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Thereafter arose the Gókulika and Ékabbóhárika schisms.
From the Gókulika schismatics the Pannatti as well as the Báhulika and Cétiya heresies proceeded.1 Those priests, again, gave rise to 2the schisms of the Sabbatthi and the Dhammaguttika priesthood. 3These two (heresies) arose simultaneously. Subsequently, from the Sabbatthi schismatics, the Kassapiya schism proceeded. Thereafter the Sankantika priesthood gave rise to the Sutta schism. 4(There were twelve schisms, including the Théra schism which was suppressed at the first convocation, in the first year of the first century); together with six schisms named hereafter, there were eighteen inveterate schisms.
Thus, in the second century (after the death of Buddha), there arose seventeen schisms. The rest of the schisms among the preceptors were engendered subsequently thereto. These were the six secessions which took place in Jambudípa (during the second century) :-The Hémavata, Rájagiriyá, and the Siddhatthiká, as well as (that of) the Pubbaséliya and Aparaséliya priesthood, and the Vájiriya. The Dhammaruciya and Ságaliya schisms took place in Lanká (in the fifth and eighth centuries after Buddha's death).
The schismatic secessions of the preceptors concluded.
Kálásóka had ten sons: these brothers (conjointly) ruled the empire, righteously, for twenty-two years. Subsequently there were nine: they also, according to their seniority, righteously reigned for twentytwo years.
Thereafter the brahman Cánakka, in gratification of an implacable hatred borne towards the ninth surviving brother, called Dhana-nanda, having put him to death, he installed in the sovereignty over the whole of Jambudípa a descendant of the dynasty of Moriyan sovereigns, endowed with illustrious and beneficient attributes, surnamed Candagutta. He reigned thirty-four years.
His son Bindusára reigned twenty-eight years. The sons of Bindusára were one hundred and one, the issue of (sixteen) different mothers.
Among them, Asóka, by his piety and supernatural wisdom, became all-powerful. He having put to death one hundred brothers, minus one, born of different mothers, reigned sole sovereign of all Jambudípa. Be it known, that from the period of the death of Buddha, and antecedent to his installation, two hundred and eighteen years had elapsed. In the fourth year of his accession to his sole sovereignty, this illustriously endowed ruler caused his own inauguration to be solemnised in the city of Páṭaliputta. At the instant of his inauguration, the establishment of his supremacy was (miraculously) proclaimed, from yójana to yójana, throughout the air above and over the surface of the earth.
The dévas caused to be brought daily eight men's loads of water from the lake Anótatta, from which (supplies) the déva of dévas (the
1 The Baṭuvantuḍáva-Sumangala Recension puts in two and a half verses here, which are said to be found in the Cambodian copy and a Sinhalese copy which were used in the collation of the printed text. They run thus:-" These belonged to the Mahá Sangíti school. Again, from among the Théra-vádas there sprung two sects, the Mahinsásaka and the Vajji-puttaka priests. And from among the latter (the Vajji-puttakas) there arose (four sects, namely,) the Dhammuttariya, the Bhadra-yánika, the Channágárika, and the Sammiti, who were all (denominated) the Vajji-puttaka priests.'
4" So that, including the (original) Théra-váda school, there were twelve; and these, together with the six afore-mentioned, formed eighteen in all." • Add “brothers (the Nandas)."
5" After them."
king) caused the people also to be provided. They also procured from the regions of Himavanta, "nága-latá " teeth-cleansers, sufficient for several thousand persons. From the same quarter, the invaluable medicinal “ámalaka"; the precious medicinal" harítaka"; from the same regions the " amba" fruit, superlatively excellent in its colour
The dévas (procured) also cloths of five different colours, and cloths for hand towels of the colour of gold, as well as the sacred beverage from the waters of Chaddanta lake. The elk, wild hog, and winged game, slaughtered in that city (for the king's household), resorting to the royal kitchen, of their own accord, there expire. There, tigers, having led forth herds of cattle to graze, reconduct them into their pens. Elk and wild hog watch over fields, gardens, tanks, &c. The nágas (brought) fine cloths of the colour of the " sumana flower, wove without seams; the heavenly "uppala" flower; also ointment for the body; and medicinal drugs from the nága wilderness. Parrots brought nine hundred thousand loads of hill paddy daily from the marshes of Chaddanta. Mice, husking that hill paddy, without breaking it, converted it into rice. Therefrom the rice dressed for the royal household was prepared. For him (the king), bees constantly deposited honey. In like manner, in his arsenals bears worked with hammers, and singing birds of delightful melody, repairing to the monarch, sang sweet strains.
The inaugurated sovereign Asóka then installed his full younger brother, prince Tissa, in the dignity of sub-king.
The installation of Dhammásóka concluded.
The father (of Asóka) being of the Brahmanical faith, maintained (bestowing daily alms) sixty thousand Brahmans. He himself in like manner bestowed them for three years.
