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moral sympathies are both enlisted against the current orthodoxy,
which Hamilton implicitly defends; and, in assailing the highest
contemporary names of English metaphysics, he is doing battle for
free thought against a despotic theology which he abhors. Mr.
Mansel seems to us not quite candid, in his plausible statement of
man's imperfect comprehension of the Divine purpose in creation,
when he cites it to rebuke the vehemence of Mr. Mill's protest. At
least, he must know that Mr. Mill means in that protest to repudiate
a conception of the Divine government, once identified with the
very name of Christianity, and full of terror to the ignorant even
now, which no intelligent man dares any longer state in its full
atrocity. The controversy interests us even more as a theological
than as a metaphysical one. Yet our sympathies in it are divided.
For, while human nature itself protests against that monstrous system
of mental tyranny and religious terror from which the processes of
modern thought are effecting our deliverance, human nature also
protests against that drift towards Fatalism
a godless or else a
divine necessity—which the courses of positive science seem to
indicate so strongly.

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DR. MCCоSH's argument, in the same general direction as that we
have been reviewing,* differs from it in being more of the nature of
a general treatise, and less a vindication of particular opinions. It
is "a defence of fundamental Truth," not strictly a defence of Sir
William Hamilton, from whose system it expresses free dissent. In
style, too, it is less combative and personal. It has a more direct
and express acknowledgment of Mr. Mill's services and eminence in
kindred lines of thought. The Introduction, in particular, is very
winning by its tone of fairness and candor; and in many points its
criticism is keen, sagacious, and valuable.
gacious, and valuable. Mr. Mill's theory is
stated quite explicitly at the outset; viz., "that we can know nothing
of mind except that it is a series of sensations aware of itself, or of
matter except that it is a possibility of sensations." Probably, Mr.
Mill would not complain of this statement, which is given almost in
his own words; though his reviewer follows it, almost immediately,
by a citation, carefully registered under twenty-four different heads,
of arguments, phrases, and positions, in which, from an ample maga-

* An Examination of Mr. Mill's Philosophy; Being a Defence of Fundamental Truth. By JAMES MCCOSH. London: McMillan & Co.

zine of first principles, Mr. Mill appears to select at will whatever will suit the purpose of his argument, whatever his theory may say to the contrary. In short, Mr. Mill is convicted of the most honorable fault that can befall a reasoner, an intelligence too broad and rich to be a consistent materialist, and too masculine to shrink at inconsistency of phrase when he would declare realities of things. In spite of a theological motive apparent here and there, and something of narrow prejudice in dealing with the "positive" school,-as where it speaks of Comte as a rabid atheist," and an appeal to consequences and tendencies which hardly becomes the single search for truth, the book is a fair, able, and valuable study of the subject it treats it is honestly and seriously religious; and it considerably mitigates the impression produced by the author's ponderous scheme, published fifteen years ago, in which the moral and physical order of the universe were expounded from the point of view of Scotch Presbyterianism./


J. H. A.

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MISS CARPENTER's deeply interesting memorial refreshens recollections that were growing dim by the lapse of a generation. It is just fifty years since the name of Rammohun Roy—then somewhere between thirty and thirty-five years old — was becoming known as the zealous defender of the Divine Unity against the superstitions of Hindoo Polytheism. In 1833 he died, near Bristol, England, in a circle of friends to whom he was greatly endeared; leaving a reputation as wide and pure, perhaps, as any Christian thinker of the century. We are greatly indebted to this volume for reviving and revindicating that reputation now. It was prepared by the editor as one of the tasks preparatory to her present visit of charity in India; and at the special request of four young men, natives of that country, who have been pursuing their studies in England, and who propose, on their return, to publish the completest biography possible of their illustrious countryman.

Ever since the age of fifteen, when he made a journey into Thibet for the sake of understanding the religious customs there, Rammohun Roy had been powerfully attracted to the study of religious truth at the fountain-heads of sacred tradition. His father, whose death

*The Last Days in England of the Rajah Rammohun Roy. Edited by Mary Carpenter, of Bristol. London: Trübner & Co. Calcutta: R. C. Lepage & Co. pp. 255.

left him ample wealth and leisure, seems to have favored this strong bent. At an early age, he was already master, not only of the several Hindoo tongues, but of Arabic (which he studied as a living tongue) and Persian; and, from the ancient Sanscrit lore, he had published (in 1816) a compilation of passages to prove, as the primitive faith, his favorite theory of the unity of God. Hebrew and Greek he also learned, in order to study Christianity in its original documents; and, having acquired sufficient knowledge of English, he took a zealous interest in the translation of the Scriptures then in preparation at Calcutta. We believe we are correct in saying, that his discussions and arguments, during this work, had a decisive influence in converting at least one English missionary - the learned and eminent William Adam to Unitarian views of Christianity. The unbiassed testimony of a highly educated Brahmin in favor of a free and undogmatic interpretation of the Testament was reckoned at that time a very important contribution to Unitarian literature. Many of our readers will recollect the volume, republished in this country, containing his compilation of the moral instructions of the gospel, entitled "The Precepts of Jesus, the Guide to Peace and Happiness" (first published in 1820), together with his tracts, or appeals to his countrymen in his own defence. And, with perhaps a little wavering as to the more strictly dogmatic and supernatural elements of faith, he was frank and positive in declaring himself a Christian believer to the end.

