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the day, until he arrived on that route in a place called Hajûn, where that Commander of the Faithful happened to meet one of the idolaters, and interrogated him concerning the opponents. That man replied: 'I shall guide you to them on condition that you grant me quarter.' His request having been complied with, he fulfilled his promise and led the Musalmâns to the Bani Sa'd, who, however, fled, but five hundred camels with two thousand sheep fell into the hands of the Musalmâns. A'li B. Abu Tâlebu. w. b. then selected a few good camels for the special use of his lordship. He also separated one-fifth [of the spoils], distributing the rest among them, and returned victoriously, arriving sound and safe in Madinah.


There is a tradition of Solman B. Al-akwa' that he said: 'I was with Rabaa', the freed man of the apostle of God. We were coming out from Madinah, and I was riding the horse of Abu Ttolhah, the Anssâri, when all of a sudden at the break of dawn A'bdu-r-rahman B. O'tbah B. Hossyn Qorây arrived on the pasturage of the milk-camels of his lordship the apostle of God, killed the camel-driver and stole the camels. I gave the horse to Rabaa' to ride to Madinah in order to inform the apostle of God of this event. Then I mounted a hillock, and shouted thrice: "Ya Ssabahah!" I then pursued the idolaters with the sharp sword and the quiver of arrows I had. When I came near them I shot arrows at them, and every arrow I discharged wounded one of them. In that plain there were many trees, and whenever a rider attacked me I crouched down behind one of them, and kept him off by wounding him with an arrow. Sometimes I ascended the mountains and threw stones and shot arrows at them. Matters went on thus between me and the opponents until I had distressed them in such a manner that they were under the necessity of abandoning the camels of the apostle of God, which I drove to Madinah, and then again pursued those men,

whom I so harassed with my arrows that they threw away their spears and cloaks to engage my attention, and so hinder me from continuing my attacks. In that emer

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gency a number of infidels came to the rescue of their people and were approaching. I, however, all of a sudden caught sight of Huzâm Asdy and Abu Qotâdah and Moqdâd Aswad Kundy, with other cavaliers who belonged to the vanguard of the apostle of God's army appearing among the trees. When the idolaters beheld the professors of Islâm they fled; Huzâm pursued them; I came down from the mountain, caught the bridle of his horse, and advised him to wait a little till the apostle of Allah arrived with his companions, but Huzâm replied: "O Moslamah, if thou believest in his lordship and in the day of the resurrection, thou knowest that paradise and hell are true. interfere between me and martyrdom." I accordingly let go my hold, whereon Huzâm ran to A'bdu-r-rahman B. O'tbah, whom he struck with his lance, but unsuccessfully; then the latter did the same to the former, made him a martyr, and took possession of his horse after alighting from his own. At that time Abu Qotâdah, the Anssâri, reached him, but A'bdu-r-rahman wounded Abu Qotâdah with his spear, whereon the latter killed the former with one thrust of his lance and wounded his horse. After A'bdu-r-rahman had been slain we pursued the enemy, who entered a pass containing a spring of water, called Dhu Qarwah. The idolaters first turned to the water to drink, but when they saw us approaching they passed it by in haste and fled, whereon I alone pursued that company till sunset, and having taken from them two other horses I returned. When I arrived in Dhu Qarwah I saw that the apostle of God had halted in that place with the army of Islâm, and that Ballâl, having slaughtered one of the camels was roasting a Kabab.325 I said: "O apostle of God, allow me to go with one hundred picked men in pursuit of the opponents, and not to leave one of them alive." That prince replied: "Wouldst thou do that?" I con325 Meat cut in pieces and dressed with onions, eggs, etc.

tinued: "I swear by that God who has exalted and honoured thee that I would do that." His lordship, however, smiled so that his august teeth [became visible and] shone brightly like fire, and he said: "O son of Akwa', be parsimonious when thou possessest," and, "An excellent man is lenient and more compassionate;" or, according to another tradition, the apostle of God said: "Now they are feasting in the tribe of Ghattafân." After that a man of the tribe arrived and said that one of the Bani Ghattafân had retained that company and slaughtered a camel, but when they were skinning it dust rose at a distance, which they took to be the army of Islâm, and fled. When it was morning, bis holy and prophetic lordship said: "To-day the best of our riders is Abu Qotâdah, and the best pedestrian Solmah." I accompanied the former until he took me behind him on his camel, and we returned to Madinah.' The author says that if the pen of explanation were to record every Sariah and every event, the account would become very lengthy and greatly enlarge this abridgment; wherefore he has considered it proper to omit some, will do so in future also, and will confine himself to the narratives of the more important events, if it pleaseth God the Most High.


