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"Yet fince all of mortal frame.
"Must be number'd with the dead,
Who in dark inglorious fhade
"Would his ufelefs life confumé,
And, with deedlefs years decay'd,
"Sink unhonour'd to the tomb ?
"I that fhameful lot difdain;

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I this doubtful lift will prove :
May my vows from thee obtain
"Conqueft, and the prize of love!"
Thus he pray'd, and mov'd the God;
Who, his bold attempt to grace,
On the favour'd youth bestow'd

Steeds unwearied in the race:
Steeds with winged speed endued,
Harness'd to a golden car.
So was Pifa's king fubdued;

Pelops fo obtain'd the fair;
From whole womb a noble brood,
Six illuftrious brothers came,
All with virtuous minds endow'd,
Leaders all of mighty fame.

Now in the folemn service of the dead,
Rank'd with immortal Gods, great Pelops
While to his altar on the watery bed [fhares;
Of Alpheus rais'd, from every clime repairs
The wondering ftranger, to behold
The glories of th' Olympic plain;
Where, the refplendent wreath to gain,
Contend the swift, the active, and the bold.

Happy he, whofe glorious brow

Pifa's honour'd chaplets crown!

Calm his ftream of life fhall flow
Shelter'd by his high renown.
That alone his blifs fupreme,

Which, unknowing to decay,
Still with ever-fhining beam
Gladdens each fucceeding day.
Then for happy Hiero weave

Garlands of Eolian ftrains;
Him thele honours to receive
The Olympic law ordains.

No more worthy of her lay
Can the mufe a Mortal find;
Greater in imperial fway,

Richer in a virtuous mind;
Heaven, O king, with tender care
Waits thy wishes to fulfil.
Then ere long will I prepare,
Plac'd on Chronium's funny hill,
Thee in fweeter verfe to praise,
Following thy victorious steeds;
If to profper all thy ways

Still thy Guardian God proceeds.

Fate hath in various stations rank'd mankind?
In royal power the long gradations end.
By that horizon prudently confin'd,

Let not thy hopes to farther views extend.
Long may'ft thou wear the regal crown!

And may thy Bard his with receive,
With thee, and fuch as thee to live,
Around his native Greece for wisdom known



This Ode is infcribed to Theron King of Agrigentum, who came off Conqueror in the Rate of Chariots drawn by four Horfes, in the Seventy-feventh Olympiad.

The Poet, in anfwer to the question, What God, what Hero, and what Mortal he should fing (with which words this Ode immediately begins) having named Jupiter and Hercules, not only as the fir of gods and heroes, but as they were peculiarly related to his fubject; the one being the Protector, and the other the founder of the Olympic Games; falls directly into the prailes of Theron: by this method artfully infinuating, that Theron held the fame rank among all mortals, as the two former did among the gods and heroes. In enumerating the many excellencies of Theron, the Poet having made mention of the nobility of his family (a topic seldom or never omitted by Pindar) takes occafion to lay before him the various accidents and viciffitudes of human life, by inftances drawn from the hiftory of his own ancestors, the founders of Agrigentum; who, it seems, underwent many difficul ties, before they could build, and fettle themfelves in that city; where afterwards, indeed, they made a very confiderable figure, and were rewarded for their past fufferings with wealth and honour; ac cording to which method of proceeding, the Poet (alluding to fome misfortunes that had befallen Theron) befeeches Jupiter to deal with their pofterity, by recompenfing their former afflictions with a feries of peace and happiness for the future; in the enjoyment of which they would foon lofe the memory of whatever they had fuffered in times paft: the conftant effect of profperity being to make men forget their paft adverfity; which is the only reparation that can be made to them for the miferies they have undergone. The truth of this pofition he makes appear from the history of the fame family; by the farther inftances of Semele, Ino, and Therfander; and, laftly, of Theron himself, whose former cares and troubles, he infinuates, are repaid by his present happiness and vicBory in the Olympic Games: for his fuccefs in which, the Poet however intimates, that Theron was

