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Subsequently, this king sojourned three years near the Sonnagiri mountain (in the Ambaṭṭhakóla division) working a sugar mill. Obtaining some sugar as the hire of his labour, and taking that sugar, the monarch repaired from thence to the capital, and bestowed it on the priesthood. This ruler also presented sacerdotal robes to thirty thousand priests as well as to twelve thousand priestesses. This 'lord protector, building also a vihára, most advantageously situated, bestowed it, and the three garments constituting the sacerdotal robes, on sixty thousand priests. He also bestowed the Mandavápi vihára on thirty thousand priests, and3 Abhayagallaka vihára on a similar number of priestesses. This rájá constructed likewise the Vangupaṭṭankagalla, the Díghabáhugalla, and the Válagáma viháras.

Thus this king having, in the fervour of his devotion, performed, in various ways, many acts of piety, at the close of his reign of fourteen years passed to heaven.

During the reign of Mahácúla, Nága, surnamed Córa (the marauder), the son of Vaṭṭa Gámaní, leading the life of a robber, wandered about the country. Returning after the demise of Mahácúla, he assumed the monarchy. From amongst those places at which he had been denied an asylum, during his marauding career, this impious person destroyed eighteen viháras. Córanága reigned twelve years. This wretch was regenerated in the Lókantarika hell.

On his demise, the son of Mahácúla, named Tissa, reigned three years. The queen Anulá, 5deadly as poison in her resentments, inflamed with carnal passion for a balattha, had (previously) poisoned her own husband Córanága. This Anulá poisoned (her son) king Tissa also, actuated by her criminal attachment to the same balattha, on whom she bestowed the sovereignty. This balattha, named Síva, who had been the senior gate-porter, conferring on Anulá the dignity of queen-consort, reigned at the capital one year and two months.

Anulá then forming an attachment for a Damila named Vaṭuka, and putting (Síva) to death by means of poison, raised Vaṭuka to the throne. This Vatuka, who had formerly been a carpenter in the town, retaining Anulá in the station of queen-consort, reigned one year and two months in the capital. Thereafter Anulá, becoming acquainted with a firewood carrier, who served in the palace, and conceiving a passion for him, putting Vatuka to death by means of poison, bestowed the sovereignty on him. This firewood carrier, whose name was Tissa, made Anulá the queen-consort. He reigned in the capital one year and one month, and constructed, in that short interval, a reservoir in the Mahámégha garden (which was filled up in the reign of Dhátuséna). Anulá then fixed her affections on a Damila named Níliya, who held the office of purohita brahman, and resolved on gratifying her lust for him, by administering poison destroyed Tissa the firewood carrier, and conferred the kingdom on Níliya. The said brahman Niliya making her his queen-consort, and uninterrruptedly patronised by her for a period of six months, reigned here, in this capital, Anuradhapura.

This royal personage, Anulá, then forming a promiscuous connection with no less than thirty-two men, who were in her service as balatthas, despatched Níliya also by poison, and administered the government herself for a period of four months.

1 " land.”

246 priestesses."

3" also he."

Ia licentious woman."

6 Insert "lawless."

7" desirous of living as it pleased her."

"the Abhayagallaka."

The second son of Mahácúla, named Kálakaṇņi Tissa, who, from the dread of the resentment of Anulá, had absconded, and assumed the garb of a priest, in due course of time, assembling a powerful force, marched hither, and put to death the impious Anulá. This monarch reigned twenty-two years. He erected a great "upósatha" hall on the Cétiya mountain, and constructed in front of it a stone thúpa. On the same Cétiya mountain he himself planted a bó tree, and built the Pélagáma vihára in the delta of the river; and there he also formed the great canal called Vannakanna, as well as the great Ámadugga tank, as well as the Bhayóluppala tank. He built also a rampart, seven cubits high, and dug a ditch round the capital.

Being averse to residing in the regal premises in which Anulá had been burnt, he constructed a royal residence, removed a short distance therefrom. Within the town he formed the Padumassara garden.

His mother having (there) cleansed her (danté) teeth, and entered the sacerdotal order of the religion of the vanquisher, he 'converted their family palace into a hall for the priestesses of his mother's sisterhood. From the above circumstance, it obtained the appellation of Dantagéha.

On his demise, his son, the prince named Bhátikábhaya, reigned for twenty-eight years. This monarch being the (Bhátika) brother of the king Mahádáṭhika, became known in this island as Bhátika rájá. This righteous personage caused the Lóhapásáda to be repaired, and two basement cornice-ledges to be constructed at the Maháthúpa, and an "upósatha" hall at the Thúpáráma. This ruler of men, remitting the taxes due to himself, caused to be planted, within a space of one yójana environing the town, the small and large jessamine plants. (With the flowers produced from this garden) the Maháthú pa was festooned, from the pedestal ledge to the top of the pinnacle, with fragrant 3garlands, four inches thick; and there (between these garlands) having studded flowers by their stalks most completely, he made the thúpa represent a perfect bouquet. On a subsequent occasion he caused this cétiya. to be plastered with a paste made of red lead, an inch thick; and in the same manner made it represent a bouquet of flowers (by studding it with flowers). Upon another occasion he completely buried the cétiya, from the step at its enclosure to the top of the pinnacle, by heaping the space up with flowers; and then raising the water of the Abhaya tank by means of machinery, he celebrated a festival of water-offering, by pouring the water on (the flowers which were heaped over) the thúpa; and in the fervour of his devotion, having caused it to be whitewashed with lime made from pearl (oyster shells), brought in a hundred carts, he covered the cétiya with a drapery network studded with 766 pávála" stones. In the corners of this network he suspended flowers of gold of the size of a chariot wheel. From (these flowers of gold) to the very base, having suspended pearl 8“ kalápas,” and flowers, he made offerings to the Maháthúpa.

