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a true believer of either sex, when Allah and His apostle have decreed a thing, that they should have the liberty of choosing a different matter of their own.'454 Subsequently they agreed to the marriage, and therefore his lordship the refuge of prophecy gave away Zaynab in marriage to Zayd, presenting her with a dowry of ten dinârs of gold, sixty dirhems of silver, a coif,455 a wrapper, a garment, fifty mauns of wheat, and thirty measures of dates. During one year and more Zayd lived amicably with his wife, but after that time he said: 'O apostle of God, I divorce your aunt's daughter.' 456 Although his lordship knew by Divine revelation that Zaynab was to be enrolled among the mothers of the Faithful, he nevertheless said to Zayd: 'Take care of yourself and fear your Creator.' Zayd therefore cohabited a few days more with his wife, but divorced her at last. When, however, the 'det57 had elapsed, the prophet-bl., etc.-said during the month Dhu-l-qa'dah, in the fifth year after the exile [A.D. 626], to Zayd: 'Go and ask Zaynab in marriage for myself.' Zayd obeyed, but Zaynab said: 'I can give no reply until I have consulted my Creator.' Accordingly she retired to a corner and addressed her orisons to the courts of the Bountiful Granter of all good gifts, and prayed as follows: 'O God, Thy apostle intends to wed me. If I be worthy of him, them marry me to him.' The arrow of this request having hit the target of response, the following verse was revealed: 'But when Zayd had determined the matter concerning her [and had resolved to divorce her], we joined her in marriage unto thee; lest a crime should be [charged] on the true believers in [marrying] the wives of their adopted [sons] when they have determined the matter concerning them.' 458 On that occasion his lordship the refuge of

454 Qurân, ch. xxxiii. 36.

455 Coif made of fine linen about two cubits long, open in front. 456 These words he is said to have uttered for fear of the prophet, who accidentally happened to see Zaynab alone and in undress.

457 The Y'det is when it is unlawful to have intercourse with a woman, namely, when she is in mourning for the death of her husband, or divorced, or menstruous.

458 Qurân, ch. xxxiii., part of ver. 37.

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prophecy brought honorification to the house of Zaynab without previously causing his advent to be announced, whereon Zaynab exclaimed: 'O apostle of God, without a proposer and without a witness?' His lordship, however, rejoined: God celebrates our marriage, and Jebrâil will be our witness.' Then he ordered food and a banquet to be prepared, and the people ate till they were filled with meat and bread. On the same day also the verse of the 'Veil' was revealed, as is related in detail in voluminous books. Zaynab died in the twelfth year after the exile, and Fârûq the greater459-A. r. h.-held prayers over her. She died at the age of fifty years, and was interred in the Baqyi' cemetery.


Her name was Barrah, but his lordship the best of men changed it to Jaubaryah. She was the daughter of Alhâreth B. Dharâr B. Habyb B. A'abed B. Mâlek B. Khozaymah Khozaa'yah. Jaubaryah was first the wife of Dhu-sh-shafar B. Mosâfi' B. Ssafuwân, who was slain in the campaign of Marsyi', and the prophet-bl., etc.— married her during the month of Ramadzân of the sixth year after the exile [A.D. 627]. Jaubaryah died at Madinah in the year 55 or 56 [A.D. 674 or 675], and Merwân B. Alhukm prayed over her body. According to the tradition of Ebn Jauzi, her age was sixty-five years, but the true knowledge is with Allah.


According to one tradition her name was Ramlah, and according to another Hinda. Her mother was Ssofyah, the paternal aunt of O'thmân-m. A. r. h.-the Commander of the Faithful. She was the daughter of Abu-l-a'ass B. Ommyah B. A'bdu-sh-shams. Omm Habybah had made a profession of the Faith in the beginning of Islâm, and was married to A'bdullah B. Jahash Asdy, with whom

459 I.e., O'mar, who became Khalifah.

she lived several years, and also emigrated with him to Abyssinia. She had a daughter by him, but towards the end of his life A'bdullah became an apostate, professed Christianity, and died in his errors in Abyssinia. During the sixth year after the exile [A.D. 627] the best of men wrote a letter to the Najjâshy460 requesting him to inform Omm Habybah that he desired to marry her. The Najjâshy explained the contents of that agreeable letter to Omm Habybah, and told her to appoint a deputy, whereon she named Khâled B. Sa'yd, through whom the Najjashy married her, by proxy, to the lord of prophecy, in the presence of Ja'fer T'tayyâr461—m. A. r. h.--who was als one of the refugees of Abyssinia; and having granted her the sum of four hundred gold dinârs, or of four thousand silver dirhems, he paid that amount down during the ceremony, and despatched Omm Habybah, with Shorahbil and a number of Abyssinian refugees for her attendants, to his lordship the refuge of prophecy-b., etc.-and in the seventh year of the exile [A.D. 628] she was exalted to the company of his prophetic lordship. Her death took place during the reign of Moa'awiah, in the year 42 or 44 [A.D. 663 or 665], in the city of Madinah, and Merwân held prayers over her body; but according to others she died in Syria.


