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to prayers; but during the three days of the sojourn of the professors of Islâm in Mekkah, Ballal had been only once ordered to do so. After the three stipulated days had elapsed, Sohayl B. A'mru and Hoyttab B. A'bdu-l-u'zza went on the fourth day to that prince, and said: 'The time appointed for thy stay has expired. Depart, therefore, from our country.' His lordship replied: 'How would it be if you were to allow me to celebrate my wedding with Maymûnah among you, and to give you a banquet?' They replied: We have need neither of thee nor of thy food, O Muhammad. We adjure thee by Allah and by our treaty to leave our country.' Sa'd B. A'bâdah, who was present, felt aggrieved by the incivility of Sohayl and Hoyttab, saying to the former: Thou hast lied. Mayest thou have no mother. For this country belongs neither to thee nor to thy father, and we shall not leave it, except by our own good pleasure.' The apostle of God smiled, quieted Sa'd, ordering at the same time notice of the departure to be given, and prohibiting any of the companions to remain that night in Mekkah. His lordship accordingly started towards Madinah, but left his freed slave, Abu Ráfi, in the sanctuary, to convey his spouse Maymûnah after him to Madinah.

It is related that Omm Ommârah, daughter of Hamzah, the prince of martyrs-u. w. b.-was with her mother, Omm Solmah, living in the noble city of Mekkah, her birthplace. The lord Aʼli—u. w. b.-spoke to his lordship the apostle as follows with reference to her: Why should we depart and leave the daughter of our uncle Hamzah among the idolaters? We ought to place her in the howdah of Fattimah and take her to Madinah.' This was done; but when they arrived in Madinah a dispute arose between A'li-u. w. b.-and Ja'fer and Zayd B. Hârethah because each of them desired to be her protector. Zayd B. Hârethah, who was the executor of Hamzah, said: 'She is my cousin,' because when the Mohâjer entered into a league brotherhood was established between Hamzah and Zayd. Then Ja'fer said: Omm Ommârah is my uncle's

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daughter, and her aunt is in my house.' A'li said: 'She is the daughter of my uncle, and Fattimah, the darling of his lordship, is in my house; and she is the most worthy to take care of Omm Ommârah, especially as I am the cause of her having been brought from Mekkah.' The justnamed three blessed individuals came to high words, and quarrelled so loudly that they awakened his holy and prophetic lordship-u. w. b.-from sleep, and he spoke as follows after he had been apprised of the subject of their contention: 'I shall judge between you;' and considering the position of each of them, he first said to A'li: art mine, and I am thine.' To Ja'fer he said: "Thou resemblest my nation and my nature.' To Zayd he said: 'Thou art our brother and our freed man.' Then he spoke to Ja'fer as follows: Thou art the fittest to keep Omm Ommârah, because her aunt is in thy house, and an aunt is in the place of a mother.' He added: Marry not a woman whose paternal or maternal aunt is already thy wife.' At these words Ja'fer rejoiced so much that he began hopping on one leg round the apostle of God, who asked him for the reason of such a proceeding; whereon Ja'fer replied: 'O apostle of God, a person whom thou hast made glad is cutting these antics!'

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In this year [i.e., the seventh of the Flight] his lordship the refuge of termination sent a letter to Khaylah B. Abham, who was the last of the Ghusân kings in Syria, inviting him to profess Islâm, and he complied as soon as he had become acquainted with the [contents of the] exalted epistle. He also wrote a reply and sent gifts to his lordship, and was still a professor during the Khalifate of Fârûq the greater [i.e., Omar]. In those days he once came to circumambulate the Ka'bah, but for a reason which will also be recorded in this volume he fled from Madinah, apostatized and joined the Byzantine emperor. During this year Qowdah B. A'mru Judhâmy, who was the first-named emperor's governor at O'mmân, in the Bulgarian country, also became a Musalmân, and having written a letter to his lordship, he gave it to an attendant, Masu'd

B. Sa'yd by name, who also carried presents from him to Madinah. When this epistle reached the august assembly his lordship ordered it to be read, and the contents thereof were as follows: 'I have made the profession of the Faith and confessed the unity of God. I know thee to be the same true prophet whose advent was predicted by I'sa [Jesus], the son of Maryam. Farewell!' Farewell!' When the apostle of God received this information he showed much kindness and respect to Masu'd, ordered Ballâl to take him to his own house and to prepare a repast for him. The presents of Qowdah consisted of a white mule, a tunic of brocade embroidered with gold, etc., which his lordship accepted, and sent him the following reply: 'Muhammad, the apostle of Allah, to Qowdah B. A'mru. But after [the usual compliments I say]: Thy envoy has arrived, has brought thy gifts, and has informed us of thy good health. Verily Allah has pointed out to thee the right way. If thou followest it, obey God and His prophet, observe the appointed times of prayer, and pay the Dzakát!' [i.e., legal alms]. Then he ordered Ballâl to give five hundred dirhems to the envoy and dismissed him. Let it not remain hidden that historians consider Qowdah to have become Governor of Syria after the demise of Hâreth B. Abu Shammar Ghusány, and that the latter died in the eighth year after the Flight. According to this statement it would appear that Qowdah had become a Musalmân in the eighth year or after it. As, however, biographers [considered more reliable] have stated that Qowdah professed Islâm before the eighth year, the author of this work has followed them, although this discrepancy cannot be reconciled. Allah, however, is most wise.

