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what has been, who can look upon a family, however full of promise, where temperate drinking is tolerated, without shuddering at the thought of what awaits some, perhaps all of its members in future.

"If the temperate use of the wines of France, with whose drinking usages you have become familiar, have induced, to such an extent, disease in the human stomach as Broussais, from actual dissections, declares, what must be expected from a similar use of the intenser poisons contained in the fabricated liquors manufactured and sold, and drank in this Republic? Or, what must be thought of the wisdom of promulgating the license for their use, which you have promulgated? and (unless counteracted,) what must be the consequence of its promulgation ?

"Especially, what must be the consequences of its promulgation, by one charged not only with the duty of watching over the lives and the health of our citizens, but with the still graver duty of watching over the morals, and forming the characters of others to sustain elsewhere, and in future times, the same high office.

"What must the millions of total abstinence citizens in this Republic think of an institution, planted at the capital of the Empire State, for the education of youth in the healing art, in which institution the salutary restraints, which an enlightened public opinion has recently imposed on the rising generation, are to be removed; in which institution the efforts to banish the entire use of intoxicating poisons are to be counteracted, and in which those destined hereafter to stand at the side of the sick bed as sentinels, to watch those crises of disease on which the issues of life and death depend, are to be taught, in place of preserving that clearness of intellect and firmness of nerve which total abstinence secures, that it will be befitting for them to indulge in the moderate use of intoxicating liquors, and, that in place of considering that there is any fixed limit

to that use that must never be transgressed, that each 'must judge for himself how far he can go with safety.'

"Who, that is interested in the character of our institutions, the health of our citizens, the morals of our youth, or the best interests of the human race, can fail to be afflicted at such an apparent retrograde movement in morals, as well as science, as the promulgation of such a license among us would seem to imply.

"You say, 'One who crosses a river, runs some risk of being drowned;' and you ask, 'will you therefore say that the act of crossing the river produces a state of incipient asphyxia?' I answer, I would not; still, if that river were deep and rapid, and had proved fatal to thousands who had undertaken to ford it, I should advise all travelers to cross on the total abstinence bridge, where there was no danger of drowning, rather than encounter the current of the treacherous, moderate drinker's stream which flowed beneath; and the children, too, sporting on the verge of its excavated banks, I should warn away, rather than encourage them to see how far they could wade out from the shore with safety.

"Far be it from me to impute to you any design, by the advocacy of moderate drinking, to encourage inebriation. I doubt not you would shrink from the idea of corrupting, by your counsels, the rising generation; or confirming the risen generation in habits that must prove ruinous. Still, it is my deliberate and solemn conviction that your writings tend, and only tend, to do both. And an earnest anticipation of what they will hereafter effect, is furnished in the estimation in which they are held alike by the drunkard and the drinker, and in the encouragement they have imparted to the hopes, and the confirmation they have given to the habits of both.

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Trusting that the evils deprecated as the consequence of what you have already written, will, through the good providence of God, be prevented; and hoping that you will, ere

long, yourself perceive that you are in a false position, and, changing that position, come to the aid of total abstinence-a practice safe and salutary, and worthy to be defended by the loftiest talents, and full of promise both to the church and the world."-The Enquirer, No. 3, vol. I, p. 127.

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"But now I have written unto you, if any man that is called a brother be a fornicator, or covetous, or an idolater, or a railer, or a drunkard, (alcoholic poisoner,) with such an one no not to eat:" (I Cor. v, 11.) They are not all Israel who are of Israel:" (Romans ix, 6.) How many persons ought to be ejected from the church of Christ, (if the views given above, of drunkenness, be Scriptural,) whose society is now courted, and who form a very large proportion of those who frequent the house and table of the Lord?

"Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these, adultery, fornication, murders, drunkenness, (poisoning,) revellings and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in times past, that they which do such things shall not inherit the Kingdom of God:" (Gal. v, 19, 21.)

If the views, above mentioned, be correct, is there not reason to fear that many of those who are now confident that they are "fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God," may come short of the promised rest, and never tread the golden streets of the New Jerusalem-drink of the water-or eat of the bread of life? "There shall in no wise enter into it, anything that defileth, neither whatsoever worketh abominations or maketh a lie, but they which are written in the Lamb's book of life" (Rev. xxi, 27.)

My dear brother,

Yours affectionately,

JOHN MAIR.

MY DEAR SIR,

LETTER X.

The first Bible interdict of wine and strong drink, is to be found in Lev. x, 8-11. The words are: "And the Lord spake unto Aaron, saying, Do not drink wine nor strong drink, thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die: it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations: and that ye may put difference between holy and unholy, and between unclean and clean; and that ye may teach the children of Israel all the statutes which the Lord hath spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.'

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The awful event which was the occasion of the promulgation of this law, is recorded in the preceding verses of this chapter. Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, the High Priest, were destroyed by the igneous element (probably electric fire,) for offering strange fire before the Lord, thus disobeying the commandment (Exod. xxx, 9) which forbids the offering of strange incense upon the altar of incense.

This crime seems to have consisted chiefly in contempt of God's way of receiving intercession for sin. The fire they used was their own fire, "sparks of their own kindling." But what was the cause of this misconduct? Evidently the use of some intoxicating liquor, which had impaired their mental soundness, clouded their judgments, blunted their senses, inflamed their passions, and impelled them, in an infatuated and inebriated state, to rush impetuously into the holy place with strange fire, and draw down upon their guilty heads the fire of Divine vengeance! The command, "Do not drink wine," &c., in connexion with the sudden and awful death inflicted upon these priestly transgressors, and the reasons assigned for the specific prohibition, then for the first time published, cannot be other

wise accounted for. No doubt these anointed Priests knew that Noah had fallen into the sin of drunkenness, and Lot after him, and they should have been rigidly on their guard not to drink anything intoxicating, when about to engage in the sacred services of the tabernacle, so that they might have all their senses about them, and their moral and intellectual faculties clear and unimpaired when approaching the Most High God; for He had said, "I will be sanctified in them that come nigh me, and before all the people I will be glorified:" (Lev. x, 3.)

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They committed two evils: 1st, they failed to distinguish between the wine, or liquor, which, in its nature, is “a mocker,' and that which is innocent, and drank of that poisonous wine, or liquor; and 2d, as the consequence of the preceding crime, they fell into the grievous sin of confounding things holy and profane, even the righteousness of Jesus, as symbolized by the sacred fire of the altar of burnt offering, and His all-prevailing intercession, as emanating from it, with their own inherent and acquired vileness and sinfulness! To prevent the recurrence of these evils, Jehovah ordained the law above referred to, viz: "Do not drink wine," &c.

In considering this passage, a distinction should be made between the part of the law which is judicial, and applicable to the Jewish theocracy only, and that which is moral, and therefore of perpetual obligation. The punishment of death was of the former class. The reasons assigned, for the declarative part of the law, prove that it belonged to the latter class.

The very essence of the sin of drunkenness is here brought out by implication, viz: obscuration of the intellect, destruction, or depravation of the moral sense, and paralysis of the heart, or that state of mind (using the term in its widest sense,) where the man is rendered incapable of distinguishing between holy and unholy, clean and unclean, and of teaching the precepts of God. The chain of causation is complete, 1st, the use of wine, or strong drink; 2d, the obscuration and

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