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that occasion O'thmân B. Mâlek encountered me, but I struck his breast with my poniard, and he shouted so loudly that all the people of Mekkah heard his voice. The attention of the inhabitants being concentrated upon him, they ceased to search for me, and I made use of the opportunity to hide myself in a cave, and then in another, where I saw a one-eyed man, who had led his sheep from the meridian sun into the shade. As he was reclining I heard him utter the words: "I shall not become a Moslem as long as I live; nor is the religion of the Musalmâns a good religion." He also spoke insulting words concerning the apostle; but I waited till he had fallen asleep, and then pressed one extremity of my bow on his sound eye, and I pressed it so strongly that it entered his brains. When I left the cave I met two Qoraish spies, one of whom I shot with an arrow so that he went to hell, and the other ran away. Both of us arrived safely, and we were honoured by being allowed to kiss the feet of the apostle of God.' When Abu Sofyan became aware of what had taken place, he took great precautions to preserve his life.


In the month of Dhu-l-hejjah, in the fifth year after the Flight, his holy and prophetic lordship despatched Abu O'baydah Jurrâh toward Sayfu-l-hajar, and in that expedition the provisions of the army consisted of dates. It is related that in the beginning each combatant was satisfied with one date per diem, but that at last the ration was reduced to half a date. When, however, they became much distressed, God the most high and glorious threw a fish from the sea upon the shore, the meat whereof nourished three hundred men during one month. In the Mostagadza there is a tradition of Jâber-m. A. r. h.-which is as follows: 'I passed with my camel under one of the ribs of the fish.'

Wâqidi says: 'When the provisions had been consumed in that expedition, Qays B. Sa'd B. A'bâdah asked: "Will anyone sell camels for dates on condition of obtaining them

immediately, and to be repaid [again for the camels] in dates at Madinah ?" O'mar B. Alkhattâb replied: "It is strange that this youth should stretch forth his hand against the property of his father, he possessing none himself." But Qays replied insultingly to Fârâq [i.e., to O'mar]: "My father causes pedestrians to ride, and fills the hungry. How could he refuse to pay a debt which I contract in the cause of those who are combating for the religion?" Thereon Qays purchased from a man for five camels two loads of dates, which were consumed as needed. When they returned from their expedition, and arrived in Madinah, Sa'd B. A'bâdah rejoiced at the good act of Qays, praised him and presented him with four date-groves. When the purchaser of the camels arrived in Madinah Sa'd paid him the price of the camels, and kept the matter secret; but when his lordship-u. w. b.—was apprised of the humanity of Qays, he said: "Verily he is of a liberal family."


In this year his holy and prophetic lordship sent Muhammad B. Moslamah to the Bani Kallâb, saying: 'Possibly thou wilt vanquish Thamâmah B. Athâl Annakha'y.' It is recorded in the Mostagadza that when the apostle of God sent, in the sixth year after the Flight, a detachment of his companions to Najd, they captured a man of the Bani Hanyfah, called Thamâmah, whom they brought to the lord of the apostolate, by whose orders he was tied to a column of the mosque. When the prophet left his house and entered that mosque, he asked: What is the news of Thamâmah ?' He replied: 'I have good news, O Muhammad. If thou killest me, thou killest a professor [of thy religion], and if thou sparest me thou sparest a grateful man. If thou wantest property, ask for it.' The next day the apostle repeated his question, and received the same answer, as well as the third time. Then the apostle of God issued orders to liberate Thamamah, whereon the latter immediately departed from the mosque,

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washed himself, again returned to the mosque, and said: I testify that there is no God but Allah, and I testify that thou art the apostle of Allah. O Muhammad, ere this I hated no religion more than thine, and no town more than thine; but at present I love nothing more than both these. O apostle of God, I went to Mekkah to perform the ceremonies of the pilgrimage, and thy people captured me. What are now thy commands?' His lordship congratulated Thamâmah, and told him to go on pilgrimage to Mekkah. It is said that when Thamâmah made his appearance in the sanctuary a man said to him: Thou hast become a Sabæan;' but he replied: "I have entered the religion of Islâm, and have selected the way of truth, and I swear by God that you will not receive a single grain of wheat from Thamâmah, except by the command of Muhammad, the apostle of God-u. w. b.' When Thamâmah arrived in his country he told the people not to carry grain any longer to Mekkah, and the Qoraish being distressed thereby, sent a letter to Madinah, requesting his lordship to order Thamâmah to deal with them as formerly. According to the exuberance of benevolence and kindheartedness peculiar to his lordship, he complied, and the inhabitants of the sanctuary escaped from famine. It is related that in this journey Muhammad B. Moslamah fought a battle with the Bani Kallâb, in which the infidels lost two men and the rest of them fled, but one hundred and fifty camels with three thousand sheep of the idolaters fell to the share of the professors of Islâm. Muhammad B. Moslamah says: Ten nights of the month Moharram had elapsed when we marched out, and one night of the same month was yet remaining when we arrived in Madinah. Our whole number amounted to thirty men ; we travelled during the night, and remained concealed during the day.'