Asóka, noticing from the upper pavilion of his palace the 'despicable proceedings of these persons, enjoined his ministers to bestow alms with greater discrimination. This wise (monarch) caused to be brought to him the ministers of all religions separately; and having seated them, and discussed their tenets, and given them alms, allowed them to depart. At a moment when he was enjoying the breeze in his upstair pavilion, observing the sámanéra Nigródha passing the palace square, he was delighted with his sanctified deportment. This royal youth was the son of prince Sumana, the eldest of all the sons of Bindusára.
5Asóka, on hearing that Bindusára was on his deathbed, left the kingdom of Ujjéni, which had been bestowed on him by his father, and proceeded to Pupphapura. As soon as his sire expired, seizing the capital for himself, and putting to death his eldest brother (Sumana) in that celebrated city, he usurped the sovereignty.
The consort of prince Sumana, bearing the same name, who was then pregnant, proceeding out of the eastern gate, departed and repaired to a village of candáles (outcastes). There, the dévatá, Nigródha, addressed her by name; and having caused an habitation to spring up, conferred it on her. She who was thus protected by the dévatá, giving birth on that very day to her son, bestowed on the child the name
246 at the distribution of food."
3" divers ascetics of false creeds.” 4" One day."
("Now, the history of Nigródha Sámanéra is in this wise.") For the sake of clearness a paragraph such as this should be inserted here within brackets.
"Nigródha." The chief of the candálas seeing her (in this condition) and venerating her as his own mistress, served her faithfully seven years.
The théra Mahá Varuna, seeing this infant born with the attributes requisite for the sanctification of "arhat," applied to the mother for him, and ordained him a priest. In the act of shaving his head (for admission into the priesthood) he attained arhathood. Thereafter, while on his way to see his princess-mother, entering the capital by the southern gate, at the moment he was passing through the palace square on his road to the village (of outcastes), the sovereign struck with the extreme propriety of his deportment, as if he had been previously intimate with him, an affection arose in his breast towards him.
2In a former existence there were three brothers, dealers in honey: one was the seller, two were the providers. There was also a paccéka buddha, who was afflicted with sores. Another paccéka buddha, on his account, was solicitous of procuring some honey. In his sacerdotal character, begging his subsistence for the day, he entered the city (of Báránasí). At that moment a young woman, who was proceeding to fetch water at the watering place of the city, observed him. Having made inquiry, and ascertained that he was solicitious of getting some honey, she said, pointing out the direction with her hand, "Lord, here is a honey bazaar, repair thither." The dealer, well pleased, filled the begging-dish of the paccéka buddha who presented himself there, with honey to overflowing. Observing the filling, the overflowing, and the streaming on the ground of the honey, he (the dealer) then formed the following wishes: "By the virtue of this offering may I establish an undivided dominion over Jambudipa: my authority (being recognised) from yójana to yójana through the air and over the earth." To the brothers, who (subsequently) arrived, he thus spoke: " To such a personage (describing him) I have made offerings of honey. According to your shares in that honey, participate ye in the benefits." The eldest brother incensed, thus replied: "Surely he must be an outcaste; at all times the outcastes wear yellow cloths." The second said: “Send that paccéka buddha to the farther side of the ocean.' (Subsequently) having listened to the youngest brother's discourse on the benefits derived from offerings, they also accepted the promised blessings. She who had pointed out the honey dealer's bazaar formed the wish of becoming his (the honey dealer's) head queen (in his character of sovereign), and that she should be endowed with a form so exquisitely moulded, that the joints of her limbs should be (" asandhi ") imperceptibly united. (Accordingly) the donor of the honey became Asóka. The young woman became the queen Asandhimittá. He who blasphemously called him (the paccéka buddha) " an outcaste," became Nigródha. The one who wished him transported became Tissa (Dévánampiya Tissa). 3From whatever circumstance (it had been the fate of) the outcaste blasphemer to have been born in a village of outcastes, he nevertheless formed the wish to attain "mokkha," and accordingly in the seventh year of his age acquired "mokkha" (by the sanctification of arhat).
146 was exceedingly pleased with him; and by (the force of) association in a former birth there sprung a love towards him in his breast."
("Now, the story of the former birth is as follows.")
3 He who had blasphemed by calling the saint an outcaste was born in a village of outcastos; but."
The said monarch (Asóka), highly delighted, and conceiving the greatest esteem for him (Nigródha), thereupon caused him to be called in. He approached with decorous self-possession. The sovereign said to him, "My child, place thyself on any seat suited to thee." He, seeing no other priest (present), proceeded towards the royal
While he was in the act of approaching the royal throne, the king thus thought: "This sámanéra will this very day become the master of my palace." Leaning on the arm of the sovereign, he ascended and seated himself on the royal throne under the white canopy (of dominion). The ruler Asóka, gazing on the personage who had thus taken his seat, influenced by the merits of his own piety, he thereupon became exceedingly rejoiced. Having refreshed him with food and beverage which had been prepared for himself, he interrogated the said sámanéra on the doctrines propounded by Buddha. The sámanéra explained to him the" appamádavagga" (section on non-procrastination). The sovereign having heard the same, he was delighted with the religion of the vanquisher. He said unto him: "Beloved, I will constantly provide for you food for eight." "Sire," he replied, "that food I present to the superior priest who ordained me." On another eight portions of rice being provided, he gave them to his superior who had instructed him. On the next eight portions being provided, he gave them to the priesthood. On the next eight portions being provided, the piously wise (Nigródha) accepted them himself.