She was a Jewess of the Bani Nadzyr, of the tribe Aaron -to whom salutation-and her mother was Dharr, the daughter of Samuel. Ssofyah was first the wife of Sollam, s. of Mashkam, and a separation having taken place between them, Kunânah B. Rabyi' B. Abu-l-haqyq married her, but was slain in the battle of Khayber, and Ssofyah became a prisoner of war. The best of men-b., etc.-however liberated and married her. Having given her the price of her liberation for her marriage-portion, he consummated the wedding in the station called Ssoban. When she became the spouse of the lord of prophecy she was 460 Negus of Abyssinia. 461 Flying Ja'fer.

seventeen years old, and, according to the author of the Guzidah, she died A.H. 36; but according to others A.H. 50 or 52. She was buried in the Baqyi' cemetery.

MAYMUNAH, Daughter of AlhâRETH—M. A. R. H.'

Her name was first Barrah, but the best of men-b., etc.—changed it to Maymûnah. She was the daughter of Alhâreth B. Hazan B. Bahyr B. Enhazam B. Rubah B. A'bdullah B. Hallâl B. A'mer B. Ssa'ssa'h. Her mother, Hinda, was the daughter of A'wuf B. Zohayr B. Alhâreth, of the tribe Hemyar, but others say of the tribe Konânah.

Hinda was considered to be the happiest old woman on earth, because God the Most High had vouchsafed her a son-in-law of high station. She had first two daughters by Hâreth: Maymûnah and Ommu-l-fadzl, the former being married to the prince of the worldb., etc. and the latter to A'bbâs-A. r. h. By A'mys Khasha'y, who was her second husband, Hinda had also other daughters, one of whom was Asmâ, the first wife of Ja'fer B. Abu Ttâleb, afterwards married to Ssiddyq the greater462-A. r. them both-but when the Commander of the Faithful Abu Bakr died, she was married to [A'li] the sovereign of all virtues. Zaynab, another daughter of Hinda, whom she had by A'mys, was wedded by the Amir Hamzah, the prince of martyrs—A. r. h.—and Solmah, yet another daughter by the same husband, was given in marriage to Sadad B. Alhadâd.

In short, during the time of ignorance,463 Maymûnah was married to Masu'd B. A'mru Saqfy, but after they had separated it happened that Abu-dirham, or A'bdu-l-u'zza, or Sarab, the son of Abu-dirham, or A'bdu-1-layl, the son of A'mru, married her. After the decease of her second husband, Maymûnah was, however, in consequence of her propitious destiny, in the seventh year after the exile [A.D. 629], exalted to the happiness of becoming the spouse of his lordship the prophet-b., etc.-who consummated the 462 Abu Bakr, the successor of Muhammad. 463 Namely, before the promulgation of Islâm.

marriage on his return from the O'mratu-l-qadzà [the decreed pilgrimage] in the noble habitation of Maymûnah ; but she died likewise in the same place, and was buried there, according to the author of the Guzidah. That event, however, took place in the year 38 [A.D. 658], and according to another tradition in 61 [A.D. 681]. If, therefore, the last tradition be correct, Maymûnah must have been the last of the mothers of the Faithful who died, and not Omm Solmah; the knowledge, however, is with the Most High and Holy.


The prince of divinely inspired messengers-b., etc.had four concubines. The first was Mâryah the Coptess, daughter of Shima'ûn, whom Maqoqush the governor [of Alexandria] had sent by way of gift to his lordship the best of men-b., etc.-who made use of her in the kingdom of Yemen [sic], and begat with her Ebrâhim. The death

of Maryah took place during the time of the Khalifate of the Commander of the Faithful O'mar—-A. r. h.-in the year 16 [A.D. 637], and she was buried in the Baqyi' cemetery.

Secondly Rayhânah, who was a captive from among the Bani Nadzyr, or the Bani Qorytt; and the prophet-b., etc. -selected her for his own portion, leaving her the option to make a profession of Islam or to remain in her own religion; Rayhânah, however, preferred to become a Musalmân, and his lordship made use of her in the kingdom of Yemen [sic]. There is, however, a tradition that in the Muharram of the sixth year of the exile [A.D. 627] he liberated her and married her, which assertion Wâqidy has accepted, but A'bdu-l-barr and others have reckoned her among the number of concubines. According to one tradition she died during the year of the Hajjatu-l-wodaa' [pilgrimage of valediction], but according to another in the time of the Khalifate of O'mar; the first, however, is more correct. Allah is most knowing and wise!

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