for eight years.

This king built a stone ledge round the bó tree, as well as a hall in the square of the Lóhapásáda; and buying cloths with two hundred thousand pieces, he bestowed robes on the whole priesthood in the island.

On the demise of Abhaya, Sirinága, the son of his brother (Vóhára) Tissa, reigned two years in Lanká. This monarch repaired the wall round the great bó tree, and built near the hall of the great bó, in the yard strewed with sand, 1to the southward of the mucéla tree, the splendid and delightful Hansavaṭṭa hall.

The prince named Vijaya, the son of Sirinága, on the demise of his father, reigned one year.

2There were three persons of the Lambakanna race (who wear large ear ornaments) intimately connected together, resident at Mahiyangana, named Sanghatissa, Sanghabódhi, and the third Góṭhákábhaya. They were walking along the embankment of the Tissa tank in their way to present themselves at the king's court. A certain blind man, from the sound of their tread, thus predicted: "These three persons are destined to bear the weight of (governing) the land." Abhaya, who was in the rear, hearing this exclamation, thereupon thus fearlessly questioned him: "Which then of (our three) dynasties will endure the longest?" The person thus interrogated replied, "His who was in the rear." On receiving this answer, he joined the other two.

These three persons, on their reaching the capital, were most graciously received by the monarch Vijaya, in whose court they were established, and employed in offices of state. Conspiring together, they put to death the rájá Vijaya in his own palace; and two of them raised (the third) Sanghatissa, who was at the head of the army, to the throne. The said Sanghatissa, who had usurped the Crown under these circumstances, reigned four years.

This monarch caused the "chatta" on the Maháthúpa to be gilt, and he set four gems in the centre of the four emblems of the sun, each

166 beyond."

2" Now."

3 "lords of the land.”

of which cost a lakh. He, in like manner, placed a1 glass pinnacle on the spire (to serve as a protection against lightning).

This ruler of men, at the festival held in honour of this chatta, distributed six cloths, or two sets of sacerdotal garments, to forty thousand priests; and having attended to the (andhavindaka) discourse in the khandhaka, expounded by Mahádéva théra, of Dámahallaka, and ascertained the merits accruing from making offerings of rice broth, delighted thereat, he caused rice broth to be provided for the priesthood at the four gates of the capital, in the most convenient and appropriate manner.

This rájá was in the habit from time to time of visiting the isle of Pácína, attended by his suite and ministers, for the purpose of eating jambus. The inhabitants of that eastern isle suffering from (the extortions of) these royal progresses, infused poison into the jambus intended for the rájá, (and placed them) among the rest of the fruit. Having eaten those jambus, he died at that very place; and Abhaya caused to be installed in the monarchy, Sanghabódhi, who had been raised to the command of the army. Renowned under the title of Sirisanghabódhi rájá, and a devotee of the 3pansil order, 1at least, he administered the sovereignty at Anuradhapura for two years. He built at the Mahávihára a salákagga" hall.5



Having at that period learned that the people were suffering from the effects of a drought, this benevolent rájá, "throwing himself down on the ground in the square of the Maháthúpa, pronounced this vow : Although I should sacrifice my life by it, I shall not rise from this spot until, by the interposition of the déva, rain shall have fallen (sufficient) to raise me on its flood from the earth." Accordingly the ruler of the land remained prostrate on the ground; and the 'déva instantly poured down his showers. Throughout the island the country was deluged. Apprehending that even then he would not rise, until he was completely buoyed up on the surface of the water, 10the officers of the household stopt up the drains (of the square). 11 Being raised by the water, this righteous rájá got up. In this manner, this allcompassionate person dispelled the horrors of this drought.

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Complaints having been preferred that robbers were infesting all parts of the country, this sovereign caused them to be apprehended, and then privately released them; and procuring the corpses of persons who had died natural deaths and casting them into flames, suppressed the affliction occasioned by the (ravages of the) robbers.

A certain yakkha, well known under the appellation of the "rattakkha" (red-eyed monster), visited this land, and afflicted its inhabitants in various parts thereof with ophthalmia. People meeting each other would exclaim (to each other), "His eyes are also red!" and instantly drop down dead; and the monster would without hesitation devour their (corpses). The rájá having been informed of the affliction (of his people), in the depth of his wretchedness, took the vows of the

1 Insert" valuable." Anagghan vajira cumbaṭan are the words in the original. There has been some discussion about the meaning of cumbatan. I believe

a ring or a set of rings in the form of a spire is what is meant here. 2 the women of the palace and his."

3 Pancasila, the five precepts or vows.

4 Dele.

5 rice-ticket hall.

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