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3. Shenvi Brahman.

4. Vánia.

5. Prabhu.

6. Koli.

7. Chitpávan Brahman.

8. Kunbi.

9. Marátha.

10. Mahar.

It will be seen that in the first of these groups a low cephalic index is shared by the Mahar, one of the lowest castes of the Presidency, with the Deshasth and Chitpávan Brahmans. This is, at least, disconcerting. The Mahar would not be expected in such strange company. Again, in the case of the nasal index, to which Risley at one time attached so much importance as to hazard the theory that a man's social status would be found to vary in inverse ratio to the mean relative width of his nose, We find the lead rightly taken by three Brahman eastes, which are followed by Váni and Parbhu. After that, the classification is very suspicious. The Koli is found above the Chitpávan Brahman, the Marátha Kunbi above the Deshasth Brahman; and both of these are higher in the scale than the Marátha. It is impossible, from the known facts, to find any satisfactory explanation of these two lists of precedence. Mahars and Kolis must be as typical representatives of the early types in the Presidency as can well be found. Yet these measurements give them a place close to the Brahmans and even above the Deshasth. The Marátha is found below, the Koli and the Mahar in cephalic measurement, and placed below the Koli by nasal index. His history and social position would lead to the expectation that the position should be reversed. Unfortunately, it has not been found possible, owing to the with

drawal of financial support from the Survey, to pursue these enquiries and test the recorded data by making additional measurements for each selected caste, or by measuring other typical castes not included in the scope of Risley's observations. This might have thrown some further light on the very curious results already recorded. If any theory at all is to be based on the Risley tables it would seem to be that the tribes and castes of the Bombay Presidency are much more closely connected, racially, from the highest to the lowest, than history, tradition, customs and appearance have hitherto led us to suppose.

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During the progress of the Survey the Superintendent has automatically become a tribunal for settling questions regarding caste status and precedence. The circulation of draft monographs has resulted in claims from the Pancháls to be classed as Vishva Brahmans, the Sonars as Daivadhnya Brahmans, the Vadvals as Somavanshi Kshatriyas. Savashe Brahmans, hitherto classed as degraded on the authority of the gazetteer account, have established their claim to a superior status equal to that of other Deshasths. Kudaldeshkar Brahmans have appealed unsuccessfully against the place allotted to them among the Sárasvats. Mánbhavs have been found to be entirely distinct from the degraded caste of Mangs with which they were formerly connected. A mass of documents have been brought forward and examined in connection with these various claims. It is probably too much to expect that the Superintendent's decision will meet with universal acceptance. The decisions, however, have been the result of much careful study.

The records of the Survey are now going through the Press, and the first volume will shortly be available to the public. It is hoped that, following on this Indian Edition of which the most interesting results have been summarized in a brief introductory note, it will be possible later to issue an English Edition in which, if leisure permits, the full results of the Survey may be treated in detail in a separate volume.



(Read on 23rd November 1920 ).

The practice of crooning lullabies for the purpose of lulling babies to sleep, and of singing or reciting nursery-rhymes for hushing them to quiet and stillness, has been in vogue in all countries and in all ages. These lullabies and nursery-rhymes embody many ethnographical and, sometimes, historical facts. It is, for this reason, that the study thereof is not only interesting but also important.

It is my intention to publish, in the following pages, the texts in Devanagari characters, and the English translations (with some notes), of four lullabies and three nursery-rhymes which are current in the district of Pabna in Eastern Bengal. The texts in Bengali Script of these seven cradle-songs have been printed at pages 200-202 of Vol. XIV (for 1314 B. S. ) of the Bängiya-Sahitya-Parishat-Patrikā (The Journal of the Academy of Bengali Literature of Calcutta.)


I shall, first of all, deal with the lullabies of Pabna. They are four in number and are as follows:


१. माणे घुमालो पाड़ा जुड़ालो बगीं आल दयाशे ।

२. ढीयाय धान खाइल खाजना देवो किसे ॥



1. (My) jewel (like baby) has fallen asleep. The neighbourhood (of my house, which had been disturbed by my baby's squalling,) is now still and quiet. The Bargis (or the Mahratta freebooters) have invaded (lit., come to) the countryside (in order to levy blackmail).

2. The parrakeets have eaten (my) paddy.

How shall

(I) pay the impost (levied by the Mahratta freebooters) ?


This lullaby or cradle-song embodies an important historical fact, namely, that, during the ascendancy of the Peshwas, hordes of Mahrattā freebooters used annually to invade Bengal, and, after harrying and plundering the countryside, used to earry away a large, quantity of booty to the Deccan.

So terrible were the depredations committed by these Bargis or Mahrattā freebooters that the people of Bengal did not forget the same for a long time afterwards and have preserved the memory thereof, even their lullabies and cradle-songs. A vivid account of the ravages committed by them has been recorded by an old Bengali poet named Gangārāmā in his manuscript poem entitled :-" Maharashtra Pürana" which was brought to light a few years ago. It was composed by him in 1158 B. S., corresponding to circ. 1751 A.D. This interesting historical document has been recently published by the BängiyaSahitya-Parishat (The Academy of Bengali Literature) of Calcutta in its Patrika or Journal Vol. XIII (published in 1313 B. S.), pages 193-236. It narrates how, in 1740 A.D., Räghuji Bhonsla, Rājā of Nagpur, sent his Dewan Bhäskara to invade Bengal for the purpose of collecting the Chauth or one-fourth of the revenues of Bengal, which had not been paid to him during the previous two years on account of the rebellion of Ali Vardikhan. This invasion of Bengal took place for the following reason. When Räghuji Bhonsla represented to Mahammad Shah the then Emperor of Delhi that he had not received the Chauth for 2 years the latter accorded him permission to go to Bengal and collect the same himself.

This poem describes in vivid language how, on the coming of the Bargis or the Mahratta freebooters, the panic-stricken people of the countryside fled from their native villages, how the pregnant women, being unable to walk any further in the

course of their flight gave birth to children on the roadways; how the marauding freebooters murdered the flying villagers and pillaged and ravaged their deserted homesteads and villages; and how they ravished the pretty-looking women whom they could get hold of.

Then I come to the second and third lullabies, the texts of which are given below :


१. निदाशुनी दाशुमणि गाछेरइ पाथोरा ।
२. षष्ठीत नाय निद् याय षष्टीरइ नफोरा |
३. बांसव्याशाले निद् याय बिडाल कुकुर ।
४. रान्नाघरे निद् याय बान्नून्या ठाकुर ।
५. मायेर कोने घोम् याय पबोन ठाकुर ||
६. बड़ घरे निद याय राजार बिटी राणी |
७. खाटपालने निद् याय सोणार यादुमणि ||
१. घोम आ'नरे कोकनमणि गाछेरइ पाताय,
२. षष्ठतिलाय निद् याय षष्टीरइ नफोरा ।
३. राजार बाड़ी घोम याय दिब्बिहाती घोड़ा ||
४. छाइ मुड़ि दिया निद् याय घोपार कुकुर |

५. आमार बाड़ी घोम याय गोपाल ठाकुर ||


( II.)

1. 0 Nidāsuni ! 0 Dāsumani (you are) like the young and tender leaf (or blossom ) of the tree.

2. ( You, being) the servant of Shashthi (the goddess of children) are sleeping at the shrine of Shashthi.

3. The cats and the dogs are sleeping at the place where fishes are cleaned and dressed (before cooking).

4. Bānnünyā Thakura is sleeping in the kitchen-room.

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