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what our towns and cities might become. The tendency to look to the Municipality or to the Government to provide ornament as well as to be a restraining force, must always be jealously guarded against. He agreed very much with Mr. Ruskin, when he said that after all most of the splendid towns and cities they knew of had been beautified at least in the greater degree by private munificence. Nevertheless it was their duty to see that due regard should be paid to health conditions in towns, and anyone who desired to form an opinion as to the mode in which the necessary improvements might be carried out would do well to study the paper they had just heard, so that he might be ready to judge by its light as to the appropriateness and effectiveness of what he knew and saw to be going on in his own neighbourhood. He had great pleasure in moving a vote of thanks to Professor Hayter Lewis for his Address.

Mr. R. H. FREEMAN, F.R.I.B.A. (Bolton), seconded the motion, and said he thought he might be allowed to refer for a moment to one point brought out in the Address. That was that something more than mere utility was wanted in their buildings, and also in the arrangement of their streets. He thought that the Corporation of Bolton had recognised this fact, and that their public buildings had not been dealt with entirely from a purely utilitarian point of view. They had caused to be erected structures of which the inhabitants were proud, and which they could look on with satisfaction. He had much pleasure in seconding the vote of thanks to Professor Lewis.

The resolution was carried.

On "Sanitary Apparatus for Convenience in Factories," by J. J. BRADSHAW, F.R.I.B.A.

It is perhaps well to say that this paper is prepared rather as a statement of the actual facts of general practice than otherwise. A few suggestions arising out of the subject are made in such places as they naturally occur; but the object of the writer has not been to introduce new schemes so much as to leave these to be brought forward during the subsequent discussion by anyone wishing to introduce the same.

This subject is one which will not be found generally attractive, yet it is of great importance to the health of workers in manufactories, and has such special reference to the work of a Sanitary Association, that I have felt little hesitation in

accepting the invitation of the Secretaries to introduce it in as brief a manner as possible to the notice of the Congress.

The term "factory" is locally applied only to "cotton spinning mills," but this is of little importance, as the provisions required are similar to those of other manufacturing establishments, but becoming more important, and also more difficult of application, from the fact that the rooms in which the actual process of spinning is carried on must be maintained at an average temperature of about 80°.

The question of VENTILATION naturally suggests itself for first consideration, as-unlike the accidents from machinery which cannot be hidden, as they are direct in their consequences "the evils which follow constant employment in overcrowded and ill-ventilated work-rooms are insidious in their inception, rarely complained of openly by the sufferers, and do not in their effects appeal so readily to the sympathy of employers as do the injuries to the person caused by machinery.'

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The subject of this paper being restricted to factories, and therefore presumably to buildings specially intended for their purposes, excludes from its consideration the numerous cases of occupations on the small scale of those carried on in dwellinghouses, or rooms attached to tailors' or drapers' shops.

In many of the engineering and other ironworks the trade is carried out practically on the ground floor, and only enclosed with a view to protection from weather; and the cubical air space is so large and frequently changed that the ventilation is sufficiently secured without artificial aid; and in cases where special need arises, fans or other means of inducing currents are generally applied. The same remarks may be made as to the bleaching, paper-making, and other trades of this locality, but attention may perhaps be best given to the cotton-spinning trade as being the leading one of the district.

In the various processes of the spinning trade, ventilation is subject to very special conditions, as the nature of the material manipulated renders it very susceptible to variations of atmosphere, and necessitates a regular temperature, improved by a slight amount of moisture, which, in some of the processes of preparing the yarn for the weaver, must be maintained at not less than 60° during the earlier, and from 80° to 90° during the latter processes.

The case is further complicated by the difficulty of dealing with the fine dust and fluff without injury to the delicate fibre of the material; the amount of dust being much greater in all the processes of preparing coarse yarns, such as are spun from

* H. M. Inspector of Factories Reports, 1885, p. 15.

American cotton in the Oldham district, than in the finer counts spun from Egyptian cotton in the Bolton trade; the amount of dust being perhaps in proportion to the greater weight of the material used in the one case over the other, though the finer counts are more delicate and easily damaged.

By the factory regulation of non-textile work-rooms, 250 cubic feet of air space are required for each person employed during ordinary hours, and 400 cubic feet where overtime is worked; in soldiers' barracks 600 cubic feet are required; and in hospitals for ordinary cases 1,800 cubic feet, and in those for infectious diseases 2,400 feet are generally allowed; but it must be noted that in all these cases provision should be made for frequent changing of the air of the rooms.

As regards cubical space the operative in a cotton-spinning concern is very favourably situated, the worker, even in the most crowded part of the card room, having never, in a modern mill, less than 4,500 cubic feet, and in a spinning room from 9,000 to 11,000 cubic feet of space. In weaving sheds, which are more crowded, Messrs. Bridge and Osborn, in their Report of 1st October, 1883, on "Heavy Sizing in Cotton weaving," give, as the result of their observation, a cubical space to each worker of 1,800 to 2,400 cubic feet. The same Report, however, contains an observation which applies to all these cases: "The fact, however, is that to maintain a wholesome atmosphere, an allowance of 3,000 cubic feet, or on the lowest computation of 2,000 feet, should be supplied to each person during every hour. This, in the case of weaving sheds, would imply that the air was changed once in every three-quarters of an hour, or 12 or 13 times during the working day. It may reasonably be doubted whether during that period it is changed effectively so often as once. Assuredly the slender currents of fresh air which may penetrate through crevices in woodwork, through broken window frames, or through casually opened doors, would not suffice for this."