so lefs indebted to his riches than to his virtue, fince he was enabled by the one, as well as difpofed by the other, to undergo the trouble and expence that was neceflary to qualify him for a candidate for the Olympic crown in particular, and, in general, for the performance of any great and worthy action for the words are general. From whence he takes occafion to tell him, that the man who poffeffes thefe treasures, viz. Riches and Virtue, that is, the means and the inclination of doing good and great actions, has the farther fatisfaction of knowing, that he fhall be rewarded for it hereafter; and go among the heroes into the Fortunate Islands (the Paradife of the Ancients), which he here defcribes; fome of whofe inhabitants are likewife mentioned by way of inciting Theron to an imitation of their actions; as Peleus, Cadmus, and Achilles. Here the Poet, finding himself, as well from the abundance of matter, as from the fertility of his own genius, in danger of wandering too far from his fubject, recalls his Mufe, and returns to the praife of Theron; whofe beneficence and ge nerofity he tells us, were not to be equalled: with which, and with fome reflections upon the ene mies and maligners of Theron, he concludes.

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And yet affliction's thorny road
In bitter anguish once they trod.
But blifs fuperior hath eras'd

The memory of their woe;
While Semele, on high Olympus plac'd,
To heavenly zephyrs bids her treffes flow,
Once by devouring lightnings all defac'd.

There, with immortal charms improv'd,
Inhabitant of Heaven's ferene abodes
She dwells, by virgin Pallas lov'd,
Lov'd by Saturnius, father of the gods;
Lov'd by her youthful fon, whofe brows divine
In twisting ivy bound, with joy eternal thine.

To Ino, Goddess of the Main,
The Fates an equal lot decree,
Rank'd with old Ocean's Nercid train,
Bright daughters of the sea.

Deep in the pearly realms below,
Immortal happiness to know.

But here our day's appointed end
To mortals is unknown;
Whether diftrefs our period fhall attend,
And in tumultuous ftorms our fun go down
Or to the fhades in peaceful calms defcend.
For various flows the tide of life,
Obnoxious ftill to fortune's veering gale;

Now rough with anguish, care, and ftrife,
O'erwhelming waves the fhatter'd bark affail:
Now glide ferene and smooth the limpid streamsə
And on the furface play Apollo's golden beams.

Thus, Fate, Theron, that with blifs divine
And glory once enrich'd thy ancient line,
Again reverfing every gracious deed,
Woe to thy wretched fires and shame decreed;
What time, encountering on the Phocian plain
By lucklefs Oedipus was Laius flain.
To parricade by fortune blindly led,
His father's precious life the hero shed;
Doom'd to fulfil the oracles of heaven, [given.
To Thebes' ill-deftin'd king by Pythian Phoebus

But with a fierce avenging eye
Erinnys the foul murder view'd,
And bade his warring offspring die,
By mutual rage fubdued.
Pierc'd by his brother's hateful steel
Thus haughty Polynices fell.
Therfander, born to calmer days,
Surviv'd his falling fire,

In youthful games to win immortal praise

And high in power, th’Adraftian house to raise.
Forth from this venerable root
Enefidamus and his Theron fpring;
For whom I touch my Dorian flute,
For whom triumphant ftrike my founding

Due to his glory is th' Aonian ftrain, [plain.
Whofe virtue gain'd the prize in fam'd Olympia's

Alone in fam'd Olympia's fand
The victor's chaplet Theron wore;
But with him on the Ifthmain strand,
On fweet Caftalia's shore,

The verdant crowns, the proud reward
Of victory his brother shar'd,
Copartner in immortal praife,

As warm'd with equal zeal.

The light foot courfer's generous breed to raise,
And whirl around the goal the fervid wheel.
The painful strife Olympia's wreath repays:
But wealth with nobler virtue join'd
The means and fair occafions mult procure;
In glory's chase must aid the mind,
Expence, and toil, and danger to endure;
With mingling rays they feed each other's flame,
And thine the brightest lamp in all the sphere of


The happy mortal, who these treasures shares,
Well knows what fate attends his generous cares;
Knows, that beyond the verge of life and light,
In the fad regions of infernal night,
The fierce, impracticable, churlish mind
Avenging gods and penal woes fhall find;
Where ftrict inquiring juftice fhall bewray
The crimes commited in the realms of day.
Th' impartial Judge the rigid law declares,
No more to be revers'd by penitence or prayers.

