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It is evident that the word "modesty " has changed its meaning since the fifteenth century. However that may be, Cæsar has become a State within the State; he corresponds with princes, with the house of Este and the Medici; he distributes his favors and is forming a party. As a cardinal-deacon he had up to this time received only the lesser orders; he now took his place in the Consistory after an inquiry into the legitimacy of his birth.

The element of vice will be eliminated [writes the same ambassador] - he will be legitimate because he was born in the lifetime of his mother's husband; there is no doubt about that-the husband was alive, he was on the spot, unless he happened to be in the town or running hither or thither in the discharge of the office he held in the domains of

with three previously unknown docu- | of Valencia has never had any inclination for ments: the original letter which the fif- the priesthood, but it must be remembered teen-year-old prelate writes to the town that his benefice brings him in more than sixcouncil to announce his appointment; that teen thousand ducats. by which his father, the vice-chancellor, supports the bull of Innocent XII.; and finally, Cæsar's notification to the abovementioned council of his choice of Don Martin de Zapata, treasurer of the church of Toledo, as his deputy and administrator. Rodrigo Borgia, his father, having been elected pope under the name of Alexander VI. on the 11th of August, 1492, twenty days later his son was made Cardinal of Valencia. After spending some time in retirement in Spoleto, while the marriage between his sister Lucrezia and Giovanni Sforza, lord of Pesaro, was being negotiated, the young cardinal appeared at Rome in the beginning of the year 1493, and immediately on his arrival his father granted him the rank to which he was entitled. At the age of seventeen we find him the second personage in the State. His father had set up an establishment for him in the Transtevere, where he had The ecclesiastical rules were not made his intimates, his flatterers, and his little for Cæsar, nor had he any idea of concourt; and the ambassadors, who knew the forming to them. We find him, dressed violent affection (svisceratissimo amore, à la Française (more Gallico), going out says Paolo Giovio) which Pope Alexander hunting with his sword at his side. The VI. bore to his children, came to pay day will even come when (to the scandal their homage to Cæsar, as a means of in- of some) he will put on the Oriental caftan gratiating themselves with his father. G. and turban to accompany Djem or Zizim, A. Boccacio, Bishop of Modena, envoy of the brother of the sultan of Constantinople the duke of Ferrara, on leaving the pres- and the hostage of the Vatican. His libence of the cardinal on the 19th of March, erality was already great — he scattered 1493, gives the following account of his gold with an open hand; and his father, visit to Ercole d' Este :whose one idea was to make him and Lucrezia powerful, began to have some fears regarding his prodigality. He was rich, too, richer than the ambassador says, for he had of his own, besides his benefice, the churches of Castres and those of Perpignan, and thirty thousand ducats a year from the Church of San Michele at Arezzo alone.

The other day I went to see Cæsar at his own house in the Transtevere; he was just going out hunting, and wore an absolutely uncanonical costume; he was dressed in silk, with his sword at his side, and just a little circle on his head to remind one of the tonsured priest. We pursued our course together on horseback, conversing by the way. I am one of the most intimate among those who visit him. He is of great talents, of superior intellect, and a charming disposition; manners are those of the son of a potentate, his temper is even and cheerful, he is full of mirth. He possesses singular modesty, and his attitude is much preferable to that of his brother the Duke of Gandia, who is not, however, without good qualities. The Archbishop


the Church.

On the 23d of November, 1493, Alexander VI. proceeded in great state to Orvieto to reorganize the territory, to which he was to add Bagnorea, Montefiascone, Bolsena, Acquapendente, and the villages of the Val di Lago. The young Borgia was to be perpetual governor and protector of Orvieto, with the title of

