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While the rájá Saddhá Tissa yet resided at Díghavápi, his eldest son Lajjitissa constructed the delightful Girikumbhíla vihára. A younger (the second) son, Thullatthanaka, built the vihára called Kandara.

At the time that his father repaired to the court of his brother Duṭṭha Gámaní, Thullatthanaka accompanied him, giving over the charge of his vihára to the priesthood. On the demise of Saddhá Tissa, all the officers of state assembled, and having convened a meeting of priests at the Thúpáráma, under the advice of the priesthood, for the purpose of providing for the administration of the country, they inaugurated Thullatthanaka. On hearing of this proceeding, Lajjitissa hastened hither (to Anuradhapura), and seizing (Thullatthanaka, put him to death), and assumed possession of his rightful sovereignty. The rájá Thullatthanaka reigned only one month and ten days.

This Lajjitissa continued for three years displeased with the priesthood, as they had set aside his prior right of succession, and refused to patronize them. Subsequently the monarch forgave the priesthood; and, as a penance, contributing three lakhs, caused three altars, formed entirely of stone, to be erected at the Maháthúpa. The ruler of the land caused also, by expending a lakh, the ground around the Maháthúpa and the Thúpáráma to be levelled; and at the Thúpáráma establishment he enclosed the cétiya in a superb case of stone. In front of the Thúpáráma he built the thúpa of stone (therefore called) Siláthúpa, and the hall (called after the king) Lajjitissa, for the accommodation of the priesthood. Expending another lakh, he built a cétiya at the Cétiya vihára, and encased it with stone. Unto the sixty thousand priests resident at the Girkumbhila vihára he made offerings of the garments composing the sacerdotal robes. He built also the Ariṭṭha and the Kandarahínaka viháras, and for the itinerant priests he supplied medicinal drugs. Inquiring always of the priestesses, "What do ye need?" he provided the rice requisite for their maintenance. He reigned in this land nine years and eight months.

On the demise of Lajjitissa, his younger brother Khalláṭanága (succeeded, and) reigned for six years. For the embellishment of the Lóhapásáda he constructed thirty-two edifices adjacent to it. Enclosing the beautiful great thúpa Hémamálí, he formed a square strewed with sand, with a wall built round it. This monarch also constructed the Kurundapásaka vihára and caused 'every observance of regal piety to be kept up. The minister Mahárattaka, 10assuming the character of the ruler of the land, seized the rájá Khalláṭanága in the very capital, (and put him to death).

The younger brother of that king, named Vaṭṭa Gámaní, putting that perfidious minister to death, assumed the sovereignty. He adopted as his own son Mahácúlika, the son of his late elder brother Khalláṭanága ; and conferred on his mother Anulá the dignity of queen-consort. To him who thus assumed the character of a father, the people gave the appellation of "father-king."

166 in order that he might give."

2" with the consent."

366 saying, They cared not even for the order of seniority,' and reviled them." sought forgiveness from."

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5" he encased with stone the cétiya at the Cétiyagiri vihára.”

666 At the feast of the Girikumbhila vihára he made offerings unto sixty thousand priests."

7 Insert "what they wanted and."

9" other works of merit also to be performed."

8" around."

10 Omit.

In the fifth month of the reign of the monarch who had assumed the sovereignty under these circumstances, a certain brahman, 1prince of the city of Nakula, in Róhaṇa, believing the prophecy of a certain2 brahman Tissa (who predicted that he would become a king), in his infatuation became a marauder; and his followers increased to great numbers.

4Seven Damiļas with a great army landed at Mahátittha. 5The brahman and the seven Damilas despatched a letter to the reigning monarch to demand the surrender of the sovereignty. The king, who was gifted with the power of divination, sent an answer to the brahman to this effect: "The kingdom is thine from this day: subdue the (invading) Damilas." He replying, "Be it so," attacked the Damilas, who made him prisoner. These Damilas thereupon waged war against the king, and the sovereign being defeated in a battle fought at the outskirts of Kolambálaka, mounting his chariot, fled through the Tittháráma gate. This Tittháráma had been built by Paṇḍukábhaya, and had always been assigned as a residence (to people of foreign religions) during the reign of twenty-one kings (including the Róhana sovereigns). A certain professor of a different religion, named Giri, seeing him in his flight, shouted out in a loud voice, "The great black Síhala is flying." The Mahárájá hearing this thus resolved within himself: "Whenever my wishes are realised, I will build a vihára here."

Deciding within himself, "I am bound to save the pregnant queen Anulá, as well as Mahácúla, and my own child Mahánága," the king retained them with him and in order that the weight of the chariot might be diminished, with her entire consent he handed the (other) queen Sómadéví out of the carriage, bestowing on her a small beautiful jewel.

When he set out to engage in battle, he had taken the princes and the queens with him, but omitted to remove the refection dish of the vanquisher. 10 Perplexed by his anxiety (regarding the safety of these objects) he was defeated; and flying, concealed himself in the Vessagiri forest.

