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men occasionally looked into practical matters in a way which perhaps men who were not accustomed to them every day did not.

Mr. W. WILKINSON (Bury) thought it would be much better if the appliances could be sent to Bolton and practically tested there in the centre of the smoke-producing locality; this would give more satisfaction than referring the thing to London.

Mr. F. Scort (Manchester) thought the idea of initiating an enquiry into the means of smoke prevention a good one, and hoped the Council of the Institute would take it up. He had much pleasure in seconding the motion.

Mr. LEACH (Eccles) having been granted permission, proposed the following resolution: "That the Council of the Sanitary Institute be requested to institute an examination into the best methods of consuming smoke and to issue the result of their enquiries." The resolution was seconded and adopted.

Mr. H. FLETCHER (Bolton) in replying, said the difficulty most frequently alleged to exist was that of an insufficient number of boilers. He thought no one who erected more machinery than his boilers would drive should be allowed to create a public nuisance, on the plea that compliance with the Public Health Act might possibly affect the profits of his trade. With regard to domestic smoke, he said he did not under-rate it; his paper only referred to manufacturing smoke. He believed it presented a great difficulty. The use of coke he understood was the only remedy for it consistent with retaining the open fire. Saturday afternoons and Sundays shewed what might be attained in improving the atmosphere by the suppression of the tall chimney smoke. Vegetation could exist in such smoke as was then seen. Referring to the remark of the Clerk to the Borough Magistrates, that they could not convict while experts differed as to the best appliances, he said, he understood it was their duty to fine unless it could be proved that the nuisance was not preventible having regard to the nature of the manufacture. All that was necessary to prove was the practicability of obeying the law. If steam could be raised without smoke, in one place, it could in another. The best question to ask a smoke preventive machine maker was, have you one in operation within the area embraced by the Metropolitan Smoke Act? If he had, they might assume the apparatus to be a pretty good one. Mr. Darley made an excellent suggestion in submitting that the Galloways boilers at the Manchester Exhibition should be used for so good a national purpose as ascertaining the merits of smoke preventing contrivances. The firing of those ten boilers resulted in the emission of a cloud of smoke that was a disgrace to an engineering country, let alone an exhibition of the best that Manchester and its neighbourhood could do. An opportunity had been lost that might

never recur.

Mr. D. J. RUSSELL DUNCAN (London) said one gentleman appeared to be under the impression that a magistrate should act as a consulting engineer, and advise the people who came before him. With regard to magistrates being offenders, he could mention one place in Scotland where magistrates were very heavy offenders indeed, and where there was no law for smoke abatement.

Mr. FREEMAN (Bolton) remarked that they could not say the question had been left where they found it, because an important recommendation had been forwarded to the Council of the Institute. It was a matter of regret that they had been unavoidably hurried, but he trusted the subject would have greater attention devoted to it in the future than hitherto. Mr. Fletcher, he might remark, had shown publicly what he had been able to do himself, and there was no doubt many other people would strive with him to remedy as far as possible what was one of the great curses of a manufacturing district. In conclusion, he hoped that that Conference, and the views expressed, would impress themselves very forcibly upon the public generally, and result in some good being done in Bolton.

On "Sanitary Sewage and Water Supply," by EDWIN
CHADWICK, C.B.

I BEG to submit some statements of experiences at variance with statements that have been made to the Congress on sewage irrigation. In the first place, no perception is evinced in them of the great distinction for sanitation of sewage which is undecomposed, and the sewage of the common conditions of putrefaction; of sewage which feeds fish, and of sewage which kills them; of sewage which, for agricultural purposes, is wasted by putrefaction, and of sewage which is unwasted by decomposition, which has generally about a third more of power for agricultural production. Nor do they recognise the power of the production of fresh sewage as a means of removing the popu lar objections to sewage farms near towns with sewage that is putrefied, the results of bad drainage and of internal stagnation; nor that with sewage which is fresh there is a reduction of the evils that arise from the common high culture with solid manure; as that of the market garden-the culture of marachere-by top dressings with the solid dressings with decomposing manures. The great principle laid down by De Condalle, the greatest known vegetable physiologist of the last century, verified in

practical examples, and cited in our instructions, "that the future of agriculture would be in the distribution of food and water together at the same time," is neglected. The proofs are overlooked of the verifications that have appeared in various examples-that whilst the yield of ordinary agriculture is as one, that of the extraordinary agriculture, the marachere, or market garden culture, is as three and a half-the yield from the liquefied culture is as five and more. Thus at Croydon, on the fields irrigated with fresh manure, five cows are reared where only one was formerly. An adjacent well-conducted example gives a sixfold yield from the fresh liquefied manure culture.

