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Mr. John Honeyman, of Glasgow, next read a paper on "The Size of House Drains and the Use and Misuse of Traps." This was a very original paper, and proceeded on the principle that the air-space in drains is usually insufficient, and should be increased on a plan of his

own.

The discussions on these two papers were taken together; Messrs. Emptage, Rogers Field, Corbett, Robins, and Wilkinson took part.

Mr. Newton, Weybridge, took the opportunity, before Mr. Honeyman replied, to explain his own views in opposition to Mr. Honeyman's; and broadly stated that air should be excluded from fouled water by making arrangements so that the pipes should always be full and overflowing.

The next paper was by Mr. Corbett, on "Health, Comfort, and Economy in Cottage Construction," which provoked considerable benevolent interest; the discussion was carried on by the President, Mr. Bradshaw, Canon Atkinson, and Mr. Coles.

The subject of Smoke Abatement was then taken up by the reading of three exhaustive papers by Messrs. Fletcher, Duncan, and Orvis, respectively; the discussion which followed was opened by Mr. Coles, and continued by Messrs. Head, Col. Winder, Howatson, Nicholson, Darley, Leach, Freeman, Lee, Wilkinson, and Scott.

The Chairman, in winding up the debate, remarked that they had not left the debate where they had found it, because an important recommendation had been forwarded to the Council of the Institute that they should appoint a committee to investigate and report on rival claims, and recommend such appliances as were found to be most suitable.

Two valuable contributions to the literature of the subject were put in by the veteran sanitarian, Edwin Chadwick, viz., one on "Sanitary Sewage and Water Supply," the other on "The Sanitary Condition of Water Supplies."

The proceedings of Section II. then terminated.

EDWARD COOKWORTHY ROBINS,
Honorary Secretary.

SECTION III-CHEMISTRY, METEOROLOGY, AND

GEOLOGY.

Section III. met in the Council Chamber of the Town Hall, Bolton, at 10.30 a.m., on Friday, 23rd September, and Mr. Rogers Field, Vice-Chairman of the Council of the Institute, introduced Dr. August Dupré, F.R.S., as President of the Section.

Dr. Dupré then delivered an interesting address, dealing generally with the Chemistry of Water and Sewage; entering into a consideration of the pollution of Water Supplies, and of some of the methods

in use for the detection and estimation of such pollution. He advocated the collection of standards in respect of certain constituents of water, for different districts; and made several valuable remarks in connection with the treatment of sewage.

The President's address was listened to with much attention by a fairly good audience.

On the motion of Mr. Rogers Field, seconded by Mr. Gass, a vote of thanks to Dr. Dupré for his address was unanimously carried.

Dr. Percy Frankland read a paper on "The Application of Bacteriology to questions relating to Water Supply." The author dealt more especially with the value, from a sanitary point of view, of the estimation of the number of micro-organisms of all kinds in water, as compared with the detection of pathogenic organisms.

Dr. Louis Parkes read an able paper on Water Analysis, in which a number of important points were raised.

A discussion on both these papers took place, in which Dr. Alfred Carpenter, Messrs. De Rance, Pendlebury, Macassey, Dr. Dupré (President), and Mr. Cassal (Hon. Sec.) took part. Drs. Frankland and Parkes having replied, Mr. J. S. Haldane read a striking paper on "The Sources and Hygienic Significance of the Impurities of the Air of Buildings and Sewers." The paper was illustrated by several tables of results. In the discussion which ensued, Dr. Parkes, Dr. J. Martin, Dr. Carnelly, Dr. Dupré (President), and Mr. Haldane took part.

Mr. C. E. De Rance read a paper on "Underground Water Supplies." Several points of local interest and general importance were very ably dealt with in this paper. The following gentlemen took part in the discussion : Mr. Eccles, Mr. H. Crook, of Manchester, Mr. Tiddeman (Vice-President), and Dr. Dupré (President). Some valuable observations on the papers of Messrs. Haldane and De Rance were contributed by Mr. E. Chadwick, C.B., who regretted his inability to attend.

