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Salih rejected by the Thamúdites--their destruction
Lot rejected and the Sodomites destroyed.

Shuaib rejected by the Madianites, and their doom.
Unbelievers at Makkah unaffected either by adversity or


The dreadful fate of those cities who rejected the apostles of God and charged them with imposture.

They are reprobated

Moses is sent to Pharaoh and his princes

The miracles of the serpent and leprous hand
The magicians of Egypt called.

Contest by miracles between Moses and the magicians
Several magicians converted to Moses

Pharaoh's anger kindled against them

Pharaoh and his princes persecute Moses and his people
Moses exhorts his people to patient trust in God
Adversity and prosperity alike unavailing to bring Pha-

raoh to repentance

The Egyptian unbelievers plagued
The hypocrisy of the Egyptians
They are destroyed in the Red Sea

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The people of Moses triumph, and possess the eastern

and western land

The children of Israel become idolatrous.

Moses makes Aaron his deputy, and fasts forty days

He desires to see the glory of God, but repents his rash

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God gives Moses the law on two tables

Infidels threatened for calling their prophets impos






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97-101 102, 103

104, 105




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138, 141



144, 145

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Some Jews rightly directed.

The Israelites divided into twelve tribes

The rock smitten, and manna and quails given





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The command to enter the city saying Hittutun, and the

fate of the disobedient

The Sabbath-breakers changed into apes
Dispersion of the Jews among the nations

Some of their successors faithful to the law of Moses
God shakes Mount Sinai over the Israelites

God's covenant with the children of Adam
The curse of Balaam a warning to infidels
Many genii and men created for hell
The names of God not to be travestied

God's method of leading infidels to destruction
Muhammad not possessed of a devil.
No hope for the reprobate

The coming of the "last hour" sudden
Muhammad no seer, only a preacher
Adam and Eve were guilty of idolatry

The folly of idolatry.

Muhammad commanded to use moderation

He is to repel Satan by using the name of God

The people of Makkah incorrigible.


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They charge Muhammad with imposture.

The Quran to be listened to in silence and holy medita-



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|| (1) A. L. M. S. (2) A book hath been sent down unto thee: and therefore let there be no doubt in thy breast concerning it; that thou mayest preach the same, and that it may be an admonition unto the faithful. (3) Follow that which hath been sent down unto you from your LORD and follow no guides besides him: how little will

(1) See note on chap. ii. 1. Some conjecture that these letters represent the sentence Amara li Muhammad sándiq, "thus spake to me Muhammad the truthful." See Rodwell's note in loco.

(2) Let there be no doubt. See note on chap. ii. 2. Arnold's remark on this passage is worthy of careful consideration :-"The

ye be warned! (4) How many cities have we destroyed; which our vengeance overtook by night, or while they were reposing themselves at noon-day! (5) And their supplication, when our punishment came upon them, was no other than that they said, Verily we have been unjust. (6) We will surely call those to an account unto whom a prophet hath been sent; and we will also call those to account who have been sent unto them. (7) And we will declare their actions unto them with knowledge; for we are not absent from them. (8) The weighing of men's actions on that day shall be just; and they whose balances laden with their good works shall be heavy, are those who shall be happy; (9) but they whose balances shall be light, are those who have lost their souls, because they injured our signs. (10) And now have we placed you on the earth, and have provided you food therein; but how little are ye thankful!

|| (11) We created you, and afterwards formed R &


author of the Koran betrays precisely the disquietude and suspicion which invariably indicate fraud, and never exist in guileless, honest, and truthful minds."-Islám and Christianity, p. 316. And yet this constant and persistent assertion of honesty and truthfulness is regarded by many as certain evidence of his sincerity.


(4) Cities destroyed . . . by night, as in the case "of Sodom and Gomorrah, to whom Lot was sent.' Or... noon-day, as happened to the Midianites, to whom Shuaib preached."-Sale, Tafsir-i-Raufi. (5) Verily we have been unjust. They will make this confession, thinking thereby to secure deliverance, not knowing that the time of repentance and confession has gone by.-Tafsír-i-Raufi.

(6) The prophets will testify for or against the people to whom they have been sent, and the people will witness to the faithfulness of the prophets.-Tafsir-i-Raufi.

(8) The weighing, &c. See Prelim. Disc., p. 144.

The balances. One of these shall be called Light and the other Darkness. The good actions shall be placed in Light and the evil ones in Darkness. The length of the beam of these scales, according to Ibn Abbas, will be equal to a journey of 50,000 years.-Tafsir-iRaufi.

