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(26) He said, Therein shall ye live, and therein shall ye die, and from thence shall ye be taken forth at the resurrection.

|| (27) O children of Adam, we have sent down unto you apparel, to conceal your nakedness, and fair garments; but the clothing of piety is better. This is one of the signs of God; that peradventure ye may consider. (28) O children of Adam, let not Satan seduce you, as he expelled your parents out of paradise, by stripping them of their clothing, that he might show them their nakedness verily he seeth you, both he and his companions, whereas ye see not them.-We have appointed the devils to be patrons of those who believe not: (29) and when they commit a filthy action, they say, We found our fathers practising the same; and GOD hath commanded us to do it. Say, Verily GOD commandeth not filthy actions. Do ye speak concerning GOD that which ye know not? (30) Say, My LORD hath commanded me to observe justice

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(27) Apparel. "Not only proper materials, but also ingenuity of mind and dexterity of hand to make use of them."-Sale.

(28-34) Let not Satan seduce you, &c. "This passage was revealed to reprove an immodest custom of the pagan Arabs, who used to encompass the Kaabah naked, because clothes, they said, were the signs of their disobedience to God. The Sunnat orders that when a man goes to prayers he should put on his better apparel, out of respect to the divine majesty before whom he is to appear. But as the Muhammadans think it indecent, on the one hand, to come into God's presence in a slovenly manner; so they imagine, on the other, that they ought not to appear before him in habits too rich or sumptuous, and particularly in clothes adorned with gold or silver, lest they should seem proud."-Sale, Jalaluddin, Baidhawi.

The Quraish seem to have defended their indecent practice on the ground of custom.

(29) Muhammad declares them to be under the beguiling influence of Satan, who had by deception exposed the shame of Adam and Eve. Seeing, then, that their progenitor himself had been deceived by Satan, the authority of their forefathers could not be relied on for the establishment of filthy customs contrary to the nature of a pure God: God commandest not filthy actions."

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Ye see them not. "Because of the subtlety of their bodies and their being void of all colour."-Sale.

(30) My Lord hath commanded me to observe justice, should be

translated, My Lord hath commanded aright, i.e., in the Quran.

therefore set your faces to pray at every place of worship, and call upon him, approving unto him the sincerity of your religion. As he produced you at first, so unto him shall ye return. (31) A part of mankind hath he directed; and a part hath been justly led into error, because they have taken the devils for their patrons besides GOD, and imagine they are rightly directed. (32) O children of Adam, take your decent apparel at every place of worship, and eat and drink, but be not guilty of excess; for he loveth not those who are guilty of excess.

|| (33) Say, Who hath forbidden the decent apparel of GOD, which he hath produced for his servants, and the good things which he hath provided for food? Say, these things are for those who believe, in this present life, but peculiarly on the day of resurrection. Thus do we distinctly explain our signs unto people who understand. (34) Say, Verily my LORD hath forbidden filthy actions, both that which is discovered thereof, and that which is concealed, and also iniquity and unjust violence; and hath forbidden you to associate with GOD that concerning which

Place of worship. Literally every masjid. Rodwell is surely mistaken in saying that the word "is usually applied only to that of Makkah, and that the term commonly used for the larger mosques is ajami." The term masjid is certainly used everywhere in India for the ordinary mosque; and, though larger places are called jama (or djami), this term is added on to the other, e.g., jama masjid.

The word, as used here, probably has no reference to any particular building, but to the places where the Muslims offer prayer, i.e., wherever they may be at the hour of prayer. If we understand the reference to be to the qibla of each masjid (so Rodwell), then we must count this passage among the Madina revelations.

(32) Decent apparel. See general note by Sale on ver. 28.

And eat and drink. "The sons of Amar, it is said, when they performed the pilgrimage to Makkah, used to eat no more than was absolutely necessary, and that not of the more delicious sort of food neither; which abstinence they looked upon as a piece of merit; but they are here told the contrary."-Sale, Jalaluddin.

(33) But peculiarly, &c. "Because then the wicked, who also partook of the blessings of this life, will have no share in the enjoyments of the next."-Sale.

(34) Filthy actions, &c. See notes above.

To associate with God, i.e., to worship idols or inferior deities.
VOL II.

he hath sent you down no authority, or to speak of GOD that which ye know not. (35) Unto every nation there is a prefixed term; therefore when their term is expired, they shall not have respite for an hour, neither shall they be anticipated. (36) O children of Adam, verily apostles from among you shall come unto you, who shall expound my signs unto you: whosoever therefore shall fear God and amend, there shall come no fear on them, neither shall they be grieved. (37) But they who shall accuse our signs of falsehood, and shall proudly reject them, they shall be the companions of hell-fire; they shall remain therein for ever. (38) And who is more unjust than he who deviseth a lie concerning GOD, or accuseth his signs of imposture? Unto these shall be given their portion of worldly happiness, according to what is written in the book of God's decrees, until our messengers come unto them, and shall cause them to die; saying, Where are the idols which ye called upon besides God? They shall answer, They have disappeared from us. And they shall bear witness against themselves that they were unbelievers. (39) God shall say unto them at the resurrection, Enter ye with the nations which have preceded you, of genii and of men, into hell-fire; so often as one nation shall enter, it shall curse its sister, until they shall all have successively entered therein. The latter of them shall say of the former of them: O LORD, these have seduced us, therefore inflict on them a double punishment of the fire of hell. God

(35) Every nation. Literally every following, whether of a true or false prophet.