The théra Kutthikkula Mahátissa meeting him there, presented him with a meal, without misappropriating his accepted alms-offerings. The ruler, gratified thereat, dedicated (certain lands) for the support of his fraternity, recording the grant on "a ketaka leaf," (no other writing materials being procurable). Departing from thence, he sojourned at Silásobbhakaṇḍaka; and quitting that retreat also, he repaired to the 12 Velanga forest in the neighbourhood of Sálagalla (since called Moragulla in Malaya). There the monarch again met the priest whom he had before seen (in the Vessagiri forest), who enjoined 13a Tanasiva (a wild hunter), who was his own attendant, to serve (the

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166 youth," ceṭaka. This word is also used to signify a young servant, -a 'boy."

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6 Insert" also."

7.66 Nigantha" (one of a sect of Hindú anchorites).

8" his beautiful crest-gem."


being doubtful of victory, he caused the princes and the queens to be taken with him, but could not have removed," &c.

10" Being defeated he fled, and."

11" which he had first partly partaken of." A priest cannot give away any food put into his bowl by the faithful without first partaking of a portion thereof, except in certain specified instances.

12 Mátu-velanga.'

13" Tanasiva (a chief), who ministered unto him."


fugitive monarch) most attentively. The rájá sojourned here, in the habitation of this 'Ratteka-Tanasíva2 fourteen years, dependent on him for support.

From amongst the seven (invading) Damilas, one greatly enamoured of the queen Sómadéví, taking her prisoner, quickly recrossed the ocean another of them appropriating the refection dish of the deity of ten powers, which had been left at Anuradhapura, and satisfied with that prize alone, also re-embarked without delay. The Damila Pulahattha, appointing the Damila named Báhiya his minister, reigned three years. Báhiya, putting the said Pulahattha to death, reigned two years. Panayamára was his minister. Panayamára, putting the said Báhiya to death, reigned seven years. Pilayamára was his minister. Putting that Panayamára to death, the said Pilayamára was king for seven months. Dáṭhiya was his minister. The said Dáthiya Damila, putting Pilayamára to death, reigned at Anurádhapura for two years. Thus the term (of the reigns) of these five Damila kings was fourteen years plus seven months.

3In this Malaya division the queen Anulá went (as usual to the house of the Tanasiva) to receive her daily supply of provisions: and the Tanasiva's wife (on this occasion) kicked her basket away. She, outraged at this treatment, weeping aloud, ran to the king. The Tanasíva, hearing what had occurred (and dreading the resentment of the king), sallied forth with his bow.

On receiving the queen's account (of this outrage), before he (the Tanasiva) could arrive, the king attempted to make his escape, taking his consort and two children with him: (at that instant, however, seeing) Síva (the hunter) rushing at him with his bent bow, the chief of Sívas (the king) shot him. Then proclaiming himself to be the Mahárájá, he rallied the population round him. He found himself at the head of eight officers of rank, and a great array of warriors: both the army and the monarch's suite were very numerous. This most fortunate monarch making his appearance before Kumbhílaka Tissa théra, celebrated a festival of offerings unto Buddha at the Acchagalla vihára. While the minister Kapisísa, who had ascended to the cétiya—which was constructed on an eminence-for the purpose of sweeping it, was descending, the monarch, who was accompanied by his queen, was ascending (for the purpose of making offerings), and noticed the said minister Kapisísa seated in their path. Exclaiming, "Will he not Brise?" he slew him. On account of this deed, perpetrated by the king, the other seven officers fled, terrified, and absconded as they best could. On their road, being completely stripped (even to their clothes) by robbers, seeking refuge in the Hambugallaka vihára, they presented themselves to the learned théra Tissa. The said théra, who was profoundly versed in the four "nikáyas," bestowed on them, from the alms 'made unto himself, clothes, beverage, oil, and rice, sufficient for their wants. When they had recovered from their tribulation, the théra inquired,

1 Dele.

2 Insert "the chief of the district."

3 This story is somewhat loosely and obscurely related in the original. "Now the queen Anujá, who had gone to the Malaya country, (was ill-treated by) Tanasiva's wife, who kicked her basket away," &c.

4" who were reputed as great warriors."

566 prostrate himself (before me) ? "

"the other seven officers were disgusted with the king and fled from his presence; and while they were journeying at leisure they were set upon by robbers on the road and stripped of all they had, so that they sought refuge in the Hambugallaka vihára, and," &c. 7" offered."

"Whither are ye going?" They, without concealing what regarded themselves, imparted to him what had occurred. Being asked, 2" With whom will it avail you most to co-operate for the cause of the religion of the vanquisher: with the rájá or with the Damilas?" they replied, 3" It will avail most with the rájá. Having thus made this admission, the two théras Tissa (of Kutthikkula) and Mahátissa (of Kumbhílaka), conducting these persons from thence to the king, reconciled them to each other. The king and these officers thus supplicated of the théras : When we send for you, after our enterprise has been achieved ye must repair to us." The théras promising to comply with their invitation, returned to the places whence they had come.


This fortunate monarch then marching to Anuradhapura, and putting the Damila Dáthika to death, resumed his own sovereignty.

