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will greatly miss his services as an Examiner and a Judge of the Exhibitions, but also to the whole of the sanitary world, in which he was so well known and respected. The Council also record with regret the deaths of Prof. Gaetano Pini (Hon. Foreign Associate), of A. Denison (Fellow), and of Sir R. N. C. Hamilton, K.C.B., Sir William McArthur, K.C.M.G., and A. Harland (Members).

During the year 1887 there were elected: one Fellow, twenty-six Members, and twenty-two Associates, being the largest number elected in any year since 1880. The roll of the Institute comprised, at the close of 1887: ninety Fellows, one hundred and ninety-nine Members, eighty-one Associates, nine Subscribers, and twenty-eight Honorary Foreign Associates; making a total of four hundred and

seven.

The retiring Members of Council are: Charles E. Cassal, F.C.S., F.I.C., Prof. F. De Chaumont, M.D., F.R.S. (deceased), T. Orme Dudfield, M.D., W. Eassie, C.E., F.G.S. (resigned), W. Horton Ellis, F.R.MET.SOC., and Edward Pritchard, M.INST.C.E.

The following gentlemen have been nominated by the Council for election at the Annual Meeting to fill the vacancies thus created: R. W. Peregrine Birch, M.INST.C.E., Henry C. Burdett, F.S.S., R. Brudenell Carter, F.R.C.S., Director-General Sir Thos. Crawford, K.C.B., M.D., James Mansergh, M.INST.C.E., and the Hon. F. A. R. Russell.

The Right Hon. Lord Braye, who has held the office of Treasurer of the Institute since 1879, has expressed a wish to resign, as he lives so far from London that he is unable to take any active part in the work of the Institute. The Council have nominated InspectorGeneral R. Lawson for election as Treasurer.

During the year Lectures and special Demonstrations were given in the Parkes Museum. Members of the Institute had the privilege of attending them and of using the Library.

With reference to the proposed amalgamation of the Institute with the Parkes Museum, the Council regret that the application to the Privy Council for the grant of a Charter was not acceded to; but arrangements are now nearly completed for incorporating the combined societies under the regulations of the Board of Trade.

By Order,

74A, Margaret Street,

16th May, 1888.

E. WHITE WALLIS,
Secretary.

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ADDRESS

BY PROFESSOR W. H. CORFIELD, M.A., M.D., Oxon.

CHAIRMAN OF COUNCIL.

Read at the Annual Meeting, May 16th, 1888.

As the Institute is now about to be incorporated with the Parkes Museum and to begin a new phase of its existence, I think that it may not be inopportune if I place before you a short résumé of the work it has achieved. The Sanitary Institute was founded in the year 1876, because, as stated in the Report published in the Journal of the Leamington Exhibition, "The increasing importance attached to Sanitary Science, and the recognised position it is assuming in the public mind, appeared to the promoters of the Sanitary Institute fully to justify the formation of a National Society, the object of which should be to devote itself exclusively to the advancement of all subjects bearing upon Public Health."

The Meeting for the foundation of the Institute was held at St. James's Hall on the 13th July, 1876, under the Presidency of His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, who has thus been the President of the Institute from its very commencement. At this meeting the two following resolutions were passed :

1. "That in the opinion of this meeting the Sanitary condition of this country is still very unsatisfactory, and that further legislation is necessary with a view to its improvement; and that for the purpose of collecting and imparting information upon all matters connected with the subject of Public Health,' a Society be now formed to be styled 'The Sanitary Institute of Great Britain.'""

2. "That the gentlemen whose names are appended be requested to act as a Committee (with power to add to their number) for the purpose of carrying out the previous resolution, and of reporting to an adjourned public meeting to be held in the second week of October next."

The Committee appointed under the second resolution prepared an important report on the proposed functions of the new Institute, dividing their report into five Sections.

