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"We trust in God, and a good advocate is He!' It is said that at Hamrâ Alasad the Musalmâns took two men prisoners, one of whom was Abu U'zza the poet, who had been captured [already] at Bedr, but was liberated after paying ransom, and promising not to fight again against the Musalmâns. For having broken the just-mentioned promise and oath, his lordship ordered him to be killed in spite of all his entreaties, and said: No believer shall be stung twice from the same den.' And, turning to Abu U'zza, he said: Thou shalt not return to Mekkah! Stroke thy unhallowed beard, and exclaim: "I have played two or three tricks to Muhammad!" Accordingly A'assum B. Thabet despatched him with his sword by command of his lordship. The other prisoner was Moa'wiah B. Moghirah, for whom O'thmân interceded, and his lordship said: 'For thy sake I remit his punishment, on condition of his stopping not more than three days in Madinah; but if he exceeds that time it shall be lawful for anyone to shed his blood.' And by the decree of Divine providence that doomed individual did not leave Madinah, but concealed himself on the fourth day for fear of death. Then his lordship the apostle sent O'mmâr Yâser and Zayd B. Hâreth who pulled Moa'wiah B. Moghirah out from the corner of secrecy and took his life.


Waqidi relates that in the beginning of this year his lordship the apostle-t. b. of G. b. o. h. and o. h. f.-sent Abu Moslamah B. A'bdu-l-asad Makhzûmi with one hundred and fifty companions, among whom were also Abu O'baydah Jurrah, and Sa'd B. Abu Woqqâss and Asyd B. Khodzyr, to the country of the Bani Asad, the reason of which Seriah was as follows: It had reached the exalted audition that Ttolhah and Solmah, the sons of Asad, were instigating their followers to wage war against that prince, and that

289 A. H. 4 began on the 13th June, 625 A.D.

they would possibly make a raid into the vicinity of Madinah. Therefore his lordship ordered Abu Moslamah to forestall and to plunder them in their own country. The just-named individual accordingly took Wolyd B. Zohayr Tây for his guide, and marched with him until they reached one of the settlements of the children of Esrâyl, all whose corn and quadrupeds they took, as well as some men, the remainder of whom fled to their people and informed them of the multitude and bravery of the professors of Islam. They also warned Qays B. Hâreth and Ttolhah B. Howildar not to meet the Musalmâns. Accordingly all of them left their habitations, which the Musalmans then entered and plundered. There is, however, [also] a tradition that the Bani Asad were drawn up in battle-array opposite to Moslamah, and that after Sa'd B. Abu Woqqâss had sent one of the idolaters to the infernal regions he shouted to the army of Islâm: 'What are you waiting for?' and that accordingly Abu Moslamah with all the Musalmâns rushed upon the infidels, putting them to flight.


Rajya' is the name of a water, belonging to a settlement of the Hodhayl, near which a misfortune befell the professors of Islâm, in the following manner: When the idolaters returned from Ohod, Sofyân B. Khâled Hodhayli was going to Mekkah with a company of the A'dzal and Qarah. They were congratulating each other on the loss the Musalmâns had sustained, and conversing about Solaqah the daughter of Sa'd, the wife of Ttolhâh B. Abu Ttolhâh, who had been killed at Ohod, together with her sons. She had made a vow to give one hundred good camels to anyone who would bring her the head of A'assum B. Thâbet. This promise stimulated the covetousness of Sofyan B. Khâled, and he despatched seven wicked fellows of his tribe to Madinah, who waited on the lord of existences, made a [false] profession of Islâm, and represented to him that, a great many of their tribe having become

Musalmâns, it would be proper to send some companions to teach all the people the Qurân and so ennoble them, by making them acquainted with the ordinances of the law. Those hypocrites were lodging in the house of A'assum's father, cajoling him day and night to induce him to accompany them to their tribe. After several days had elapsed the apostle-u. w. b.-appointed ten of his companions—seven of whose names are in biographical works recorded as follows: A'assum B. Thâbet, Mazyd Abu Mazyd, Habyb B. A'dy, A'bdullah B. Târeq, Khâled B. Alkabyr, Ma'qob B. O'baydah and Zayd B. Wothnah, but as the names of the three remaining individuals cannot be found in any copy they are omitted in this place also. In short, the Musalmans took their arms, started on their journey, concealing themselves during the day, and travelling in the night until they arrived near Hodhayl. In this place one of the seven hypocrites, who accompanied the ten Musalmans, left them, joined the tribe and informed Sofyan B. Khâled of their arrival, and that wretched hypocrite immediately proceeded with two thousand armed men to the above locality. When those ten fortunate men were going up the mountain the idolaters arrived, and that rogue who had carried the news of the companions to Sofyân preceded and was advancing in front of the infidels. Then Khâled B. Alkabyr said to A'assum: Thy guests have deceived us.' The latter believed it and instigated the companions to attack the adherents of darkness. But when the opponents saw that the Musalmâns were ready to fight they advised them not to expose themselves to be killed, and said: 'Do not attempt to bring on thy destruction, and that of all thy companions, for we have given and do give you quarter.' But A'assum B. Thabet, who had been appointed chief of his companions, was determined to attain martyrdom, and said: We are not afraid to be killed, because we are certain of our religion. I have sworn an oath not to accept quarter from any idolater, nor to shake hands with an infidel.' After uttering these words he began to shoot