He who was thus maintained by the king having propounded the doctrines of the faith to the monarch, established the sovereign and the people in those tenets, and the grace to observe the same.
The history of Nigródha concluded.
Thereafter, this king, increasing the number from day to day, gave alms to sixty thousand Buddhist priests, as formerly (to the Brahman priests). Having dismissed the sixty thousand heretics, he constantly maintained in his palace sixty thousand Buddhist priests. He being desirous that the sixty thousand priests should (on a certain occasion) be served without delay, having prepared costly food and beverage, and having caused the city to be decorated, proceeded thither, invited the priesthood, conducted them to the palace, feasted them, and presenting them with many priestly offerings, he thus inquired: 2" What is the doctrine propounded by the divine teacher?" Thereupon, the théra Tissa, son of Moggli, entered into that explanation. Having learned that there were eighty-four thousand discourses on the tenets of that doctrine, "I will dedicate," exclaimed the monarch, "a vihára to each." Then bestowing ninety-six thousand kótis of treasure on eighty-four thousand towns in Jambudípa, at those places he caused the construction of temples to be commenced by the (local) rájahs; he himself undertook the erection of the Asókáráma (in Pupphapura). He bestowed daily, from his regard for the religion, a lac separately to the "ratanattaya," to Nigródha, and to infirm priests.
From the offerings made on acount of Buddha, in various ways, in various cities, various festivals were constantly celebrated in honour of "thúpas."
1 "On the second day he went to the palace accompanied by thirty-two priests, and after he had been served with food by the king himself he preached the law, and established him and his people in faith and piety."
2" How many (sections of) the law have been."
3" sections of the law."
From the offerings made on account of the religion, the populace constantly bestowed the four prescribed offerings on the priests, the repositories of true religion.
From the lords of water brought from the lake Anótatta, he bestowed daily four to the priesthood generally, one to the sixty accomplished maintainers of the "tépitaka," one to the queen Asandhimitta. The great monarch reserved for his own consumption two.
To the sixty thousand priests and sixteen thousand females of the palace he gave the teeth-cleansers called "nágalatá."
On a certain day, having by inquiry ascertained that the supernaturally-gifted Mahákála, nága, king, whose age extended to a kappa, had seen the four Buddhas (of this kappa); for the purpose of bringing him, having sent a golden chain and having brought him, he placed him under the white canopy of dominion, seated on the royal throne. Making to him many flower-offerings, and surrounded by the sixteen thousand women of the palace, he thus addressed him: Beloved, exhibit to me the person of the omniscient being of infinite wisdom, the chakkavatti of the doctrine, the mahesi." The nága king caused to appear a most enchanting image of Buddha, gifted with the 2thirty attributes of personal beauty, and resplendent with the eighty charms of corporeal perfection, surrounded by the halo of glory, and surmounted by the lambent flame of sanctity.
Gazing on this (apparition), overjoyed and astonished, he made offerings thereto, and exclaimed, "Such is the image created by this personage what must not the image have been of the deity himself of happy advent!" (meditating thus) his joy became greater and greater.
The illustrious and powerful monarch (Asóka) then caused a great festival to be solemnised for seven successive days, known as the festival of" sight offering" (the miraculous figure of Buddha being visible during that period).
Thus, it was foreseen by the saints of old (who had held the second convocation on religion) that this sovereign would be superlatively endowed, and of great faith; and that the son of Moggali would become a théra.
The conversion (of Asóka) to the religion (of Buddha) concluded. The théras who held the second convocation, meditating on the events of futurity, foresaw that a calamity would befall their religion during the reign of this sovereign. Searching the whole world for him. who would subdue this calamity, they perceived that it was the longlived Tissa, the brahman (of the Brahmalóka world). Repairing to him, they thus supplicated the great sage: "Vouchsafe to be born among men for the removal of this calamity." He, willing to be made the instrument for the glorification of religion, gave his consent unto them. These ministers of religion then thus addressed Siggava and Chandavajji, two adult priests: "In eighteen plus one hundred years hence, a calamity will befall our religion, which we shall not ourselves witness. Ye (though) priests failed to attend on the occasion (of holding the second convocation on religion) on that account it is meet to award penalties unto you. Let this be your penance. The brahman Tissa, a great sage, for the glorification of our religion, will be conceived in a certain womb in the house of the brahman Moggali.
1" caused him to be seated on the royal throne under the white canopy of dominion." 2" thirty-two.' was this ruler of the land endued with great power and faith. (From what follows it will be seen also that) the théra Moggaliputta was foreseen by the saints of old."
5" who had not long to live there."