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morsel of it, then said: 'O apostle of God, while I was chewing it I felt disgust and aversion, but I was unwilling to spit it out, lest I might displease thee.' And before Bashar rose from the meal his complexion changed to black, and after lingering in bad health for one year he departed this life, but according to another tradition he died immediately. The apostle of God then ordered Zaynab and the chiefs of the Jews to be produced, and when they arrived, he asked: Will you tell me the truth if I question you?' They replied: 'Yes.' Then he asked: 'Who was your ancestor ?' They answered: Such and such a man.' He rejoined: You lie; for your ancestor was so and so.' When the Jews confessed that he had spoken the truth, his lordship continued: Have you put any poison into this kid ?' Zaynab replied: Yes; I have done it.' His lordship asked: What was the reason for such a proceeding?' Zaynab replied: "Thou hast killed my father, my uncle and my husband. I therefore said to myself: "If thy claim to prophecy be false, the people will be delivered of thee; and if it be true God the Most High and Glorious will inform thee of this matter, and no harm will befall thee." Some allege that the apostle of God pardoned Zaynab, but others state that he killed her and afterwards ordered her to be crucified. The author of the Raudzatu-l-ahbab also relates that Bashar was sick one year and then died, as well as that there are two traditions concerning Zaynab, according to one of which the prophet forgave, and according to the other he slew her, ordering her afterwards to be crucified. Some U'lamâ give credit to the narrative that she was forgiven, and others that she was killed. Others, again, endeavour to reconcile the two traditions by asserting that the prophet did not kill her for his own sake, as his lordship's custom was never to avenge his personal wrongs on anyone, but that as Bashar B. Abarâ died by her act, he had her slain; and this is also the opinion of the author of the Raudzatu-l-âhbâb.

It is related that fifteen Musalmâns perished in the siege of Khayber, and that ninety-three Jews departed to hell.

The prophet spared the lives of all the other Jews, but ordered them to emigrate. The inhabitants of Khayber represented, however, with tears and lamentations, that the professors of Islam would stand in need of men for the cultivation of their gardens and fields. They then offered to work as hirelings in the just-mentioned pursuits without meddling at all with the government. His holy and prophetic lordship accordingly took pity on them, and ordered them to cultivate the fields and vineyards of that region on condition of paying one-half of the proceeds thereof into the public treasury, and retaining the other half for their wages.

Chroniclers of biographies and of traditions relate that at the time of the victory of Khayber, Hajjaj B. Khulâss Solmy, who was noted for his large property and great wealth, arrived from his tribe for commercial purposes, and had the honour of waiting upon his lordship the apostle; and the padlock of carelessness, fixed on the aperture of the casket of his heart, having been opened with the key of [Divine] guidance, he made his profession of the Faith. Having been received among the adherents of the prophet, he spoke as follows: 'I have a great deal of property among the Mekkans, and with my wife Shaybah. If they become aware of my having professed Islâm, I shall not be able to get one farthing from them. I therefore crave permission quickly to depart to that country, and to be allowed to say what I like, so as to be enabled to collect my outstandings by hook and by crook.' The prophet granted his request, and exclaimed: Say whatever thou listest." Hajjaj says: When I departed from Khayber, and, after traversing the distance, arrived in Radzyah Baydzâ, I encountered a number of the Qoraish, who made inquiries concerning the affairs of the apostle of God, and when they perceived me they exclaimed: "Lo, Hajjaj has come!" Turning to me, they asked: "We have heard that yonder brigand went to Khayber. Hast thou any news about him ?" I replied: "I possess tidings full of joy and gladness for you." They continued: "What are they?" I

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said: "Muhammad and his companions have suffered a grievous defeat, so that some of his friends were killed and some captured. Muhammad himself is a prisoner, and the inhabitants of Khayber have said, 'We must not kill him here, but must convey him to Mekkah, so that we and the Qoraish may there retaliate upon him for our slain comrades.' I have therefore quickly come to the sanctuary to bring you this piece of information, to collect my property, and again to depart to Khayber, in order to forestall the merchants of this place, who will also go there to purchase the nice clothes and goods of the companions of Muhammad which have fallen into the possession of the inhabitants of Khayber. I shall make purchases and rejoice at the profits I will get." Hajjaj continues: When those men had heard what I said, they went to Mekkah, shouting: "O family of Ghâleb, Muhammad has been humbled and captured. He is to be brought to Mekkah to suffer death, that we may be consoled." It is related that after this rumour had spread, Hajjaj requested the idolaters to aid him in the collection of his outstandings among the people. The Qoraish were so glad that they complied with his request, and he recovered all that was due to him and had been scattered among the people, as well as the property that was with his wife. It is related that when the Musalmans of Mekkah heard this news they crouched down on the sackcloth of mourning, becoming depressed, sad, and miserable. In fact, they were amazed and confounded, and A'bbâs B. A'bd-ul-Muttalleb was totally unable to move; but for fear the enemies might become aware of his distress, he ordered the door of his mansion to be left open, and induced Fatham, who was noted for his beautiful voice, to declaim Rajaz poetry aloud, so that any Musalmâns happening to pass by, and hearing this voice, made haste to wait on A'bbâs and to assemble around him. When they had seen him quite joyous and pleased, their minds were comforted. At the same time A'bbàs despatched one of his slaves to Hajjâj with the following question: What dreadful news is being bandied about as brought by thee? No