But in the happy fields of light,
Where Phoebus with an equal ray
Illuminates the balmy night,

And gilds the cloudless day,
In peaceful, unmolested joy,

The good their fmiling hours employ.
Them no uneafy wants conftrain

To vex th' ungrateful foil,

To tempt the dangers of the billowy main,
And break their ftrength with unabating toil,
A frail difaftrous being to maintain.

But in their joyous calm abodes,

The recompence of juftice they receive;
And in the fellowship of gods
Without a tear eternal ages live.

While, banish'd by the Fates from joy and rest,
Intolerable woes the impious foul infeft.

But they who, in true virtue strong,
The third purgation can endure;
And keep their minds from fraudful wrong
And guilt's contagion pure;

They through the ftarry paths of Jove
To Saturn's blisful feat remove;
Where fragrant breezes, vernal airs,

Sweet children of the main,
Purge the bleft ifland from corroding cares,
And fan the bofom of each verdant plain:

Whofe fertile foil immortal fruitage bears;

Trees, from whofe flaming branches flow
Array'd in golden bloom refulgent beams;

And flowers of golden hue, that blow
On the fresh borders of their parent streams.
Thefe, by the bleft in folemn triumph worn,
Their unpolluted hands and clustering locks adorn.

Such is the righteous will, the high beheft,
Of Rhadamanthus, ruler of the bleft:
The juft affeffor of the throne divine,
On which, high rais'd above all gods, recline,
Link'd in the golden bands of wedded love,
The great progenitors of thundering Jove.
There, in the number of the bleft enroll'd,
Live Cadmus, Peleus, heroes fam'd of old;
And young Achilles, to those isles remov'd,
Soon as,
by Thetis won, relenting Jove approv'd


Achilles, whofe refiitless might
Troy's ftable pillar overthrew,
The valiant Hector, firm in fight,
And hardly Cygnus flew,

And Memnon, offspring of the morn,
In torrid Ethiopia born---

Yet in my well-ftor'd breaft remain
Materials to fupply

With copious argument my moral strain,
Whose mystic sense the wife alone defcry,
Still to the vulgar founding harsh and vain.
He only, in whose ample breast
Nature hath true inherent genius pour'd,

The praife of wisdom may conteft;
Not they who, with loquacious learning ftor'd,
Like crows and chattering jays, with clamo-

rous cries

Pursue the bird of Jove, that fails along the skies,

Come on! thy brightest shafts prepare,
And bend, O Mufe, thy founding bow;
Say, through what paths of liquid air
Our arrows fhall we throw :
On Agrigentum fix thine eye,
Thither let all thy quiver fly.
And thou, O Agrigentum, hear,
While, with religious dread,
And taught the laws of justice to revere,
To heavenly vengeance I devote my head,
If aught to truth repugnant now I swear,
Swear, that no ftate, revolving o'er
The long memorials of recorded days,
Can fhow in all her boasted ftore

A name to parallel thy Theron's praife;
One to the acts of friendship fo inclin'd, [kind.
So fam'd for bounteous deeds, and love of human


Yet hath obftreperous envy fought to drown
The goodly mufic of his fweet renown;
While, by fome frantic fpirits borne along
To mad attempts of violence and wrong,
She turn'd against him faction's raging flood,
And ftrove with evil deeds to conquer good.
But who can number every fandy grain

Wath'd by Sicilia's hoarfe-refounding main?
Or who can Theron's generous works express,
And tell how many hearts his bounteous virtues



This Ode is likewife inferibed to Theron king of Agrigentum, upon the occafion of another Victory obtained by him in the Chariot-Race at Olympia; the date of which is unknown.