It is thus evident that overcrowding is not one of the evils of this trade. The questions of the maintenance of an even temperature and of the change of atmosphere in all cases, and the removal of dust in most of the processes, are however more difficult to deal with. The last-named point arises in the first process-that of opening, in a room of ordinary temperature, the bales of raw material which have been closely pressed for shipment and which, when opened, are found to have a considerable quantity of dust in them, besides the occasional

adulteration of sand or other worthless matter.

* H. M. Inspector of Factories, 1883, p. 33. Order, April, 1883.

The heavier portions of this drop to the floor and are cleared away as required: the lighter portions, however, during the opening and following process of mixing the contents of the various bales, float about in the atmosphere, often making it thick with dust, from which the more careful workers protect themselves to some extent by a homely respirator extemporised from a piece of the cotton itself. There are, however, generally speaking, in each mill only a small number of persons engaged for a short time once or twice a week in these processes, which are necessarily carried on in the large area needed for the storage of bales of the raw material, and the amount of material used being much larger in coarse than in fine spinning mills.

Fans or other modes of creating currents to carry off the lighter particles of dust might be with great advantage more generally employed.

The process of scutching, in a temperature about 60° or 64°, is continuous, and carried on in a separate room. The heavier portions of dust are carried by fans in each machine into a specially formed chamber, and though these to some extent ventilate the room, there is still the constant presence of fine dust which affects the workers in it prejudicially. Inlet Tobin tubes and extracting fans might be with advantage more generally adopted, but the current must be so regulated as not to affect what is technically known as "the lap or roll of a loosely-compacted sheet of cotton.

Carding, in a room of similar temperature, is the next process: this is also dusty, and in many cases, even in fine counts, is either carried on in a separate room or that portion of the room is screened off from the rest by glazed partitions. Many efforts have been made to clear off the dust in this process, but none has yet been so successful as to secure general adoption; the difficulties in the way of a perfect process being very great. The heavier particles of dust are to a large extent collected in the carding engine itself, and the lighter particles can scarcely be removed without also carrying away the lighter portions of the fibre. The thickest cloud of dust is, however, caused by cleaning and grinding the machines, each of which requires, for one purpose or the other, attention during the day from the "stripper and grinder," as these workmen are called.

In some instances a series of tubes, with an inverted hopper over each machine, and the whole connected to a main trunk, fitted with a fan to draw up the air and dust by suction, have been tried, and in other cases powerful fans have been placed at various points in the room, but nothing has yet been found so satisfactory as to secure general adoption, and which is at once sufficiently powerful to clear the dust and still so gentle


as not to injure the lap or the film of cotton proceeding from the machine in a long loose coil of delicate fibres to the tall can in which it is placed for removal. The other portions of the card room, when other machinery is placed in same room, are much freer from dust, and are occupied by various frames, which in succession make the cotton into a more closely-compacted and finer thread, the delicacy of which will perhaps be best understood by the general audience when the fact is stated that screens are regularly put up to protect them from draft and dust and the breaking of the threads, or as it is graphically termed "the falling of the ends," caused by the opening of a door from a staircase or any room which communicates with the external atmosphere.

From the frames the cotton is taken to the spinning-rooms: these are the most free from dust, and have to be maintained at a temperature of from 80° to 90°, and in which the thread becomes increasingly sensitive from its fineness and the rapidity of the motion of the machinery; this renders it specially susceptible to any current of air, and also to any dryness of the atmosphere, such as is caused by east wind or dry frost, and also to the presence of dirt of any kind floating about.

The delicacy of the thread and fibres after leaving the carding machines, and the needed heat of the mule-spinning rooms, the absence of all which will affect the required colour or cleanliness of the yarns, especially those of finer counts, and the everincreasing necessity to lessen expenses in production, render the question of ventilation difficult; besides which many think it needless from the great cubical space for each worker. This last fact undoubtedly lessens the inconvenience, but there can be no question, I think, but that the health of the cotton operative would be of a more robust character, and there would be less lung and throat disease, if the atmosphere was regularly changed.

At present the need only appears to be felt when there is such a wave of heat generated by summer sun and the rapid movement of the machinery that it becomes unbearable to the workers, and this is then dealt with by the usual method of opening the swing casements provided in a portion of the windows near the ceiling; in all other seasons every cranny and aperture where cold air can enter is carefully stopped up, and if inlets for air are provided during the construction of the building, they are after a short experience invariably blocked up. I may however, remind you that any one who takes the trouble to examine the ventilators of a public building or private residence in a year or two after the novelty of their introduction has worn off, finds such to be generally the case.

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