Section I. provided for "The examination of, and granting certificates of competence to, Local Surveyors and Inspectors of Nuisances." Under this heading the Committee advised that at first the examinations should be held in London only, but suggested "the desirability of instituting local examinations as soon as suitable arrangements could be made."

Section II. comprised "Matters relating to Medicine in connection with Public Health." Under this heading the Committee suggested that the Institute should "take such steps as may be within its power, through its branches or otherwise, to obtain a complete registration of sickness, especially of zymotic disease"; they also advised that the Institute "should endeavour to secure the services of Medical men especially qualified to give lectures on subjects relating to the prevention and spread of disease"; also that relations should be established with Medical Officers of Health with the view of assisting them in the discharge of their duties.

Section III. referred to "Matters relating to Chemistry in connection with Public Health," and provided that the Institute should be prepared to investigate the chemical aspects of processes for the treatment of sewage or of nuisances from factories, &c., and to furnish reports on such processes for fees to be fixed by the Council. This section moreover provided that "The Institute should not undertake any analysis or other work which may interfere with the private practice of Chemists, Engineers, or other professional men, but should confine itself to giving information and advice on questions of public interest submitted to the Council and approved of by them."

Section IV. treated of "The form of Constitution most desirable for the Institute." The Committee considered that it was not desirable at the time to apply for a Charter of Incorporation, as the work of the Institute could go on for a time very well without it, as the examinations, if successful, would add considerable weight to the application for a Charter at some future time, and as the Committee considered "that as the Institute progresses the points which the Charter should embrace will be better understood than at present." The Institute was to consist of Annual Members paying one guinea and Life Members paying ten guineas, and to be governed by a President, Vice-Presidents, and a Council of twenty-four Members, one-third of whom were to retire annually but to be eligible for re-election. Country and District Associations and Societies of Medical Officers of Health were to be invited to

affiliate themselves to the Institute. A Library of reference was to be formed, and donations of books, &c., were invited.

Section V. provided for "The establishment in London of an Exhibition of Sanitary Apparatus and Appliances." This Exhibition was to be of a permanent character, the contents to be carefully arranged, classified, and labelled. It was proposed to charge rent to the Exhibitors for the space occupied, and a catalogue was to be published as soon as possible. This report was unanimously adopted at a public meeting held on the 14th March, 1877, and the first Council, with Dr. B. W. Richardson as Chairman, was subsequently appointed to carry it into effect.

It will be noticed that the holding of Congresses was not mentioned in the report as one of the objects of the Institute; nevertheless, one of the first things done by the new Institute was to hold a Congress in Leamington in 1877 under the presidency of the Chairman of Council; this Congress was a success, and a number of valuable communications were brought before it. Unfortunately no official arrangement was made by the Institute to publish the transactions of the Congress, of which the only record is the Journal of the Leamington Congress and Exhibition, edited by Dr. Lory Marsh, the Registrar of the Institute, a volume which it is now almost impossible to procure.

A Congress has been held every year since, with the exception of 1881, in which, on account of the Medical and Sanitary Exhibition in connection with the International Medical Congress in London, it was not considered desirable to hold a Congress of the Institute. An Exhibition of Sanitary Appliances has been held in connection with each Congress, and the greatest possible pains have been taken by the Judges to ascertain by practical testing the value of the exhibits, so as to make the awards of Medals and Certificates a trustworthy guide to the public. A list of these Congresses will be found on pages 31 and 32 of the last volume of the Transactions (Vol. VIII). There can be no doubt that these Congresses, and the Exhibitions connected with them, have been an important means of stimulating, and of interesting the public in, sanitary work throughout the Kingdom.

The Examinations for Surveyors and Inspectors of Nuisances recommended by the original Committee, were commenced in October, 1877, at which Examination there were eight candidates, five of whom obtained Certificates. At the second examination in February, 1878, there were seven candidates, five of whom obtained Certificates. Three Examinations were held in 1878, and two in each subsequent year. The numbers of the candidates applying continued small until 1884, when

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