The discussions on the papers of Drs. Frankland and Parkes and of Messrs. Haldane and De Rance, would have been much longer had time permitted; a far greater number of points having been raised than could possibly be dealt with in the time.

The time for closing the meeting having arrived, the President announced that the papers of Messrs. J. Collins and G. S. Jones were taken as read. The Vicar of Bolton proposed a vote of thanks to Dr. Dupré for his conduct in the Presidential chair of the Section: this was seconded by Mr. Henry Law, and carried unanimously, and the work of the Section terminated.

CHARLES E. CASSAL,
Honorary Secretary.

REPORT OF THE JUDGES OF THE EXHIBITION, BOLTON, 1887.

We, the undersigned, the Judges appointed by the Council, beg leave to recommend to the Council the following distribution of Medals and Special Certificates, and of Certificates of Merit.

Exhibits which have already received Medals at the previous Exhibitions of the Institute are excluded from awards of Medals, but those Exhibits to which a second Medal would otherwise be awarded receive Special Certificates, and these are distinguished in the following list by asterisks.

MEDALS AND SPECIAL CERTIFICATES.

CLASS I.-CONSTRUCTION AND MACHINERY.
DOULTON & Co., Lambeth, for Peto Fireproof Flooring.
Fox, W., Leeds, for Corrugated Steel Tyre.

*GREENALL & Co., Manchester, for Steam Washer.

MANLOVE, ALLIOTT, FRYER & Co., Nottingham, for Johnston's Dryer.

ROTHWELL, W., Bolton, for Power Knitting Machinery.

CLASS II.-SEWERAGE AND WATER SUPPLY.

* DOULTON & Co., Lambeth, for Self-adjusting Joint for Stoneware Pipes.

*HEAP'S DRY CLOSET CO., Manchester, for Dry Earth Closet without Separator.

INTERNATIONAL WATER AND SEWAGE PURIFICATION Co., London, for Material for Filtering Water.

* MORRELL'S SANITARY COMPANY, Manchester, for Morrell's Cinder Sifting Ash Closet.

* WHITE, W. P., & Co., London, for Nicholls's Soot and Salt Closet.

CLASS III-HEATING, LIGHTING, AND VENTILATING. BENNIS, E., Bolton, for Smoke Preventing Mechanical Stoker and Camel Furnace.

ELLIOTT, EDMINSON & OLNEY, Manchester, for Welsbach's Incandescent Gas Burner.

* KIRKHAM, J. & W., Bolton, for the Blackman Air Propeller. VICARS, T. & T., Liverpool and London, for Mechanical Smoke Preventing Stoker and Furnace.

CLASS IV. PERSONAL HYGIENE, FOODS, FILTERS, AND DISINFECTANTS.

BURROUGHS, WELLCOME & Co., London, for Digestive Ferments and Invalid Food Preparations.

CONSTANTINE BROS., Bolton, for Jaeger's Sanitary Clothing. GALLOWAY, J., Bolton, for Plant for Aërating Mineral Waters. HASLAM, LEWIS, Bolton, for Kershaw's Cellular Cotton Fabric. A MAGNETIC FILTER COMPANY, London, for Spencer's Magnetic Filter. * MANLOVE, ALLIOTT, FRYER & Co., Nottingham, for Washington Lyon's Steam Disinfector.

TAYLOR'S CABINET MAKING AND UPHOLSTERY WAREHOUSE, Bolton, for Chorlton's Invalid Iron Bedstead with Wire Mattress.

CLASS V.-MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES OF SANITARY
INTEREST NOT INCLUDED IN THE ABOVE CLASSES.
GALLOWAY, J., Bolton, for "Lightning" Fire Extincteur.
HASLAM, J., Bolton, for "Reality" Hand Fire Extincteur.
LOVIBOND, J. W., Salisbury, for Tintometer.

CERTIFICATES OF MERIT.