Thereafter this monarch demolished the aforesaid Nigaṇṭháráma (at which he was reviled in his flight), and on the site thereof built a vihára of twelve parivéņas. This devoted sovereign completed the Abhayagiri vihára in the two hundred and seventeenth year, tenth month, and tenth day after the foundation of the Mahávihára. Sending for the aforesaid théras, the grateful monarch conferred the vihára on the théra Mahátissa, who was the first to befriend him of the two.

From a certain circumstance (already explained) the temple had borne the name of Giri (the Nigantha); on that account this king surnamed also Abhaya, who built the temple (on its site) called it the Abhayagiri vihára. Sending for his queen Sómadéví, he restored her to her former dignity; and to commemorate that event he built the Sómáráma, and called it by her name.

At the spot at which this female had descended from the chariot (in the king's flight) and concealed herself in the Kadambapuppha forest, she noticed a young sámanéra priest (who even in that seclusion) modestly covered himself with his hand, while he was in the act of * * * The rájá, being told of this (act of delicacy) by her, constructed there also a vihára.

To the north of the great thúpa (Hémaváli) the monarch himself built a lofty cétiya, which was named Silásobbhakaṇḍaka.

Of the (eight) warriors, the one named Uttiya built to the southward of the town the vihára called Dakkhiņa vihára; in the same quarter, the minister Múlava built the vihára called Múlava, from whom it obtained that name; the minister Sáli built the Sáli vihára; the minister Pabbata built the Pabbatáráma; the minister Tissa the Uttaratissáráma. On the completion of these splendid viháras, they repairing to the théra Tissa, and addressing him: "In return for the protection received from thee, we confer on thee the viháras built by us," they bestowed them on him. The théra, in due form, established priests at all those viháras, and the ministers supplied the priesthood with every sacerdotal requisite. The king also provided the priests

1" made themselves known, and."

2" With whom is it possible for you to further."

3" With the rájá it is possible."

4" convinced them."

5 The Mahavihára having been founded B.C. 306, according to this date the Abhayagiri was completed B.C. 89.-[Note by Mr. Turnour.]

By reason of the Aráma having belonged to Giri (the Nigantha), and by reason of the vihára having been made (on that site) by the king Abhaya (Vaṭṭa Gámaní Abhaya), therefore was it called Abhayagiri vihára.”

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resident at his own vihára (Abhayagiri) with every supply requisite for the priesthood. On that account they greatly increased in number. This théra, renowned under the appellation of Mahátissa, 1thereafter devoting himself to the interest of the laity, his fraternity, on account of this laical offence, expelled him from thence (the Mahávihára). A disciple of his, who became celebrated by the name of Bahalamassu Tissa, outraged at this proceeding of expulsion, went over to the Abhayagiri establishment, and uniting himself with that fraternity, sojourned there. From that time the priests of that establishment ceased to be admitted to the Mahávihára. Thus the Abhayagiri fraternity in the théra controversy became seceders.

Thus by the conduct of these seceding Abhayagiri vihára priests, the Dakkhiņa vihára fraternity, on account of these théra controversies, also became divided into two parties.

The monarch Vaṭṭa Gámaní, for the purpose of increasing the popularity of the principal priests of Abhayagiri, conferred blessings (through their instrumentality) on the people. He built viháras and parivéņas in unbroken ranges; conceiving that by so constructing them their (future) repairs would be easily effected.

The profoundly-wise (inspired) priests had theretofore orally perpetuated the Páli "Pitakattaya "and its "Aṭṭhakathá" (commentaries). At this period these priests, foreseeing the perdition of the people (from the perversions of the true doctrines), assembled; and in order that the religion might endure for ages, recorded the same in books. This Mahárájá Vaṭṭa Gámaní Abhaya ruled the kingdom for twelve years. On the former occasion (before his deposition) for five months. Thus a wise man, who has realised a great advantage, will apply it for the benefit of others as well as of himself. But the weak, avaricious man, having acquired a great advantage, does not benefit either.

The thirty-third chapter in the Mahávansa, entitled "Ten Kings,” composed equally for the delight and affliction of righteous men.


ON his demise, Mahácúla Mahátissa (succeeded and) reigned fourteen years, righteously and equitably.

This monarch having learned that it was an act of great merit to confer an alms-offering earned by (the donor's) personal exertion, in the first year of his reign, setting out in a disguised character, and 10undertaking the cultivation of a crop of hill rice, from the 11portion derived by him as the cultivator's share bestowed an alms-offering on Mahásumma théra.


This is an offence

166 having unduly associated himself with lay families." against the code of monastic discipline. enraged." 3" becoming the leader of a party.",

4.66 commune with those of."

5" seceded from the Théravádas. The priests of the Dakkhiņa vihára (afterwards) broke off their connection with the Abhayagiri fraternity; and thus the priests who seceded from the Théravádas themselves became divided into two parties."

866 prosperity of the priests of the island who belonged to the great Abhayagiri fraternity, conferred the donation named ' patti' on them."

7 Insert "for them."

8 Insert" of old."

Insert The Reigns of."

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