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Narrators of histories have recorded that when the calamity of A'assum B. Thâbet and Habyb B. A'dy, with

their companions, took place, as has been related above, his lordship the apostle became grieved and oppressed in spirit, and was waiting for an opportunity to wreak vengeance on the Bani Ttayân, who had committed such treachery. Therefore he proceeded in the sixth year after the Flight with two hundred Mohâjer and Anssâr cavaliers towards them, and reached during the march a place where Musalmâns had been made prisoners and slain. In that locality his lordship addressed propitiatory devotions to the Courts of Unity for A'assum B. Thâbet and his companions. Meanwhile the Bani Ttayân, having become aware of the approach of the apostle of God, fled to the summits of the mountains, where they fortified themselves, and thus saved their lives from destruction. The prophet-u. w. b.— halted one day in the above-mentioned locality, and sent out forays into the surrounding region. When he arrived in a place called Ghasfân he despatched, according to one. tradition, Abu Bakr, and according to another Sa'd B. A'bâdah, with a detachment towards the enemy. When the Qoraish heard that the army of Islâm was coming they fled, so that on the arrival of the said detachment at A'mym no enemy could be found; accordingly, it returned from that place, and again joined the apostle of God.

Borydah says: 'In that Ghazwah I attended on his lordship, who looked on his arrival at Ghasfân to the right and to the left, and having found his mother's tomb he performed his religious ablution and went to the grave, on which he engaged in devotions with two prayer-flexions and wept, whereon all of us wept likewise. He then rose, and again made two flexions with prayers; he wept and we also. When he returned from the tomb he looked at his companions, and asked them: "What was the reason for your crying?" They replied: "We did as thou didst." He continued: "What did you think?" They said: "We thought that our people would suffer an unbearable calamity." He replied: "Such is not the case; but when I reached the grave of my mother I recited orisons with two prayer-flexions, and requested the Lord of Unity to be

allowed to ask pardon for her; but I was reproved,323 and therefore I wept. Accordingly, I again prayed with two flexions, and asked permission to intercede for her, but was reproved again."

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In the Seir Kâzrâni it is related that, when the apostle of God had terminated his conversation, he asked for his camel, mounted it, and after that the blessed verse, 'It is not [allowed] unto the prophet, nor those who are true believers, that they pray for idolaters,' etc.,324 was revealed. Then the lord of apostles said to his companions: 'Be ye witnesses that I am innocent of this, in the same way as Ebrâhim was innocent of [the sin of having prayed for] his father.'

It is related that during this year his holy and prophetic lordship sent O'mar B. Alkhattâb to the Bani Qorârah, who stood fast while O'mar shot arrows at them with the right and the left hand. Ballâl B. Alhâreth Almazany was sent to the tribe Mâlek B. [name omitted], but they all fled, so that the Musalmâns found nothing in their place except one horse. On that occasion also Bashyr B. Sowyd Ajjahanny was sent against the Hârethah Kunânah, but the idolaters, being on their guard, fled into a thicket, which, however, Bashyr set on fire and burnt them all. When his lordship heard of this, he said: 'You have done an evil deed.'


A'li the son of Abu Taleb-u. w. b.-was despatched with one hundred men to the tribe Bani Sa'd, which was in the region of Fadak, because his august lordship the refuge of termination-u. w. b.-had heard that the said tribe was engaged in collecting an army, and desired to aid the Jews of Khayber to march together against Madinah. Accordingly, that whale of the ocean of contest [i.e., A'li] marched during the night, and concealed himself during

323 She, having died an idolater, could not be prayed for, and therefore Muhammad was reproved.

324 Qurân, ch. ix. 114.

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