It is related that in the sixth year after the Flight there happened to be a great famine and tremendous dearth in Madinah: The Musalmâns accordingly made haste to wait upon the prince of the world, and said: 'O apostle of God, the portals of abundance are closed, and the showers of mercy have ceased, so that great damage has befallen the fruit-trees; the cattle and other quadrupeds are perishing; and the people have fallen from comfort into misery, and from cheerfulness into distress. We beseech thee to ask the Bounteous Giver to refresh and to irrigate with the showers of His favour and goodness the garden of hopes of those who are wandering in the desert of exclusion.' Therefore the apostle of God ordered the people on a


certain day to take provisions with them and to accompany him to the desert, for the purpose of praying for rain. On the appointed day his lordship donned old garments and proceeded with all humility and solemnity to the spot, where he performed two flexions with prayers, not using the [customary] formality of calling the people to prayers through the Muedhdhin. During the first prayer-flexion he recited the chapter Praise the name of thy Most High Lord,'326 and during the second 'Hath the news of the overwhelming day [of judgment] reached thee ?'327 in a loud voice. When he had terminated his prayers he turned his face towards the companions, and inverted his pure Redâ, for a good omen, that famine might be changed to abundance and wealth. He raised his blessed hands and shouted one Takbir, uttering after that his prayer for rain with his wonderfully eloquent tongue. The narrator of this tradition says: We were yet in that place when a small cloud appeared on the sky, which unfolded itself, shedding abundant rain in such a manner that it never ceased during seven days and nights, after the expiration of which time the professors of Islam said: "O apostle of God, our goods are spoiled, our houses are falling to pieces, and intercourse between the people has ceased. Lift up thy hands in prayer, that the Lord and Creator cause the rain to cease and the world-illuminating sun to shine." His holy and prophetic lordship-u. w. b.-being astonished at the inconsistency of mankind, smiled so as to show his blessed molar teeth, and then, turning his exalted countenance to the Qiblah of prayer, said: "O God, rain for us, and not upon us. Rain] on the tops of hills and bottoms of valleys and the roots of plants." When his lordship had completed the prayers, the sky immediately cleared up, and Madinah was lit by the rays of the world-illuminating sun, so that in and around the city not one drop more fell.' It is related that when the apostle of God saw that it was [still] raining in the environs of Mekkah he laughed so [heartily] as to display 326 Qurân, ch. lxxxvii, 1. 327 lbid., ch. lxxxviii. 1.

his teeth, and said: 'May God the Most High reward Abu Tâleb, for if he were alive he would rejoice at the verses he had composed, and would possibly recite them to us likewise.' A'li B. Abu Tâleb said: 'O apostle of God, perhaps thou wantest these verses?' Then he began to recite the verses of Abu Tâleb, and some biographers state that their interpretation is as follows:

'God has given rain to us thirsty ones

To favour the prophet of genii and men ;
By it our orphans were fed,

By it our cattle were watered;

'The Bani Hâshem are under his protection,
They all wish for his exaltation and dignity.
In every battle Muhammad was victorious,
God aided him with conquest;

We shall never abandon him,

Even if we be killed around him.'

According to the statements of all biographers and historians, the circumambulation of the house of the Ka'bah became obligatory during this year, and in confirmation thereof they add that the blessed verse 'Perform the pilgrimage [of Mekkah] and the visitation of Allah '328 was revealed in the sixth year. The word 'perform' means 'to stay,' and not to complete.' Some, however, assert that it was made obligatory in the ninth year; but to discuss the claims [to credence] of these two parties is not suitable in this place.

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The relater of the tradition says that the apostle of God came out from Madinah and meant to go on pilgrimage, because he had dreamt that he was doing so, holding the key of the Ka'bah in his own blessed hand, whilst some of his companions were shaving their hair, others picking it up and sojourning in A'rafat. When he narrated the 32 Qurân, ch. ii. 192.

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