In this year his lordship the refuge of the apostolateu. w. b.-appointed A'bdullah B. Ruâhah over a detachment of troops and sent him to Aa'm. In that expedition also Abu Qotâdah and Muhkum B. Kutâmah were present. During the march they met A'amer Allassant Allashja'y, who had made his profession of the Faith, and was going to wait upon his lordship the apostle of God. When he

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met the companions he saluted them like a professor of Islâm, but they gave no reply, and Muhkum slew him. When this news reached his lordship the best of men, and Muhkum was admitted to the honour of kissing his feet, his lordship reproached him, saying: Why hast thou killed a Musalmân?' Muhkum replied: Because A'amer had feigned to be a Musalmân to escape death.' His lordship continued: 'Hast thou slit open his heart and ascertained his intention and will? The tongue is the interpreter and ambassador of the heart.' The apostle of God then cursed Muhkum, who surrendered his life to the grasper of souls after the expiration of one hour. After he had been interred he was thrown out of his grave, which having happened thrice, the people at last concealed his body under stones, whereon his lordship said: 'The earth covers worse men than Muhkum, but God the Most High wanted to show you the esteem in which he holds martyrs [such as A'amer].'

THE EVENTS OF THE EIGHTH YEAR AFTER THE FLIGHT OF THE LORD OF PROPHECY-U. W. B.357

According to all the biographers, Khâled B. Alwolyd and A'mru B. Ala'ass and Ttolhah B. Ttolhah Ala'bdary were during this year adorned with the decoration of the Faith. Khâled says that at the time when the apostle of God had proceeded to Mekkah with the intention of performing the visitation, and had arrived in Ghusân, the Qoraish issued from the sanctuary for the purpose of repelling him, and had also arrived in that locality. One day I saw the apostle of God holding the prayers of fear with his companions, and although I desired to injure them [i.e., the Musalmans] on that occasion, and was unable to do so, I knew that the Almighty was the protector and defender of the apostle and of his friends, that he would soon vanquish his opponents, and would be granted the victory.'

It is related in the Raudzatu-l-âhbâb that there is a tradition of Khâled B. Wolyd wherein he is said to have 357 Began May 1, 629 A.D.

VOL. II.

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spoken as follows: When the eternal decree, predestined by Allah that I should become a Musalmân, was to be fulfilled, He inspired me with love for the professors of Islâm, but especially on the day when the prophet was holding the prayer of fear on his march to Hodaybiah in the station of Ghuttfân. I desired to get him into my power, and, being unable to succeed, I knew that he was protected by Divine grace, and that he would soon overpower us. When peace had been concluded between us and him, I apprehended that power and dignity had departed from the Qoraish, but I could not go to the Najjâshy [Negus of Abyssinia] because he had become a follower of Muhammad; accordingly I conceived the intention to betake myself to Heraclius and to make a profession of the Christian or the Jewish religion.' The writer of these pages says that as Khâled B. Wolyd knew that whoever uttered the formula of monotheism gained the favour of Allah and the apostle, and that the line of forgiveness and oblivion would be drawn over the record of his transgressions, he ought, after love for the professors of Islâm had prevailed in his heart, immediately to have waited upon the apostle of God and uttered the profession of the Faith, without intending to go to Heraclius, or vacillating between the adoption of the Christian or the Jewish religion; and therefore the tradition is more credible wherein no allusion occurs to the love he bore towards the professors of Islâm during the time of ignorance. The [true] knowledge, however, is with Allah.

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In short, Khâled says: When I thought of going to Heraclius, I again considered whether I ought not to remain in our own country, to see what would come forth from the curtain of futurity. On that occasion the apostle of God was marching to Mekkah to hold the predestined visitation (O'mratu-l-qadzá). I absented myself, but my brother Wolyd B. Alwolyd, who had arrived in Mekkah with his lordship the apostle of God, was searching for me; as, however, he was unable to find me, he sent me a letter with the information that his holy and prophetic lordship

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