CLASS I.-CONSTRUCTION AND MACHINERY. GALLOWAY, J., Bolton, for Gun Metal Boiler Fittings. GALLOWAY, J., Bolton, for Sight Feed Lubricator.

GREGSON, J., Bolton, for Removable Rain-water Pipe.

HEMBRY & Co., Manchester and London, for "Through-colour" Linoleum.

HINDLE, NORTON & Co., Oldham, for "Acme" Door-Check and
Spring.

A SANITARY DRY LIME CO., Bootle, for Sanitary Dry Lime.
B THOMPSON, H., & Co., London, for Magnetic Oxide Paint.
WRIGHT & Co., London, for Fireproof Fixing Blocks.

CLASS II.-SEWERAGE AND WATER SUPPLY.
CUERDEN, R., Bolton, for Morrison's Spray Lavatory.
CUERDEN, R., Bolton, for Shanks's "Imperial" Lavatory.

CUERDEN, R., Bolton, for Shanks's "Reliable" Water-waste Pre

venter.

CUERDEN, R., Bolton, for Shanks's "Tubal" Wash-out Closet. DOULTON & Co., Lambeth, for Stoneware Safety Pipes, in Long Lengths.

A These were exhibited at York, but the testing was not completed in time for the last report.

B This was exhibited at Leicester, but the testing was not completed in time for the last report.

DOULTON & Co., Lambeth, for Improved Siphon Flush Tank. PARKINSON, SWEANEY & Co., Manchester, for Air-tight Soil Pail, with Slide Catch.

PARKINSON, SWEANEY & Co., Manchester, for Laws' Pathway Rubbish Receiver.

VAUSE, J., & SON, Bolton, for Cast-iron Smooth Bore Drain Pipes and Fittings.

VAUSE, J., & SON, Bolton, for Craig's White Enamelled Sinks. VAUSE, J., & SON, Bolton, for Ruffard's Enamelled Fire-clay Bath. VAUSE, J., & SON, Bolton, for Shanks's "Imperial" Lavatory. VAUSE, J., & SON, Bolton, for Shanks's "Reliable" Water-waste Preventer.

VAUSE, J., & SON, Bolton, for Shanks's "Tubal" Wash-out Closet. VAUSE, J., & SON, Bolton, for Shanks's Urinal with Tilting Flusher. VAUSE, J., & SON, Bolton, for Shanks's Wash-out Closet and Cistern combined, for Country Use.

WHITE, W. P., & Co., London, for Nicholls's Soot and Salt Urinal.

CLASS III.-HEATING, LIGHTING, AND VENTILATING. CONTROL AIR PROPELLER COMPANY, Bolton, for Humidifier and Air Inlet.

ELLIOTT, EDMINSON & OLNEY, Manchester, for "National" Kitchen Range.

HANCOCK, F. & C., Dudley, for New Cooker and Steamer.

HARGREAVES & BARDSLEY, Oldham, for "Eclipse" Gas Governor. MARITIME AND GENERAL IMPROVEMENT COMPANY, London, for Portable Electric Glow Lamp.

STOTT & Co., Manchester, for Combined Gas Governor and Cut-off Valve.

WILSON, CHARLES, & SONS, Leeds, for Open Gas Fire.

WILSON, CHARLES, & SONS, Leeds, for Gas Kettle.

CLASS IV. PERSONAL HYGIENE, FOODS, FILTERS, AND DISINFECTANTS.

BARLOW, W., Bolton, for "Souple" Boots.

CALVERT, F. C., & Co., Manchester, for Soluble 70 per cent. Carbolic Acid.

CLEWORTH, ISAAC, Bolton, for Cadbury's Chocolate and Cocoa Essence.

HUMPHREYS & THOMAS, Narberth, for All-Wool Flannels (Undyed). LYTHGOE, W. R., Bolton, for Confectionery with harmless colouring

matter.

MORRELL'S SANITARY COMPANY, Manchester, for Cinder Sifting Dust Bin.

ROTHWELL, W., Bolton, for Woollen Fabrics

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