But, a Hindoo by birth and a high-caste Brahmin, the object he had most at heart was the good of his own countrymen; and for their sakes, as well as for that of his family, he was solicitous never to forfeit the privileges of his rank and birth. At his death, the thread denoting his caste was found about his body; and at his burial, in a private estate apart from any Christian cemetery, no funeral service was held, nor were any words spoken, lest they should prejudice the jealously guarded birthright. The religious animosity of his countrymen he had braved for years, and even the bitter hostility of his own mother, who (we are informed) once attempted his life by poison. But he would not put any obstacle which could possibly be avoided between his mind and theirs. Accordingly, his influence was early and powerfully felt for good among them. It was one of the strongest agencies in abolishing the suttee,- the burning alive of Hindoo widows; it was used, along with the generous employment of his private wealth, in establishing schools, and otherwise combating native ignorance and superstitions; it is one of the powerful agents now in inspiring the efforts of a younger generation.

Of large frame and noble features; of gentle and winning manners; of a delicate courtesy in the society of women, and eager affection to little children; of unvarying serious demeanor, somewhat tinged with melancholy; fluent and eloquent in the gift of speech; appealing to the imagination also by the rich and scrupulously elegant oriental costume which he never abandoned, Rammohun Roy left a singularly deep and strong impression wherever he was met in personal intercourse. His visit to England in the spring of 1831, and his residence there until his death in September, 1833, of which this volume is the special record, was occasioned partly by his interest in the study of European life and politics, as well as by the hope of doing larger service to his people on his return. It is very grateful and touching, at this interval, to recall the cordial and thorough appreciation with which he was welcomed everywhere, and the genuine love and affection he inspired. Those who knew him personally then do not speak of him now without a peculiar emotion of veneration and esteem. And a larger circle of a younger generation will be glad to find in this fresh memorial a testimony to perhaps the purest native worth and nobility that we have known in the records of British India, and an encouragement to the best hopes that have been entertained for that ill-starred population.

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THE War of the Union presents so vast a field of interests and operations, that many years must elapse before the records are sufficiently collated, the facts sufficiently digested, to furnish and perfect the materials for a thorough and complete history of this eventful section of American national life. No war, it is likely, was ever so copiously documented; but the very abundance of the documents embarrasses the task of the historian, whose obligation to the truth compels him, so far as possible, to examine, compare, and sift them all, in order to a final trustworthy judgment.

Meanwhile, therefore, an important service is rendered by the special contributions of competent witnesses and chroniclers whom personal experience or private interest has induced to elaborate single and select portions of this wide field. Of such contributions, we have met with none more weighty and every way satisfactory than Mr. Woodbury's faithful and laborious monograph.*

Major-General Ambrose E. Burnside, and the Ninth Army Corps. By AUGUSTUS WOODBURY. Illustrated with Portraits and Maps. Providence, 1867.

As chaplain of the First Rhode-Island Regiment, the author had abundant opportunity of becoming acquainted with General Burnside, who entered the military service of the war as colonel of that regiment; was afterward invested with the charge of a brigade; then received, in acknowledgment of his brilliant services, the commission of major-general of volunteers; and was finally promoted to the chief command of the Army of the Potomac. Whatever may be thought of his management in this latter capacity, a position which was thrust upon him against his inclination, there can be but one opinion as to the soldierly and moral qualities of this distinguished officer, than whom the war evoked no purer patriot, no truer, nobler spirit. His merits and services are set forth by Mr. Woodbury with a friendly and admiring, but not unduly biassed, pen. Indeed the book, both in what relates to General Burnside and other officers, and in sketching the operations of the Ninth Army Corps, is eminently temperate and calm. It is the tone of the thoughtful, self-possessed historian, not that of the advocate or partisan. Due credit is given where credit is deserved. Failures and incompetence are not glossed over, but neither are they made the occasion of bitter invective. The record is instinct with manly, Christian sentiment, but remarkably free from morbid sentimentality.

The chief value of this work consists in the carefully studied, thoroughly comprehended, and luminously described, operations and achievements, -the marches, sieges, battles, captures, of the war,so far as the Ninth Army Corps had part in them; and that corps was concerned in many of the most important. The descriptions are illustrated with plans and maps, enabling the reader to form a correct and adequate idea of each operation. The roster of the corps is given in full, so far as practicable; and the whole is supplemented with a careful and minute index, without which no work of the kind is. complete.

It is a thorough piece of work; and all who but glance at these pages, especially all who have had experience in book-making, will appreciate the labor and pains it must have cost. We congratulate Mr. Woodbury on having accomplished so arduous a task, and we cordially recommend his work to all who are interested in studying the details of the most gigantic struggle for national existence against treason and rebellion which history records.

F. H. H.



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