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"crude" sewage-that is to say putrefactive sewage, with expensive and really useless disinfectants. Such chemistry speaks of utilising the putrid sewage of one hundred of the population on one acre of soil; sanitary science will now utilise the sewage of more than a hundred and fifty of the population for a greatly superior agricultural production on the same area. The people of Paris have had no experience of any condition of sewage except that of putridity, and hence, believing in none, and seeing but little except the irrigations with partially putrid, though very successful, irrigations at Gennevilliers, are much opposed to sewage irrigations immediately close to Paris. Even Dr. Jules Brocard, of the Academy of Medicine, who, in an able article in the Revue des Deux Mondes, advocates the removal of the anarchy of local administration in France, and the adoption of the principle I proposed a long time ago, of a centralisation of a scientific administration for the people, in place of the centralisation they now have-even he gives no exposition of the large organic difference and the economy of sewage which is undecomposed and fresh. He has probably seen nothing of it, and knows no more of it than the people of Paris. They, and indeed some members of the Institute, have noses vitiated by the putrefaction, and the common conditions of the filth diseases. They are, therefore, I am led to expect, as yet unprepared to accept the axiom that the condition and the capacity of superior legislation and of local executive administration may be popularly tested sanitarily by the nose. Members of the Political Economy Club of Paris, including the writer for the Journal des Debats, have to be informed, and to be impressed with the great maxim enunciated by H. I. Highness the Crown Prince, the President of the recent Congress at Vienna, that every subject has a money value, and how largely that value is depreciated, and strength and happiness is reduced by the existing removable conditions of insanitation.

It will, I expect, be found that at the present time double the expense is being incurred for disinfecting the sewage made putrid by the combined system in our Metropolis, by throwing away the productive power for the sustenance of some two hundred cows, than would suffice for the direct application of fresh sewage to the land, and maintaining conditions, despite of the report of Lord Bramwell's commission having declared them to be "a disgrace to the Metropolis and to civilisation."

When stripped of factitious adjuncts, water carriage, instead of being the dearest, will be found to be the cheapest and one of the most economical methods of agricultural production. It is to be observed that all the factitious charges which have been

specified the results of bad legislation and maladministration by incompetent hands, from which, for the public protection, it ought to be removed—are usually passed over without any examination, and are presented as the natural and necessary results of sewage farming that unavoidably render it more expensive than the prevalent ancient methods of agriculture. It is proper to note these great fallacies, and submit them for close examination, as was done by the Sanitary Congress for Berlin, which led to the adoption of the principle of the circulation of fresh sewage against that of stagnation and putridity; that is to say, of carrying a constant supply of pure spring water at high pressure into every house and into every flat of every house, and by self-cleansing house-drains and apparatus, conveying immediately away, and before decomposition could commence, the fouled water into self-cleansing sewers, and by those self-cleansing sewers conveying it at once fresh and unwasted on to decimed and prepared land. This is what is being done in that city, though somewhat less perfectly, I believe, than might be, and very wastefully and slowly, as I consider, for the relief of the population. The principles of sanitation are now, I consider, so far established that, on the plans of sanitary engineers, they might warrant a capitalist in contracting for the attainment of large results in the improvement in the health and strength and the great pecuniary economy of the charges of premature mortality, and the excessive sickness of the lower classes of the population.

On "The Sanitary Condition of Water Supplies," by EDWIN CHADWICK, C.B.

My earliest examinations led me to prefer, beyond all, supplies of soft water to hard water for the superior solubility of the soft water, for the saving of soap, of tea, and its superior potability over hard water. I do not remember that any question of supplies for the larger cities or towns in Lancashire came before our first General Board of Health, unless it was at Lancaster and one or two places where supplies on a correct sanitary principle were carried out by our Inspector, Sir Robert Rawlinson. At the time I heard of some infusions of peat in the common supplies of that period from the surface washings of lands I did not regard those infusions as very serious objections, as the peat was represented as containing tannin, an astringent of incon