1" built a convent for the priestess, his mother, near the residence of her family." The king having plastered the Maháthúpa." paste."

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4 Dele.

5 Insert


6 64 vermillion."

7" coral."

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festoons or strings."

(During the performance of these ceremonies) he heard the chant of the priesthood hymned in the relic receptacle (within the thúpa); and vowing, "I will not rise till I have witnessed it," he laid himself down, fasting, on the south-east side (of the dágoba). The théras, causing a passage to develop itself, conducted him to the relic receptacle. The monarch beheld the whole of the splendour of the relic receptacle. He who had thence returned caused an exact representation of what (he had seen there) to be painted, and made offerings thereto : first, of sweet spices, aromatic drugs, vases (filled with flowers), golden sandalwood, and orpiment; secondly, having spread powdered red lead, ankle deep, in the square of the cétiya (he made offerings) of uppala flowers studded thereon; thirdly, having filled the whole cétiya square with a bed of aromatic soil, (he made offerings) of uppala flowers studded in holes regularly marked out in that bed; fourthly, stopping up the drains of the cétiya square, and filling it with cows' milk butter, (he made an offering) of (an illumination) of innumerable lighted wicks made of silk; fifthly, a similar (offering) with buffalo milk butter ; sixthly, a similar (offering) of tila oil; seventhly, an offering of an incalculable number of slighted lamp wicks.

Of the seven offerings to the Maháthúpa above described, the monarch caused each to be celebrated seven times, on separate occasions.

In the same (splendid manner in which the water festival at the Maháthúpa had been conducted), in honour of the pre-eminent bó tree, also he celebrated annually, without intermission, the solemn festival of watering the bó tree. This (monarch) invariably, actuated by pious impulses, celebrated the great Vésákha (annual) festival twenty-eight times; and eighty-four thousand splendid alms-offerings; and a great festival at the Maháthúpa, with gymnastics of all descriptions, and every kind of instrumental and vocal music; and he repaired daily thrice to assist in the religious services rendered to Buddha. Without omission he made flower offerings twice daily, (he gave) alms 10to the distressed, as well as the pavárana alms (to the priesthood); to the priests he presented sacerdotal offerings in great profusion, consisting of oil, beverage, and cloths. This king, for the preservation of the sacred edifices in repair, dedicated lands; and also provided constantly for the thousand priests resident at the Cétiya mountain, "saláka" provisions. This monarch, in like manner, at the three apartments called " Citta," Mani," and "Mucela " in the palace, and at the flower chamber (on the margin of the reservoir), as well as at the Chatta apartment, in these five places constantly entertaining priests devoted to the acquirement of sacred learning, out of reverence to religion, maintained them with sacerdotal

1" One day."

2" arhats tádinan ")."

3" a model thereof to be made of clay."

4" an offering of it to the thúpa. He also made offerings."

5" red and yellow orpiment."

366 on the coloured matting spread."

746 madhuka oil."

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Oil extracted from the seed of the Bassia latifolia.

866 lamps lighted with silk wicks."

"Moved thereto by faith, this king held great festivals at the whitewashing of the thúpa, which was done every year without omission, and likewise at the watering of the great bódhi tree. He held twenty-eight great Vésákha (May) festivals eighty-four thousand lesser festivals, and divers exhibitions of music and dancing in honour of the Maháthúpa. He repaired," &c.

10" at public processions."

11 Provisions given to priests on tickets.

requisites. Whatever the rights of religion were which preceding kings had kept up, all these acts of piety this monarch, Bhátiya, constantly observed.

On the demise of Bhátiya rájá, his younger brother, Mahádáṭhika Mahánága, reigned for twelve years. Devoted to acts of piety, he floored (the square) at the Maháthúpa with "kiñjakkha" stones; enlarged the square, which was strewed with sand; and made offerings of preaching pulpits to all the viháras in the island. He caused also a great thúpa to be built on Ambatthala. This monarch, being no longer in the prime of life, impelled by intense devotion to the divine sage (Buddha), and relinquishing all desire for his present existence, resigned himself to the undertaking; and having commenced the cétiya, he remained there till he completed it. He caused to be deposited at the four entrances (to the cétiya) the four descriptions of treasures, resplendent in various respects (as rewards). By means of the most skilful artificers he had the cétiya enveloped in a jewelled covering, and to suspend to that covering he supplied pearls. He caused decorations to be made for one yójana around the 2cétiya, and constructed four entrances, and a street all round it. He ranged shops in each of the streets, and in different parts thereof flags, festoons, and triumphal arches; and having illuminated 3(the cétiya) all round with lamps hung in festoons, he caused to be kept up a festival, celebrated with dances, gymnastics, and music, instrumental and vocal.

