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GOD hath allowed you; but transgress not, for God loveth not the transgressors. (90) And eat of what God hath given you for food, that which is lawful and good: and fear GOD, in whom ye believe. (91) GOD will not punish you for an inconsiderate word in your oaths; but he will punish you for what ye solemnly swear with deliberation. And the expiation of such an oath shall be the feeding of ten poor men with such moderate food as ye feed your own families withal; or to clothe them; or to free the neck of a true believer from captivity: but he who shall not find wherewith to perform one of these three things shall fast three days. This is the expiation of your oaths, when ye swear inadvertently. Therefore keep your oaths. Thus GOD declareth unto you his signs, that ye may give thanks. (92) O true believers, surely wine, and lots, and images, and divining arrows are an abomination of the work of Satan; therefore avoid them that ye may prosper. (93) Satan seeketh to sow dissension and hatred among you by means of wine and lots, and to divert you from

However, in ver. 85, these priests and monks are the special objects of Muhammad's praise. The passage, according to Abdul Qadir and the Tafsír-i-Raufi, has a general reference, and teaches that there is no merit in works of supererogation.

(91) An inconsiderate word. See note on chap. ii. 225. Perjury, according to the Imáms Ázim and Sháfa'i, is swearing deliberately to that which is at the time thought to be false by the person swearing. They therefore classify all thoughtless oaths used in conversation or mistakes made under oath under the head of "inconsiderate words." The passage so understood contradicts the doctrine of Jesus. Inadvertently. This word should not have been introduced by the translator. The inadvertent oaths require no expiation. On the word expiation see chap. iii. 194.

(92) See notes on chap. ii. 218 and chap. iv. 42.

(93) Satan seeketh to sow dissension, &c. We here learn the real reason for prohibiting the practices of gambling and drinking—a reason, utilitarian though it be, yet sufficient. This law of Islám, considered by itself, reflects great glory on Muhammad and his religion; yet, regarded as a part of the whole system of Islám, it appears to great disadvantage. It is seen to be a purely political measure, based on no solid groundwork of moral principle, and inconsistent with much that is permitted by Islám. The same principle of utility would have led to the distinct prohibition of all intoxicating drugs and of polygamy.

remembering GOD and from prayer: will ye not therefore abstain from them? Obey GOD and obey the apostle, and take heed to yourselves: but if ye turn back, know that the duty of our apostle is only to preach publicly. (94) In those who believe and do good works, it is no sin that they have tasted wine or gaming before they were forbidden; if they fear God, and believe, and do good works, and shall for the future fear God, and believe, and shall persevere to fear him and to do good; for GOD loveth those who do good.


|| (95) O true believers, GOD will surely prove you in R 13. offering you plenty of game, which ye may take with your hands or your lances, that GOD may know who feareth him in secret; but whoever transgresseth after this shall suffer a grievous punishment. (96) O true believers, kill no game while ye are on pilgrimage; whosoever among

The duty of our apostle, &c. See Prelim. Disc., p. 83. This passage looks very like a fragment of a Makkan chapter.

(94) If they fear, &c. "The commentators endeavour to excuse the tautology of this passage by supposing the threefold repetition of fearing and believing refers either to the three parts of time, past, present, and future, or to the threefold duty of man, towards God, himself, and his neighbour, &c."-Sale, Baidhawi.

(95) God will prove you. "This temptation or trial was at al Hudaibiya, where Muhammad's men, who had attended him thither with an intent to perform a pilgrimage to the Kaabah, and had initiated themselves with the usual rights, were surrounded by so great a number of birds and beasts, that they impeded their march ; from which unusual accident some of them concluded that God had allowed them to be taken; but this passage was to convince them of the contrary."-Sale, Baidhawi, Jalaluddin.

Muhrims are

(96) On pilgrimage, i.e., while ye are muhrims. those Muslims who have put on the thrám or peculiar dress donned on entering the sacred precincts of Makkah to indicate that they are now on the way to the sacred Kaabah. The law forbidding hunting was established in accordance with the peaceful character of the sacred places within the boundaries called Haram. Certain hurtful animals might be killed, but this was also in accord with the law which permitted Muslims to fight infidels within the sacred months, provided they did so in self-defence. See chap. ii. 210.

Domestic animals. "That is, he shall bring an offering to the temple of Makkah, to be slain there and distributed among the poor, of some domestic or tame animal, equal in value to what he shall have killed; as a sheep, for example, in lieu of an antelope; a

you shall kill any designedly shall restore the like of what he shall have killed in domestic animals, according to the determination of two just persons among you, to be brought as an offering to the Kaabah; or in atonement thereof shall feed the poor; or instead thereof shall fast, that he may taste the heinousness of his deed. GOD hath forgiven what is past, but whoever returneth to transgress, GOD will take vengeance on him; for GOD is mighty and able to avenge. (97) It is lawful for you to fish in the sea, and to eat what ye shall catch, as a provision for you and for those who travel; but it is unlawful for you to hunt by land while ye are performing the rights of pilgrimage; therefore fear GOD, before whom ye shall be assembled at the last day. (98) GOD hath appointed the Kaabah, the holy house, an establishment for mankind;

pigeon for a partridge, &c. And of this value two prudent persons were to be judges. If the offender was not able to do this, he was to give a certain quantity of food to one or more poor men; or if he could not afford that, to fast a proportionable number of days."Sale, Jalaluddin, Abdul Qádir.

That ye may taste, &c. We see here again the idea attached to atonement in the Qurán. It is not to free from condemnation by vicarious suffering, but is in its nature a punishment, and intended as a warning to transgressors.