siderable account. But later experiences have shown that the infusions of peat are seriously injurious-that in flood periods they produce serious dyspepsia; that at Glasgow, Aberdeen, Dublin and Manchester, during the floods of heavy rains, when the supplies are discoloured, they cannot be drank with safety for two or three months; and they are attended with the evil of creating a resource to alcoholic stimulants. It has been the practice of engineers who are not sanitarians to bring the water to the doors of private houses in bulk, and to leave the internal distributary apparatus to be provided by plumbers, who generally prefer and provide lead pipes for its superior convenience and for the profit of the expense. It fell to my own son, who is a sanitary engineer, to carry out a new system for working at Odessa, and he completed it with the capillories for the houses entirely with iron pipes. At all times soft water attacks and decomposes lead, and I am informed that at Manchester there has been a serious amount of lead poisoning, and so it will probably be at the other cities. The protection is, iron piping-armed by coating on Dr. Angus Smith's or other processes. All this goes to augment the importance of soft spring collections, and where only chalk or hard spring sources are available, to having the whole supply softened by the improvements on Clark's process, as is now done effectually at Canterbury Bushy, and an increasing number of other places. At these places water of eighteen degrees of hardness is reduced to not more than two or three degrees of hardness, or about the ordinary hardness of soft water supplies. In the lake supplies of towns such as Manchester, threads of water may be seen in dry months running down the hill sides, which a sanitary engineer should examine, when they will be found to be mostly the outcome of springs, which should be carefully collected at the outcome, and carried to a reservoir, whence the water may be distributed in its purity. As to the method of collection, I was led, from observation of the outcomes from land drainage, to propose that method of collection for the supply of the Metropolis from the uncultivated grounds of the Surrey sands. The method has been resorted to by the Grand Junction Company, at the instance of Mr. Best, a sanitary engineer, attended with a result never, I believe, known before of a collection of water in such a condition of purity as to need no first filtration from reservoirs, nor any second or domestic filtrations, and to be in every way superior to them. The first practice of engineers who are not sanitarians in the chief water supplies of our Metropolis displays the effects of ignorance of sanitary science in the omission of a due regard to the diverse sanitary effects of differences in the qualities of the aëration of the supplies. At

the sources of the Thames supply, as at Pangbourne, the water is clear and brilliant, and stones may be seen clearly at the bottom, some twenty or thirty feet deep. The water drank there is highly aërated and refreshing. Some way farther on the water was taken up for storage in open reservoirs. There algæ were generated, and died with extraordinary rapidity, leaving pernicious infusions of decaying animal matter. Taken from thence for urban distribution, under the intermittent system of supply, it was delivered into cisterns, whence it stagnated, was further de-aërated, and it absorbed town air. In the lower districts, in courts and alleys, in tubs over cesspools, it absorbs the cesspool air. Taken up by women into their overcrowded bedrooms, and kept stagnant in open vessels, it absorbed the pernicious foul air of the overcrowding. Surgeons who have performed operations there, and who have applied such water as there was there to wash their hands, usually find their hands smell disagreebly until they are rewashed. Generally, if there be any outbreak of malaria pervading a district, it is rapidly absorbed by exposed stagnant water, as in wells, and people are led to believe they have been poisoned. In these several conditions, the person drinking the water at its source may be said to be drinking pure and invigorating air. Drinking it after stagnation in the uncovered reservoir, he would be drinking it de-aërated, and with much vegetable and animal infusoria and some decaying animal matter. Drinking it after stagnation in a house cistern, he would be drinking inferior town air. Drinking it after stagnation in an open vat, in a court or alley, in the immediate vicinity of foul cesspools, he would be drinking cesspool air; or, after standing in the overcrowded single room, he would be drinking the foul and dangerous air of the apartment. The effective preventive of such insanitary conditions is direct delivery at constant high pressure of water from a pure source, which preserves the pure aëratum, and without any intervening cisternage or stagnant detention whatever. On the occurrence of the visitation of the cholera in 1848-49, we directed an examination of the conditions of courts and alleys, and then water supplies, when the supposition that the people did drink water a supposition very extensively entertained at presentwas treated with ridicule: they only drank beer. And this will be found to be very generally the conditions of distribution at present from the old insanitary works. The families of the poorer classes now also drink tea, or coffee, or water after boiling for cooking, which prevents, or considerably reduces, their dangers. The wealthy are protected by their Apollinaris, or other aërated waters, as their beverages. An instance is

stated of the dread of water supplies by the poor, that a mother who was taken with her children on an outing, was extremely anxious that they should not drink water, and only beer. The intake of water for the supply of the prisoners in the Millbank Prison was from the River Thames, sewer polluted, opposite. A change to a supply obtained from a spring source at Trafalgar Square, presented an overwhelming example of sanitary improvement in the health of the prisoners. In another paper submitted to the Congress I have presented other examples of errors prevalent in the treatment of water carriage for irrigation and sewage farming. The application of these great sanitary improvements for our Metropolis is at present impeded by the disunity of the private trading companies, which distribute their supplies with an injurious waste of not less than three out of five of the quantity consumed. I deem the application of the most advanced sanitary science to be requisite on every point of the question of water supplies, for the protection of the health and economy of the population, and against the wastefulness of ignorance, and of insanitary engineering.

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