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they slew him not, neither crucified him, but he was represented by one in his likeness; and verily they who disagreed concerning him were in a doubt as to this matter, and had no sure knowledge thereof, but followed only an uncertain opinion. They did not really kill him; (157) but GOD took him up unto himself and GOD is mighty and wise. (158) And there shall not be one of those who have received the scriptures who shall not believe in him before his death; and on the day of resur

They did not really kill him. But the former Scriptures teach the contrary. The death of Christ was foretold to take place at the first advent (Dan. ix. 24). Jesus himself, according to the gospel, often foretold his death, and afterwards refers to it as past; the same Scriptures testify to his death as an accomplished fact, and all gospel preaching for eighteen centuries has been based upon it. The historians, Jewish, Heathen, and Christian, attest the fact. In short, there is no fact of either history or revelation so certainly established as that which is here contradicted. This one passage is sufficient to refute Muhammad's claim to be a prophet of God. And the Qurán, instead of attesting the former Scriptures, is found to attest a fiction of Christian heresy.

(158) And there shall not be one of those, &c. expounded two ways:

"This passage is

Some, referring the relative his to the first antecedent, take the meaning to be that no Jew or Christian shall die before he believes in Jesus for they say, that when one of either of those religions is ready to breathe his last, and sees the angel of death before him, he shall then believe in that prophet as he ought, though his faith will not then be of any avail. According to a tradition of Hijáj, when a Jew is expiring, the angels will strike him on the back and face, and say to him, O thou enemy of God! Jesus was sent as a prophet unto thee, and thou didst not believe on him;' to which he will answer, I now believe him to be the servant of God;' and to a dying Christian they will say, 'Jesus was sent as a prophet unto thee, and thou hast imagined him to be God, or the son of God;' whereupon he will believe him to be the servant of God only, and his apostle.

"Others, taking the above-mentioned relative to refer to Jesus, suppose the intent of the passage to be, that all Jews and Christians in general shall have a right faith in that prophet before his death, that is, when he descends from heaven and returns into the world, where he is to kill Antichrist, and to establish the Muhammadan religion, and a most perfect tranquillity and security on earth."Sale, Baidhawi, Jalaluddin, Yahya, Zamakhshari.

The latter view seems to be the most reasonable. See note on chap. iii. 54.

He shall be a witness against them. His witness, says Sale, on

VOL. II.

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[SIPARA VI. rection he shall be a witness against them. (159) Because of the iniquity of those who Judaise, we have forbidden them good things, which had been formerly allowed them; and because they shut out many from the way of GOD, (160) and have taken usury, which was forbidden them by the law, and devoured men's substance vainly we have prepared for such of them as are unbelievers a painful punishment. (161) But those among them who are well grounded in knowledge, and the faithful, who believe in that which hath been sent down unto thee, and that which hath been sent down unto the prophets before thee, and who observe the stated times of prayer, and give alms, and believe in GOD and the last day, unto these will we give a great reward.

(162) Verily we have revealed our will unto thee, as we have revealed it unto Noah and the prophets who succeeded him; and as we revealed it unto Abraham, and Ismáíl, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and unto

the authority of Baidháwi, shall be "against the Jews for rejecting him, and against the Christians for calling him God and the Son of God." See note on chap. v. 116-119.

(159) We have forbidden them good things. See notes on chap.

iii. 93.

(161) Those... who are well grounded. Such as Abdullah Ibn Salám (Tafsir-i-Raufi). It seems that those were well grounded in the faith who accepted Islám. Infidelity and incorrigible stupidity went hand in hand in rejecting the claims of Muhammad.

(162) We have revealed our will unto thee, &c. This jumble of names, presented without any respect to chronology, is probably due to Muhammad's receiving his information second-hand and piecemeal through Jewish informants. Yet Muhammad claims to have been inspired, as were all the prophets. He also asserts that his inspiration was of precisely the same character as that of all the persons here enumerated, i.e., they received the message directly from Gabriel, by direct communication and audible voice, the tinkling sound of bells in his ears, &c., which Muslims call Wahi and Ilhám (see Sell's Faith of Islám, p. 37, and Hughes's Notes on Muhammadanism, p. 47).

The Bible shows clearly that some of those mentioned here were not prophets at all, and that few of them knew aught of the inspiration claimed by Muhammad. Here again the Qurán denies historical fact and contradicts the book it professes to attest.

We have given the Qurán. This clause should have been omitted. The text is clear without it.

