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fifth seal). But, before this was uttered, a mighty angel, having the gospel in his hand, came down from heaven (ch. x. ver. 1), and, restraining sin and flesh (x. 5), solemnly announced "that there should be time no longer, but in the days of the voice of the seventh angel, when he shall BEGIN to sound."-ver. 7. The voice from heaven now told John to take the gospel from the angel, and eat it up. He found it sweet in his mouth, because it tasted of eternal life; but, when he had swallowed it, his belly was embittered by the feeling that it contained the sufferings of Christ.-ver. 9, 10. Thus charged with prophecy he was desired to prophesy AGAIN, and a rod was given to him (ch. xi. ver. 1), with which he was directed to limit the altar and those worshipping thereat, but to leave the space without the temple unlimited; thus showing that the Jews should be circumscribed, but that the Gentiles in all the world should receive the benefit of the covenant. In order to assure him of this, the TWO WITNESSES are described by a statement of their authority, and such a detail of their temporal sufferings and ultimate triumph as confirmed their identity in Jesus the Redeemer and John the Baptist. This having been done, the conclusion of the sixth trumpet was announced:-"The second woe is passed, and behold another cometh in consequence of these things" (ver. 14),—still showing that even in the gospel dispensation the dregs of the evils entailed by Manasseh would continue, till the third woe-the awful day of judgment. This communication having been made to John at the period of time when this seal was opened, and immediately before the announcement of the last verse of the sixth trumpet, proves that John was translated in the Spirit to a POINT OF TIME which, 584 years before Christ, closed the destruction of Jerusalem, and that this was the POINT OF SIGHT from which he took a retrospective and prospective view of the vision.

When the Lamb opened THE SEVENTH SEAL, there was silence in heaven for the space of half an hour. THE SEventh Trumpet announced the advent. Here the BEASTS, or KINGS who formerly took the lead of the ceremonial worship, discontinued this office; and, as the trumpet sounded, the twenty-four elders fell on their faces and worshipped God, saying, "We give thee thanks, O Lord God Almighty, who art, and wast, and art about to come, because thou hast taken to thee thy great power, and hast reigned. And the nations were angry, and thy wrath is come, and the time of the dead, that they should be judged, and that thou shouldest give reward unto thy servants the prophets, and to the saints, and them that fear thy name, small and great; and shouldest destroy them that destroy the flesh.

And the Jesus of God was discovered in heaven; and there was seen in his Jesus the ark of his testament: and there were glories, and praises, and honours, and powers, and great chastening."—xi. 17—19.

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"The silence in heaven for half an hour" was accompanied by a general peace all over the world at the time of Christ's birth, when a multitude of the heavenly host proclaimed Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good-will towards men.”—Luke ii. 14. When I reflect on the subject-matter of the six seals and trumpets, demonstrating the watchfulness of our heavenly Father and the mighty works he did for the welfare of his people, and find that with reference to the seventh seal the seventh trumpet announces that there was silence in heaven for half an hour, I cannot help observing the harmony of Scripture, on recalling to mind that in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the seventh day and hallowed it.


This book is by the translators of the received edition considered to be a prediction of future events, which is only true of the latter part, where circumstances are more clearly and beautifully explained relative to the resurrection and future state than we could have conceived from the contents of the other books of Scripture. The opinion of the futurity of the whole arose from that blindness which God no doubt designed in order that the churches of this day should, by the second vision (ch. iv. 2), obtain a review of his pure truth, as did the seven churches of Asia by the first vision.-i. 10.

The first line of the Apocalypse in the received translation, and also in mine, is " The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God GAVE unto him." This implies a past action; and to suppose that still more was to be given than he taught while on earth is irreconcilable with the words of our blessed Saviour uttered in fervent prayer, " I have glori


fied thee on earth; I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do." The words "which God GAVE" refer therefore to the Revelation which had been given to Jesus as the Lamb, when as the root of David he opened the book or covenant; and hence it is reasonable to suppose that the words, "THE Revelation which God gave to Jesus” means the whole and not a part.

John's Gospel commences thus, "In the beginning was the Word, &c.;" which proves a similarity of design, and in a measure gives a reference, if not a key, to the beginning of his book of Revelation.

This book is not merely a recapitulation of the Gospel in mysterious words, but a standard of the truth, explained by unchangeable expressions to frustrate the efforts of Satan, who would produce schism, and misconstruction, as language should vary with the advance of nations from barbarism to civilization. Language changes, but metaphors, symbols, and emblems, are unalterable; because they appeal to vision, and, as it were, keep before the eye of the mind a picture of the expression.

The whole of my interpretation accords with Scripture from the beginning to the end of this first part (and so I trust, under God's guidance and blessing, will the concluding number, which I shall publish when circumstances permit); therefore, when any new light may appear, the truth of it must be manifest, for when the extreme points of two straight lines coincide, all their parts must also coincide.

The seals and trumpets were not intended to be written alternately, as I have placed them, but the substance of the trumpet should be kept in mind during the reading of the seal-as two corresponding lines, recording the acts of men and the consequent decrees of God. I have attached the trumpets to the seals, to facilitate this method of reading, as well as to enable the reader to mark the connexion between them.

To avoid digression, which would destroy the interest or weaken the force of the writing, the inspired Apostle frequently reverts to preceding periods; as for example, the 9th chapter mentions the preparation of the Lord for the destruction of Jerusalem; whilst the arrangements for the same actually took place at that point of time in 6th

chapter where Josiah rent his clothes, &c., and righteousness mourned (ver. 13); in consequence of which the execution thereof was delayed during his life.

I will now refer to a translation in the received edition which it is difficult to construe otherwise, because the metaphor of the Greek could not be transferred as a metaphor into English. I have therefore left it unaltered in mine; and refer to the reading as the best translation, for the scriptural words being changed into their real import, admit of the construction.

Καὶ ἀπέθανε τὸ τρίτον τῶν κτισμάτων τῶν ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, τὰ ἔχοντα ψυχάς καὶ τὸ τρίτον τῶν πλοίων διεφθάρη.

TRANS.—And the third part of the creatures which were in the sea, having life, died; and the third part of the ships were destroyed.

READ.—And the third part of the creatures died unto sin, saving their souls; and the third part of those resting on sin were destroyed.

In the eleventh chapter та тúμаra is translated dead bodies in the received edition; but it actually means offences; whereas the word in all other cases used for dead body is vexpos (in Lat. cadaver ipsum). Καὶ ὁ ζῶν, καὶ ἐγενόμην νεκρὸς. "And he that liveth and was dead."Rev. i. 18. Oi dè Xoiñoì tãv vekр@v-but the rest of the dead bodies.--ch. xx. 4. Irogara is the accusative case, governed by amokrevit, from which I take the word remove) in the preceding verse.

I have many remarks that I would gladly offer to my brethren, but my present limits will not admit of more. I have therefore to submit the book to the guidance of Him who is all-wise, and who by the Holy Spirit will teach us all things, and bring all things to our remembrance. Amen. "Thus saith the LORD, Stand ye in the ways, and see, and ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk therein, and ye shall find rest for your souls. But they said, We will not walk therein."


Ch. 1. ver. 3. for written therein for the time at hand-read written therein; for the time is at hand.

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