doubt the promise of the Most High and Glorious is more valid than thy assertions.' Hajjâj said to the slave: Convey my salutations to A'bbás, and tell him that affairs are progressing in conformity with the wishes of his friends. Tell him also that I shall pay him a visit at noon, and bring him news that will rejoice him; but it will be necessary to clear his house of friends as well of strangers, because the secret I have to communicate to him is not to be overheard by anyone.' As a reward for this good news, A'bbâs manumitted the slave and made a vow to manumit ten more, for the purpose of seeking thereby to approach the Lord of Glory. Hajjaj went, according to his promise, to the house of A'bbâs, and having informed him of his own profession of Islam, as well as about the Jews at Khayber, continued: 'I have spread that dismal news by the permission of the lord of apostleship-u. w. b.—that I may recover my property.' It is related that first of all Hajjaj caused A'bbâs to swear an oath to keep the news secret till three days had elapsed after his departure, and not to reveal it to anyone. Then Hajjaj took leave, and started that very night to Madinah. When three days had expired, A'bbâs donned a fine robe, perfumed himself, and halted at the gate of the dwelling of Hajjâj, whose wife he informed of the real state of affairs. Then he betook himself to the mosque of the sanctuary, and joyfully walked round it. When the idolaters perceived A'bbas in this state they conversed with each other, and were astonished at his alertness. The Qoraish said to him: 'O Abu-l-fadzl,352 by this promptitude thou desirest to conceal the fire of grief for Muhammad's defeat which is burning thy heart.' A'bbâs replied: Such is not the case. I swear by God that Muhammad has conquered Khayber, has totally vanquished the clan of Abu-l-haqyq, has plundered the goods of the Jews, and has taken their women and children into captivity. Hajjaj has deceived you for the purpose of collecting his property.' The Qoraish asked: Where hast thou heard these words ?' He replied: From the same 352 Father, i.e., possessor of excellence.

informant who has rejoiced you with his news?' These words distressed the infidels, but gladdened the professors of Islâm, and five days after the departure of Hajjâj the victory of Khayber had become generally known. The Qoraish were dismayed and sorry that Hajjaj had departed unscathed, and inconceivable terror overwhelmed the enemies on account of the victory of Khayber.

THE PEACE OF FADAK.

When his holy and prophetic lordship—u. w. b.—arrived near Khayber he despatched Makhyssah B. Masu'd to Fadak, which was one of the outermost forts of Khayber, to invite its garrison to surrender, and if they refused to do so to threaten them [with annihilation]. Makhyssah executed the order, and the people replied: 'A'mer, Yâser, Hâreth, and Sind, the Jews, are stationed in Natzârah with ten thousand combatants, and we think Muhammad will not be able to cope with them.' When Makhyssah perceived that the people of Fadak were not inclined for peace, he desired to return after a stay of two days. The Jews, however, said: Remain till we consult our chiefs and send a number of them with thee to Muhammad, that the carpet of pacification may be spread out, and the foundations of tranquillity may be laid.' Meanwhile, however, those people heard how the garrison of Naa'm had been slain, and they were so frightened thereby that they said to Makhyssah: Keep secret whatever we have told thee about the inhabitants of Khayber and Muhammad, and we shall give thee all the trinkets of our women.' After he had complied with their request they sent one of their chiefs, called Nûn B. Yusha', with a number of Jews, to his prophetic lordship to negotiate for peace, which was, according to some, concluded on the understanding that their lives would be spared, but their property confiscated. The majority of biographers have, however, recorded in their writings that peace was granted them after a long parley on condition of surrendering one half of their lands to the apostle of God and keeping the other for themselves.

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