The Scholiaft acquaints us, that as Theron was celebrating the Theoxenia (a feftival instituted by Caftor and Pollux in honour of all the gods) he received the news of a victory obtained by his chariot in the Olympic Games: from this circumftance the poet takes occafion to address this Ode to those two deities and their fifter Helena, in whofe temple, the fame Scholiaft informs us, fome people with greatest probability conjectured, it was fung, at a folemn facrifice there offered by Theron to those deities, and to Hercules, alfo, as may be inferred from a paffage in the third Strophe of the Tranflation. But there is another, and a more poetical propriety in Pindar's invoking these divini ties, that is fuggefted in the Ode itself: for, after mentioning the occafion of his compofing it, namely, the Olympic Victory of Theron, and saying that a triumphal fong was a tribute due to that perfon upon whom the Hellanodic, or Judge of the Games, bestowed the facred Olive, according to the inftitution of their first founder Hercules, he proceeds to relate the fabulous, but legendary story, of that Hero's having brought that plant originally from Scythia, the country of the Hyperboreans, to Olympia; having planted it there near the temple of Jupiter, and ordered that the victors in those games fhould, for the future, be crowned with the branches of this facred tree. To this he adds, that Hercules upon his being removed to heaven, appointed the twin-brothers, Caftor and Pollux, to celebrate the Olympic Games, and execute the office of beftowing the Olive-crown upon those who obtained the victory; and now, continues Pindar, he comes a propitious gueft, to this facrifice of Theron, in company with the two fons of Leda, who, to reward the piety and zeal of Theron and his family, have given them fuccefs and glory; to the utmoft limits of which he infinuates that Theron is arrived, and so concludes with affirming, that it would be in vain for any man, wife or unwife, to attempt to surpass him.



WHILE to the fame of Agragas I fing,
For Theron wake the Olympic string,
And with Aonian garlands grace
His steeds unweary'd in the race,
O may the hofpitable twins of Jove,

And bright-hair'd Helena, the fong approve!
For this the Mufe beftow'd her aid,

As in new measures I effay'd

To harmonife the tuneful words,

And fet to Dorian airs my founding chords.


And lo! the conquering fteeds, whofe toffing
Olympia's verdant wreath befpreads,
The Mufe-imparted tribute claim,
Due, Theron, to thy glorious name;
And bid me temper in their master's praise

The flute, the warbling lyre, and melting lays.
Lo! Pifa too the fong requires!

Elean Pisa, that inspires

The glowing Bard with eager care
His heaven-directed prefent to prepare:

The present offer'd to his virtuous fame,
On whofe ennobled brows

The righteous umpire of the facred game,
Th' Etolian judge, bestows
The darkfome olive, ftudious to fulfil

The mighty founder's will,
Who this fair enfign of Olympic toil
From diftant Scythia's fruitful foil,

And Hyperborean Ifter's woody fhore,
With fair entreaties gain'd, to Grecian Elis



The blameless fervants of the Delphic God
With joy the valued gifts bestow'd;
Mov'd by the friendly chief to grant,
On terms of peace, the facred plant,
Deftin'd at once to fhade Jove's honour'd fhrine,
And crown heroic worth with wreaths divine.
For new full-orb'd the wandering moon
In plenitude of brightness shone,
And on the spacious eye of night
Pour'd all the radiance of her golden light:

Now on Jove's altars blaz'd the hallow'd

And now were fix'd the mighty games,
Again, when e'er the circling fun
Four times his annual courfe had run,
Their period to renew, and shine again
On Alpheus' craggy fhores and Pifa's plain:
But fubject all the region lay

To the fierce fun's infulting ray,
While upon Pelops' burning vale
No fhade arose his fury to repel.


Then traversing the hills, whofe jutting base
Indents Arcadia's meads,

To where the virgin goddess of the chafe
Impells her foaming feeds,

To Scythian Ifter he directs his way,
Doom'd by his father to obey
The rigid pleasures of Mycena's king,

And thence the rapid hind to bring,
Whom, facred present for the Orthian maid,
With horns of branching gold, Täygeta array'd.

There as the longfome chase the chief pursued,
The fpacious Scythian plains he view'd;
A land beyond the chilling blast
And northern caves of Boreas caft:
There too the groves of olive he survey'd,
And gaz'd with rapture on the pleasing shade,
Thence by the wondering hero borne
The goals of Elis to adorn.