In order that (pilgrims) might proceed all the way from the Kadamba river with (unsoiled) washed feet, to the mountain Cétiya he had a foot carpet spread. By the dancers and musicians, instrumental as well as vocal, choruses were kept up. The king bestowed alms at the four gates of the capital, throughout the island, and on the waters of the ocean, all round the island within the distance of one yójana. From the celebrity and splendour of the festival held at this cétiya,? it acquired in this land the appellation of the "Giribhanda " festival. Having prepared alms at eight different places for the priesthood who had assembled for that solemnity, and called them together by the beat of eight golden drums, there assembled twenty-four thousand, to whom he supplied alms-offerings, and presented six cloths (each) for robes; he released also the imprisoned convicts. By means of barbers, stationed constantly at the four gates of the town, he provided the convenience of being shaved This monarch, without neglecting any of the ordinances of piety kept up either by the former kings or his brother, maintained them all.

This ruler, although the proceeding was protested against by them, dedicated himself, his queen, his two sons (Gámaní and Tissa) as well as his charger and state elephant, (as slaves) to the priesthood. The

1" (At one time) when the superstructure (of this cétiya) was unstable, he, regardless of his own life, laid him down at the foot thereof meditating on the virtues of the great sage, and left not the place until he had set up the structure firmly and completed the cétiya. At the four entrances to the cétiya he caused four precious agghikas (artificial flower trees?) to be fixed, resplendent with divers gems, the workmanship whereof was executed by the most skilful artificers; and after that he had enveloped the cétiya with a jewelled covering, caused balls of gold and festoons of pearls to be suspended thereon."


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3 Dele.

4" Cétiya-Pabbata " (Ségiriya).

5 Add "alongside thereof."

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6 Insert and caused a continuous illumination to be kept up."

7 Segiriya at Mihintalé.

sovereign, profoundly versed in these rites, then made offerings worth six hundred thousand pieces to the priests and worth one hundred thousand to priestesses; and by having made these offerings, which were of descriptions acceptable to them, he emancipated himself and the others from the priesthood.

This supreme of men built also the Kalanda vihára 1in the mountain named Maninaga, at Káláyanakannika2; on the shore of Kububbandhana, the Samudda vihára; and a vihára 3at the Cúlanága *mountain in the Pásána isle, which is in the Huvávakanṇika division (Róhana). To a certain sámanéra priest, who presented some beverage while he was engaged in the construction of these viháras, he dedicated (lands) within the circumference of half a yójana, for the maintenance of his temple. He bestowed on that sámanéra the Pandavápi vihára7; and in like manner the means of maintaining that vihára.

Thus truly wise men who have overcome pride and indolence, subdued selfish desires, become sincerely devoted to a life of piety, and acquired a benevolent frame of mind, having attained an unusual measure of (worldly) prosperity, without exerting it to the prejudice of nankind, perform great and various acts of piety.

The thirty-fourth chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "The Eleven Kings," composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous



ON the demise of Mahádáṭhika, his son Amanda Gámaní10 reigned eight years and nine months. He fixed a "chatta" on the spire of the Maháthúpa, as well as cornices on the base and crown of that edifice. He also made reparations at the Lóhapásáda and at the "upósatha hall of the Thúpáráma, 12both internally and to the exteriors of those edifices. With a two-fold object this monarch constructed a superb gilt-hall, and he caused also to be built the Rajataléna vihára. This munificent king having formed 13in the southward the Mahágámendi tank, dedicated it to the Dakkhiņa vihára.

14 This ruler of men, having caused to be planted throughout the island every description of fruit-bearing creepers (which are of rapid growth), then interdicted the destruction of animal life in all parts thereof. This monarch Amandi, in the delight of his heart, filling a dish with melons and covering it with a cloth, presented it to the whole priesthood, calling it

1" and the Maninaga-pabbata vihára." 2 In Róhana.

"the vihára at the Pásána isle, and with "the priesthood."

"Add" on a sámanéra of that vihára." "the priesthood."

11" over the chatta "-chattátichattan.

3" called."

4 Dele.

whose deportment he was pleased."

9" An account of." 10 Add" Abhaya."

12" he repaired the inner terrace and inner court, and in each place he built a superb gilt-hall and built the Rajataléna vihára also."

13 4 a tank in the southern part of Mahágáma."

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14 These sentences should run in the following order :- "This ruler of men prohibited the destruction of animal life throughout the island. Having caused every kind of fruit-bearing creepers to be planted in divers places, king Amandiya (gathering the fruits thereof), in the delight of his heart, filled the bowls of the priests with melons, calling it melon-flesh,' and setting the bowls on stands made of cloth ('vattha cumbatá ') presented them to all the priesthood."



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