Jesus, and Job, and Jonas, and Aaron, and Solomon; and we have given thee the Qurán as we gave the psalms unto David: (163) some apostles have we sent, whom we have formerly mentioned unto thee; and other apostles have we sent, whom we have not mentioned unto thee; and GOD spake unto Moses, discoursing with him; (164) apostles declaring good tidings and denouncing threats, lest men should have an argument of excuse against GOD, after the apostles had been sent unto them: GOD is mighty and wise. (165) GOD is witness of that revelation which he hath sent down unto thee; he sent it down with his special knowledge; the angels also are witnesses thereof; but GOD is a sufficient witness. (166) They who believe not, and turn aside others from the way of GOD, have erred in a wide mistake. (167) Verily those who believe not and act unjustly, GOD will by no means forgive, neither will he direct them into any other way than the way of hell; they shall remain therein forever; and this is easy with GOD. (168) O men, now is the apostle come unto you, with truth from your LORD; believe, therefore; it will be better for you. But if ye disbelieve, verily unto God belongeth whatsoever is in heaven and on earth; and GOD is knowing and wise. (169) O ye who have received the scriptures, exceed not the just bounds in your religion,

(163) God spake unto Moses. This Muslims understand to be the highest form of wahi (revelation), or inspiration, as the word is incorrectly translated. In this respect, say they, Moses resembled Muhammad. Tafsír-i-Raufi in loco.

(165) God is witness. The occasion of this revelation was the infidelity of certain Jews, who being asked to testify to his prophecy before certain Quraish chiefs, declared that they did not recognise him as a prophet (Tafsir-i-Raufi). The witness of God is in the incomparable language and style of the Qurán; the witness of angels has reference to the testimony of Gabriel. See the plural form used for the singular, chap. iii. 39, note.

(166) Turned aside others, i.e., the chiefs of the Quraish, who were turned aside by the answer of the Jews referred to in the note on the preceding verse.

(168) With truth from your Lord. A new assertion of his prophetic claim. See notes on vers. 116, 156, and 162.

(169) Exceed not the just bounds, i.e., "either by rejecting or con

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neither say of GOD any other than the truth. Verily Christ
Jesus the son of Mary is the apostle of GOD, and his Word,
which he conveyed into Mary, and a spirit proceeding from
him. Believe therefore in GOD and his apostles, and say
not, There are three Gods; forbear this; it will be better
for you.
GOD is but one GOD. Far be it from him that
he should have a son; unto him belongeth whatever is in
heaven and on earth; and GOD is a sufficient protector.

|| (170) Christ doth not proudly disdain to be a servant unto GOD; neither the angels who approach near to his presence and whoso disdaineth his service and is puffed up with pride, God will gather them all to himself on the last day. (171) Unto those who believe and do that which is right he shall give their rewards, and shall superabundantly add unto them of his liberality: but those who are disdainful and proud, he will punish with a grievous punishment; (172) and they shall not find any

temning Jesus, as the Jews do; or raising him to an equality with God, as do the Christians."-Sale, Baidhawi.

His word,. a spirit proceeding from him. See notes on chap. ii. 86, and chap. iii. 39.

Say not.. three, "Namely, God, Jesus, Mary. For the Eastern writers mention a sect of Christians which held the Trinity to be composed of those three; but it is allowed that this heresy has been long since extinct (Elmacin, p. 227). The passage, however, is equally levelled against the Holy Trinity, according to the doctrine of the orthodox Christians, who, as Al Baidhawi acknowledges, believe the divine nature to consist of three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; by the Father, understanding God's essence; by the Son, his knowledge; and by the Holy Ghost, his life."-Sale.

See also Prelim. Disc., p. 64.

The commentators Baidhawi, Jalaluddin, and Yahya agree in interpreting the three to mean "God, Jesus, and Mary," in the relation of Father, Mother, and Son. This misrepresentation of the Scripture doctrine again stamps the Qurán as a fabrication, and furnishes the evidence of its being such on the ground of its own claims. The history of the Church, as well as the Bible, proves the statement of the text, as interpreted by authoritative commentators, to be false; for even granting that some obscure Christian sect did hold such a doctrine of the Trinity (of which statement we have yet to learn the truth), yet the spirit of Muhammad's inspiration represents it as the faith of the Christians generally. In almost every case

to protect or to help them, besides GOD.

(173) O men,

now is an evident proof come unto you from your LORD, and we have sent down unto you manifest light. (174) They who believe in GoD and firmly adhere to him, he will lead them into mercy from him, and abundance; and he will direct them in the right way to himself. (175) They will consult thee for thy decision in certain cases; say unto them, GOD giveth you these determinations concerning the more remote degrees of kindred. If a man die

without issue, and have a sister, she shall have the half of what he shall leave: and he shall be heir to her, in case she have no issue. But if there be two sisters, they shall have between them two third parts of what he shall leave; and if there be several, both brothers and sisters, a male shall have as much as the portion of two females. GOD declareth unto you these precepts, lest ye err: and GOD knoweth all things.

where the Qurán refers to the Christian faith, it is to inveigh against the idea that God has a son. See chap. ix. 31, xix. 31, xliii. 59.

(173) Manifest light, i.e., the teaching of the Qurán.

(175) See notes on vers. 10 and II.

And he shall be heir to her, i.e., where there is a brother and a sister, the sister inherits half the brother's property in case he die first without issue. On the other hand, in case the sister die first without issue, the brother inherits all her property.

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