It is extensively put about against the direct application of fresh sewerage to agricultural production that, as a rule, the utilisation of human excreta, either per se or in the form of sewage, is generally attended with very considerable loss, and that only in a very few cases has it been attended with a profit. Such statements denote very imperfect examinations, which would display the extraneous causes of loss from the application of the cheapest means of working. However, Professor Corfield, in his work on the utilisation of sewage, gives a table of the application of the sewage of sixteen towns, and states that, judging from the results of one year, after the repayment of capital for outlay in works connected with the sewage farms, in eleven farms out of the sixteen there is a profit to the ratepayers. That, as respects London, there should be any profit under the combined system adopted by the Vestries, would be a matter of surprise, when it is considered that of the water distributed full three-fifths is distributed in pernicious waste in the production of excrement-sodden subsoils; and as to the water-closets, two and three gallons are used where little more than half a gallon would suffice, altogether producing an extent of dilution that must render it worth little more than a fourth of its value under the separate system. At the time of our examination of the water supply of the Metropolis in 1850, it was found that by the service of large Cornish engines of ninety horse-power, upwards of seventy thousand gallons was raised one hundred feet high for a working expense of one shilling. With the improvement recently made in steam-engines, it will be possible to raise nearly double that amount for one shilling. And why could not sewage be distributed at a like charge by the like power? As to the profits of sewage farming, tenants are not in the habit of considering that they are obliged to disclose them; indeed, they generally be-little them for the apprehended increase of their landlords' unearned increments. In the case of the tenant for the farm of the sewage for Alder

shot, he gave it up, and it was inferred at once and declared that he gave it up because it would not pay; he gave it up on account of a severe illness and a succession to a large estate which required his immediate attention. He thought himself at liberty to show me from his accounts that, under extreme difficulties, from an inferior soil, and inferior and partly putrid sewage, he had made a profit of ten thousand pounds in eleven years, from about ninety acres, under these extraordinary difficulties. As to towns, take the instance of Croydon. Under the mistaken notion that the sewage can only be distributed by gravitation on lands in immediate contiguity to the town, a rent of upwards of ten pounds an acre was exacted for it, for land of which the ordinary rent was twenty-three shillings per acre. Then there was the wastefulness of ignorance of the municipality. Town councillors-utterly unacquainted with the new management and the increased skill it required-gave the management as Dr. A. Carpenter may recount, to a man of inferior capacity for management of an ordinary farm at the lowest wages; and yet with such conditions the farm yielded a little over the working expenses.

In almost every case, storm and subsoil water has been conveyed with the sewage, diluting, and thus reducing its manurial value, and increasing in volume at the time when the rainsodden land was least adapted for its reception.

As an example of the exactions with which sewage farms are frequently charged, it may be mentioned that one city desired to rent some land which rented at ten shillings an acre, but the Right Hon. Landlord exacted four pounds per acre for his supposed monopoly of a site where it could only be applied by gravitation. The average value of land was from twenty to thirty years' purchase, but 150 years' purchase have been charged by noble lords upon towns for the application of their sewage. These exactions of unearned increments-I have had the agreement of noble lords-might be well satisfied by a right of pre-emption for public purposes, at an average of two years of the previous rent. In addition to such factitious charges are the excessive legal expenses for obtaining the sanction of Parliament for local Acts for towns; expenses that would suffice for the construction of a large proportion of the really requisite works. Moreover, there are frequently large constructions of unnecessary and expensive works by civil engineers, who are unacquainted with the economies of construction required in agriculture. In addition to these there are the expenses of unnecessary works of disinfection, and construction of unnecessary reservoirs for stagnant detentions for " raw sewage" that would suffice for farm steadings.

In place of downward distribution through the soil for disinfection, and the discharge of the bulk of the sewage in wastedestructive of the fish of the river or the sea-there is properly the discharge of the sewage fresh, for inoffensive application on the surface of the land. Unscientific common agriculture gives usually only one top-dressing of manure a year (of manure in the solid form), in which it wastes in disintegration by the putrefactive insanitary decomposition, which makes the contiguity of market gardens at times specially offensive and injurious. The skilled horticulturist, the proper plant-feeder for sewage farming, gives two, three, or four dressings a week to the vegetation on the drained and prepared soil, as it may want to speed the growth of wood or leaf, or to develop superior fruit.

Where pipe distribution is used, as it may be the best for rapidity of distribution, over unequal surfaces, at from a halfpenny to a penny per ton, advice was particularly given for the large works at Rugby, as well as for farms, that plots of the land should be tested by distributions by hand or water-carts to determine its particular receptivity, and the extent of the pipeage that would suffice for it. By the common neglect of that advice, the extent and the expense of pipeage has been largely increased, often to double the extent of what would have sufficed, as well as double the area of land that was needed; and hence the like mistakes have occurred in the works for liquefied manure farms. And these defaults of want of skill and of competent science have been overlooked in the common allegation that sewage farms and "liquefied manure farms do not pay." Nevertheless, it may be observed that although liquefied manure culture is a delicate culture, requiring the skill of the horticulturist, and is beyond the capacity of the common agriculturist, the yield of the common liquefied manure farms has been from ten to twenty bushels per acre beyond the yield of common agriculture, with a real increase of profit. One detriment to the liquefied culture has frequently been that the highly superior quality of the produce in grass has brought from game preserves, and from extraordinarily long distances, rabbits and hares which the farmers were not allowed to kill in their own defence.

Competent superior administration would by competent central administration, and by that alone, protect the population of towns by the enforcement of the old common law responsibilities for nonfeasance, for misfeasance, and malfeasance which still subsist, although they may have fallen into desuetude and press for revival.

Insanitary chemistry only proposes to treat "raw" sewage

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