(97) Lawful... to fish. This law has reference to pilgrimage, though of general application. The commentators understand fish found in all bodies of water, whether fountains, rivulets, rivers, or ponds, and lakes, as well as the sea. They differ in applying the law to amphibious creatures.

Unlawful . . . to hunt, i.e., during pilgrimage, after the ihrám has once been put on. See notes on 95.

(98) The Kaabah. See notes on chap. ii. 125 and 189.

An establishment, i.e., "the place where the practice of their religious ceremonies is chiefly established; where those who are under any apprehension of danger may find a sure asylum, and the merchant certain gain, &c."-Sale, Jalaluddin.

Sacred month. "Baidháwi understands this to be the month of Dhu'l Hajja, wherein the ceremonies of the pilgrimage are performed; but Jalaluddín supposes all the four sacred months are here intended. See Prelim. Disc., sect. vii.”—Sale.

Ornaments. See note on ver. 3.

That ye might know, &c. How the observance of the rites of pilgrimage can convince any one of God's omniscience is enough to puzzle the clearest-headed Muslim.

and hath ordained the sacred month, and the offering, and the ornaments hung thereon. This hath he done that ye might know that GOD knoweth whatsoever is in heaven. and on earth, and that GOD is omniscient. Know that GOD is severe in punishing, and that GOD is also ready to forgive, and merciful. (99) The duty of our apostle is to preach only; and GOD knoweth that which ye discover, and that which ye conceal. (100) Say, Evil and good shall not be equally esteemed of, though the abundance of evil pleaseth thee; therefore fear GOD, O ye of understanding, that ye may be happy.

|| (101) O true believers, inquire not concerning things R 14. which, if they be declared unto you, may give you pain; but if ye ask concerning them when the Qurán is sent down, they will be declared unto you: GOD pardoneth you as to these matters; for GOD is ready to forgive, and gracious. (102) People who have been before you formerly inquired concerning them; and afterwards disbelieved therein. GOD hath not ordained anything concerning Bahaira, nor Sáïba, nor Wasíla, nor Hámi; but the

(99) The duty of our apostle. See note on ver. 93.

(101) Inquire not, &c. "The Arabs continually teasing their Prophet with questions, which probably he was not always prepared to answer, they are here ordered to wait till God should think fit to declare his pleasure by some farther revelation: and to abate their curiosity, they are told, at the same time, that very likely the answers would not be agreeable to their inclinations. Al Baidháwi says, that when the pilgrimage was first commanded, Suráka Ibn Málik asked Muhammad whether they were obliged to perform it every year. To this question the Prophet at first turned a deaf ear; but being asked it a second and a third time, he at last said, 'No; but if I had said yes, it would have become a duty, and if it were a duty, ye would not be able to perform it; therefore give me no trouble as to things wherein I give you none:' whereupon this passage was revealed."-Sale.

(102) Bahaira . . . Húmi. "These were the names given by the pagan Arabs to certain camels or sheep which were turned loose to feed, and exempted from common services in some particular cases, having their ears slit, or some other mark that they might be known; and this they did in honour of their gods (Prelim. Disc., p. 199). Which superstitions are here declared to be no ordinances of God, but the inventions of foolish men."--Sale.

unbelievers have invented a lie against GOD: and the greater part of them do not understand.

(103) And when it was said unto them, Come unto that which GOD hath revealed, and to the apostle; they answered, That religion which we found our fathers to follow is sufficient for us. What, though their fathers knew nothing and were not rightly directed? (104) O true believers, take care of your souls! He who erreth shall not hurt you while ye are rightly directed: unto GOD shall ye all return, and he will tell you that which ye have done. (105) O true believers, let witnesses be taken between you, when death approaches any of you, at the time of making the

A camel devoted to an idol had its ears slit, and was called Bahaira. Any animal devoted to an idol and let run loose to roam whither it pleased was called Súiba. It was unlawful to kill or eat any animal thus consecrated. If a man should devote the offspring of his animals yet unborn, saying, "If a male is born I will sacrifice it to an idol, and if a female I will keep it," and the result should be the birth of twins, one a male and the other a female, he would in that case keep the male alive as sacred to the idol; such an animal was called wasila. A camel that had been the mother of ten camels fit to carry a rider or a burden was allowed to roam at liberty in any pasture, and was called Hámi (Tafsir-i-Raufi and Abdul Qadir). This account differs somewhat from Rodwell's. See his note in loco.

(103) That religion, &c. This is a very common reply on the part of idolaters even in these days. But for the sword of Islám the Arabs would no doubt have remained in the religion of their fathers for many years after the death of the Makkan preacher.

(104) See note on chap. iii. 118.

(105) Let witnesses be taken, &c. Sale gives the following story, on the authority of Baidhawi, as the occasion of the revelations in this and the following verse :- “The occasion of the preceding passage is said to have been this. Tamín al Dári and Addi Ibn Yazid, both Christians, took a journey into Syria to trade, in company with Budhail, the freedman of Amru Ibn al Aas, who was a Muslim. When they came to Damascus, Budhail fell sick and died, having first wrote down a list of his effects on a piece of paper, which he hid in his baggage, without acquainting his companions with it, and desired them only to deliver what he had to his friends of the tribe of Sahm. The survivors, however, searching among his goods, found a vessel of silver of considerable weight and inlaid with gold, which they concealed, and on their return delivered the rest to the deceased's relations, who, finding the list of Budhail's writing, demanded the vessel of silver of them, but they denied it; and the affair being brought before Muhammad, these words, viz., O true believers, take witnesses, &c., were revealed, and he ordered them to be sworn at the

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