And now, to Theron's facred feaft
With Leda's twins he comes, propitious guest!

To Leda's twins (when heaven's divine abodes
He fought, and mingled with the Gods)

He gave th' illuftrious Games to hold,
And crown the swift, the ftrong, and bold.
Then, Mufe, to Theron and his houfe proclaim
The joyous tidings of fuccefs and fame,
By Leda's twins bestow'd to grace,
Emmenides, thy pious race,

Who, mindful of heaven's high behefts,
With strictest zeal observe their holy feasts.

As water's vital streams all things surpass,
As gold's all-worship'd ore

Holds amid fortune's ftores the highest class;
So to that diftant fhore,

To where the pillars of Alcides rise,
Fame's utmoft boundaries,
Theron, pursuing his fuccessful way,

Hath deck'd with glory's brightest ray
His lineal virtues.-Farther to attain,
Wife, and unwife, with me despair: th' attempt
were vain.


fecond in the race of

This Ode is infcribed to Pfaumis of Camarina (a town in Sicily, who, in the eighty-second Olympiad, obtained three victories; one in the race of chariots drawn by four hories; the Apené, or chariot drawn by mules, and a third in the race of fingle horses. Some people (it seems) have doubted, whether this Ode be Pindar's, for certain reasons, which, together with the arguments on the other fide, the learned reader may find in the Oxford edition and others of this author; where it is clearly proved to be genuine. But, befides the reasons there gi ven for doubting if this Ode be Pindar's, there is another (though not mentioned, as I know of, by any one) which may have helped to biafs people in their judgment upon this question I shall therefore beg leave to confider it a little, because what I fhall fay upon that head, will tend to illuftrate both the meaning and the method of Pindar in this Ode. In the Greek editions of this Author there are two Odes (of which this is the second) infcribed to the fame Pfaumis, and dated both in the fame Olympiad. But they differ from each other in feveral particulars, as well in the matter as the manner. In the fecond Ode, notice is taken of three victories obtained by Píaumis; in the firft, of only one, viz. that obtained by him in the race of chariots drawn by four horfes: in the fecond, not only the city of Camarina, but the lake of the fame name, many rivers adjoining to it, and fome circumftances relating to the present ftate, and the rebuilding of that city (which had been destroyed by the Syracufians fome years before) are mentioned; whereas in the first, Camarina is barely named, as the country of the conqueror, and as it were out of form: from all which I conclude, that these two Odes were compofed to be fung at different times, and in different places; the first at Olympia, immediately upon Pfaumis's being proclaimed conqueror in the chariot-race, and before he obtained his other two victories. This may with great probability be inferred, as well from no mention being there made of those two victories, as from the prayer which the poet fubjoins immedi ately to his account of the first, viz. that heaven would in like manner be favourable to the rest of the victor's wifhes; which prayer, though it be in general words, and one frequently used by Pindar in other of his Odes, yet has a peculiar beauty and propriety, if taken to relate to the other two exercifes, in which Pfaumis was ftill to contend; and in which he afterwards came off victorious. That it was the custom for a conqueror, at the time of his being proclaimed, to be attended by a chorus, who fung a fong of triumph in honour of his victory, I have obferved in the Differtation prefixed to thefe Odes. In the second, there are so many marks of its having been made to be fung at the triumphal entry of Pfaumis into his own country, and those so evident, that, after this hint given, the reader cannot help observing them as he goes through the Ode. I fhall therefore fay nothing more of them in this place; but that they tend, by fhowing for what occafion this Ode was calculated, to confirm what I said relating to the other; and jointly with that to prove, that there is no reason to conclude from there being two Odes infcribed to the fame perfon, and dated in the fame Olympaid, that the latter is not Pindar's, especially as it appears, both in the style and spirit, altogether worthy of him.


The Poet begins with addreffing himself to Camarina, a fea nymph, from whom the city and lake were both named, to befpeak a favourable reception of his Ode, a prefent which he tells her was

See Mr. Well's preface, P, 120.

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