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Then he fought with sword, turned to the

his arrows, till he spent them all. his spear till it broke; he drew his Qiblah of prayer, and said: 'Great God, I have fought for Thy religion in the beginning of the day; protect it and the end of it from the wickedness of my enemies.' This prayer he uttered because he had heard that Soláqah, the wife of Abu Ttolhah, had made a vow to drink wine from A'assum's skull, and when the latter actually attained martyrdom the idolaters meant to cut off the head of that blessed individual, to convey it to Solâqah, and to take the camels with all the property of those Musalmans. But by a decree of Divine providence so many hornets gathered around the corpse of A'assum that whoever approached it was fearfully stung. Accordingly the idolaters said to each other: We must wait till the night sets in and the wasps depart.' But when it was night God the Most Magnificent and Glorious sent a torrent which floated away the body of A'assum, so that the idolaters were disappointed and saddened. And this is one of the most strange events. It is related that seven of the abovementioned ten individuals fought against the idolaters till they attained martyrdom, and that three of them, i.e., Habyb B. A'dy and A'bdullah B. At-târeq and Zayd complied with their wishes and came down from the mountain; but the opponents broke their promise and tied their hands with bowstrings.

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When Ebn Târeq beheld this treachery he managed in some way to disentangle his hands, to snatch up a sword, and to attack the enemies till he was at last sent by the stones of the infidels to the gardens of paradise. The idolaters carried Habyb and Zayd to Mekkah, and sold them to the Qoraish, who imprisoned them till the sacred months elapsed, and then crucified them both in a place called Tana'ym. On that occasion Habyb asked the idolaters for permission to allow him to perform his orisons with two prayer-flexions: permission having been granted, he terminated his devotions, but uttered also a malediction upon the idolaters who had assembled at the foot of the gallows,

which was afterwards fulfilled, and the majority of those present were shortly overtaken by a calamity. Habyb was suspended on the gallows in such a manner that his back was turned towards the Qiblah, whereon he exclaimed: 'It is no calamity to me to have my face turned away from the Ka'bah, since the Most High and Magnificent has said: "Wherever you turn, there is the face of God!"' Then they said: Renounce Islâm, and we shall let thee go.' After his firm refusal to comply, they asked: 'Wouldst thou like to see Muhammad in this place?' He replied: I should not like even a thorn to hurt the foot of Muhammad.' They continued: We swear by Lât and by U'zza that we shall kill thee unless thou renouncest the religion of Muhammad!' He rejoined: 'It is but a small thing to be killed for the cause of God!' and added: 'O God, I behold only enemies, and there is no friend to convey my greeting to Thy favourite.'

Zayd B. Aslam says: 'I was with a number of companions in the assembly of the prophet, when all of a sudden the signs of Divine revelation manifested themselves on the blessed countenance of his lordship, and after that he said: "The Qoraish have slain Habyb, and this is Jebrâil, who has come to bring me his greeting."

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When Habyb B. A'dy refused to apostatize from Islâm, one of the idolaters pierced him with a lance, so that it issued from his back, but he uttered the formula of monotheism and expired. It is said that he was the first individual who used to make two flexions at his prayers. When they brought Zayd to the foot of the gibbet he imitated the prayers of Habyb, and the idolaters used the same gibes also towards him which they had uttered to Habyb. Having received the same answer, they ordered the slave of Ssafuwân B. Ommyah, to kill him, which was done. It is related that when Habyb B. A'dy obtained martyrdom, he was left hanging on the gallows, so that the news spread among the tribes and reached also the prince of existences, who exclaimed: Will any one of you go and take down Habyb from the gallows, and thus obtain

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