(36-38) See notes on chap. vi. 48, 60, and iii. 185.

(38) Where are the idols. See note on chap. vi. 23. (39) Genii and men. See below on ver. 180.

Its s ster. "That is, the nation whose example betrayed them into their idolatry and other wickedness."-Sale.

Doubled unto all. "Unto those who set the example, because they not only transgressed themselves, but were also the occasion of the others' transgression; and unto those who followed them, because of their own infidelity and their imitating an ill example."Sale, Baidhawi, Jalaluddin.

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shall answer, It shall be doubled unto all: but ye know it not: (40) and the former of them shall say unto the latter of them, Ye have not therefore any favour above us; taste the punishment for that which ye have gained.

(41) Verily they who shall charge our signs with R falsehood, and shall proudly reject them, the gates of heaven shall not be opened unto them, neither shall they enter into paradise, until a camel pass through the eye of a needle, and thus will we reward the wicked doers. (42) Their couch shall be in hell, and over them shall be coverings of fire; and thus will we reward the unjust. (43) But they who believe, and do that which is right (we will not load any soul but according to its ability), they shall be the companions of Paradise; they shall remain therein for ever. (44) And we will remove all grudges from their minds; rivers shall run at their feet, and they shall say, Praised be GOD, who hath directed us into this

(41) They who shall charge, &c. See notes on iii. 185, and vi. 48. The gates shall not be opened, &c. "That is, when their souls shall, after death, ascend to heaven, they shall not be admitted, but shall be thrown down into the dungeon under the seventh earth.”—Sale, Jalaluddin. See also Prelim. Disc., p. 129.

The eye of a needle. Compare Matt. xix. 24. See Rodwell's note on this passage.

(42) See note on chap. iii. 197.

(43) We will not load any soul, &c. See chap. iv. 27, and notes

there.

(44) Will remove all grudges, &c. "So that, whatever differences or animosities there had been between them in their lifetime, they shall now be forgotten, and give place to sincere love and amity. This Ali is said to have hoped would prove true to himself and his inveterate enemies, Othmán, Talha, and Al Zubair.”—Sale, Baidháwi. See also note on iii. 15.

For that which ye have wrought. Here salvation is said to be given in virtue of the good works wrought by Muslims. Brinckman says, "This is one of the numerous places in the Koran which deceives a man, makes him proud, self-righteous, and denies the whole Atonement. It would be a trying question for any Muslim to answer, Tell me of your good works, what they have been, and the good works you have neglected to do."-Notes on Islám, p. 99. But the good works of a Muslim are his professing the Muslim faith and per

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felicity! For we should not have been rightly directed if GOD had not directed us; now are we convinced by demonstration that the apostles of our LORD came unto us with truth. And it shall be proclaimed unto them, This is Paradise, whereof ye are made heirs as a reward for that which ye have wrought. (45) And the inhabitants of Paradise shall call out to the inhabitants of hell-fire, saying, Now have we found that which our LORD promised us to be true: have ye also found that which your LORD promised you to be true? They shall answer, Yea. And a crier shall proclaim between them, The curse of GOD shall be on the wicked; (46) who turn men aside from the way of GOD, and seek to render it crooked, and who deny the life to come. (47) And between the blessed and the damned there shall be a veil; and men shall stand on Al Aráf who shall know every one of them by their marks; and shall call unto the inhabitants of paradise, saying,

forming the five stated duties belonging to his religion. See notes on chap. ii. 3-5, 37, 38; iii. 194; iv. 55, 121-123.

A crier. "This crier, some say, will be the angel Israfil."-Sale. (47) A veil, or a wall, which is designated Al Aráƒ. See Prelim. Disc., p. 152. And men. The commentators differ as to who these are to be. The most common understanding is that those whose good and bad deeds are equal, and who are therefore neither fit for heaven nor worthy of hell, will be placed upon this wall. Others suppose these to be martyrs and notable believers, who receive this knowledge of the reward they are to receive, and also of the pains from which they have escaped. Still others think they are angels in the form of men. See Prelim. Disc., p. 152, and Tafsír-i-Raufi in loco.

Their marks. The blessed are distinguished by the whiteness and the damned by the blackness of their faces.—Tajsír-i-Raufi.

They shall not enter therein, &c. "From this circumstance it seems that their opinion is the most probable who make this intermediate partition a sort of purgatory for those who, though they deserve not to be sent to hell, yet have not merits sufficient to gain them immediate admittance into Paradise, and will be tantalised here for a certain time with a bare view of the felicity of that place."-Sale.

They will, however, eventually be received into heaven, for when the command to worship will be given to the universe just before the final judgment, these will prostrate themselves, and thus the balance on the side of virtue will become heavier, and they will be admitted into heaven.-Tafsir-i-Raufi.

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