(9) Because they injured our signs. The one great object of Muhammad in picturing the terrors of the judgment-day was to frighten his townsmen into accepting his prophetic claims. The one great reason for a soul's being lost will be that it rejected the prophetic claims of Muhammad.


and then said unto the angels, Worship Adam; and they all worshipped him, except Iblís, who was not one of those who worshipped. (12) God said unto him, What hindered thee from worshipping Adam, since I had commanded thee? He answered, I am more excellent than he thou hast created me of fire, and hast created him of clay. (13) God said, Get thee down therefore from paradise; for it is not fit that thou behave thyself proudly therein: get thee hence; thou shalt be one of the contemptible. (14) He answered, Give me respite until the day of resurrection. (15) God said, Verily thou shalt be one of those who are respited. (16) The devil said, Because thou hast depraved me, I will lay wait for men in thy strait way; (17) then will I come upon them from before, and from behind, and from their right hands, and from their left; and thou shalt not find the greater part of them thankful. (18)

(11) Created and... formed you. The creation probably has reference to the souls of mankind, all of which were created before Adam was formed, the forming having special reference to the preparation of bodies for the souls. But see also chap. vi. 99 and notes there.

Worship Adam, &c. See notes on the parallel passage in chap. ii. 34.


(12) Thou hast created me of fire. The idea that angels are created of fire may have been obtained from Jewish sources. Arnold's learned note in Islám and Christianity, p. 101.

Heb. i. 7 gives no ground for such an opinion, for there the angels are said to be spirits. The ministers called a flame of fire may refer to 2 Kings ii. 11, vi. 7, &c.

The Tafsir-i-Rauf has a long note here, showing how mistaken Satan was in supposing creatures made of fire to be superior to those made of clay.

(15) One of the respited. "As the time till which the devil is reprieved is not particularly expressed, the commentators suppose his request was not wholly granted; but agree that he shall die, as well as other creatures, at the second sound of the trumpet."-Sule, Baidháwi.

(17) Then will I come upon them, &c., i.e., "I will attack them on every side that I shall be able. The other two ways, viz., from above and from under their feet, are omitted, say the commentators, to show that the devil's power is limited."-Sale, Baidhawi.

The Qurán clearly teaches that Satan has no power to destroy true believers. See chap. xvi. 101.

God said unto him, Get thee hence, despised, and driven far away: (19) verily whoever of them shall follow thee, I will surely fill hell with you all.

|| (20) But as for thee, O Adam, dwell thou and thy wife NISF. in paradise; and eat of the fruit thereof wherever ye will; but approach not this tree, lest ye become of the number of the unjust. (21) And Satan suggested to them both, that he would discover unto them their nakedness, which was hidden from them; and he said, Your LORD hath not forbidden you this tree for any other reason but lest ye should become angels, or lest ye become immortal. (22) And he sware unto them, saying, Verily, I am one of those who counsel you aright. (23) And he caused them to fall through deceit. And when they had tasted of the tree, their nakedness appeared unto them; and they began to join together the leaves of paradise, to cover themselves. And their LORD called to them, saying, Did I not forbid you this tree and did I not say unto you, Verily Satan is your declared enemy? (24) They answered, O LORD, we have dealt unjustly with our own souls; and if thou forgive us not, and be not merciful unto us, we shall surely be of those who perish. (25) God said, Get ye down, the one of you an enemy unto the other; and ye shall have a dwelling-place upon the earth, and a provision for a season.

(18) Despised and driven away. See note, chap. iv. 117. Rodwell translates it, a scorned and banished one.

(20) See notes on chap. ii. 35.

(21) Lest ye become immortal. Muhammad did not distinguish between the Tree of Life and the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil. According to this passage, Adam and Eve should have been rendered immortal by eating the forbidden fruit. Compare chap. xx. 118 and 119.

(22) He sware. The Tafsir-i-Raufi comments thus :-Adam, may the peace of God be on him! thought no one could perjure himself, and thus was deceived by Satan.

(23) The tree. See chap. ii. 35, note.

Their nakedness. They were hitherto clothed in light or garments of Paradise, or enrobed by their long hair.

Leaves. Either of the grape-vine or the fig-tree.-Tafsir-i-Raufi. (24) They answered, &c. Compare Gen. iii. 10-13 to see how the former Scriptures are attested here.

(25) See notes on chap. ii. 37. Compare Gen. iii. 15.

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