legate a latere. But this was not a large | enteen wagons, with their drapery emenough stage for him; Italy was soon broidered with his arms, which were to become the field of battle where the supposed to contain all the baggage, plate, quarrels of Europe were fought out. In and riches of all kinds with which they November, 1494, Charles VIII., king of were so ostentatiously loaded at the time France, entered Florence, determined to of leaving Rome, fifteen still remained assert the rights of the house of France intact, which were discovered on examito the kingdom of Naples; in January, nation to be simply filled with hay. The 1495, he had passed the gates of Rome. two other fourgons, which did actually Cæsar's turn was now coming; he would carry his treasure, had turned aside on the seen be a hostage in the hands of the pretext of the breaking of an axle, and king, and would accompany his staff the had returned to Rome, —an indubitable day he marched to the conquest of Naples. proof that his flight was premeditated. Our said Holy Father is content [says the treaty of alliance] that my Lord Cardinal of Valencia should go with the king to bear him company, with fitting and honorable state, as is customary to him. And the king, for the honor of our said Holy Father, shall receive him honorably and treat him graciously, as belongs to his condition and dignity. And the said Lord Cardinal shall remain with the king for the space of four months, more or less.

The first day on which he suffered this constraint, the personality of the young cardinal shows itself; he was soon to display his daring, his craft, and his power of dissimulation, without caring for the perils he might bring upon the head of the pope.

On the 28th of January, 1495, Charles VIII. had left Rome to proceed to Naples, Cæsar riding on his right hand. For the first stage they lay at Marino, the sec ond at Velletri. At the latter place the hostage of the Vatican accompanied the king to the lodging which had been prepared for him, and then retired, in his turn, to his own quarters; but in the middle of the night, having put on the dress of a groom, he passed through the town on foot, and met the chancellor of the Podestà of Velletri, who was awaiting him with a horse a mile and a half from the walls, and returned towards Rome at full speed. He refrained from presenting himself at the Vatican for fear of compromising his Holiness, and sought shelter with Antonio Flores, auditor of the Rota. In the morning the alarm was given in the royal camp, the cardinal of Valencia was searched for high and low and his servants examined. Out of the long train of sev

In the month of May following, Charles VIII., having made himself master of Naples, entered Rome a second time, resolved to punish the treachery of his hostage and to obtain the investiture of the kingdom of Naples, which he had conquered; but Alexander VI. and Cæsar had fled to Orvieto, and had organized a league against the French, who therefore retreated towards the north. This is the first trait we observe of the character of this wily personage, impatient of every yoke, who holds his own against all, even against the king of France. Alexander recognized in him his true son; compromised as he might be by Cæsar, he admired him and treated him with unbounded indulgence. Initiated as he now was into vast political schemes and intrigues of all kinds, the confidant of his father, whose project was to destroy the power of the Roman barons, the Orsini, the Colonnas, the Gaëtani, who held the Vatican in check at the gates of Rome and in Rome itself, and whose possessions were enormous, their retainers too numerous and their forces almost equal to those of the Holy See, what part could an ecclesiastic take in the struggle which was about to commence against feudal authority, to be completed at a later period by the reconstitution of the whole patrimony of St. Peter, the prodigious aim of a monstrous reign? Cæsar's part could only be, at the most, that which the spirit of intrigue and skilful diplomacy would assign to a prince of the Church whose place was on the first step of the throne of St. Peter. The young cardinal felt himself hemmed in, without liberty of action. Everything in him displays his

unbounded ambition, his impatience of | left, and the procession returned to the subjection, his hunger for supremacy. Vatican after traversing the whole city. We have already mentioned his constant The Roman people, who have always claims of precedence. He abstained from loved shows and processions, admired the appearing anywhere where he would not noble carriage and sympathetic countehold the first place. At the age of twenty nance of the young prince, whose modest he refused audience to ambassadors; he and simple bearing was contrasted with attached an excessive value to his person, the arrogance of Cæsar. After three and concealed himself from all eyes, never years' absence, Gandia had come back to going to a church in an official procession find his brother and his sister Lucrezia where his personality would be lost, and become very great personages, and high if he ever did show himself to the mob, in favor with their father. He would soon having carefully prearranged his effect, have no cause to envy them. The day with the intention of awing the masses after his entry into Rome, he was made by the ostentation of a prodigious reti-rector of Viterbo and of all the patrimony nue. There was as yet no special act which held up the son of Alexander to the public admiration, and he had certainly given no proof of any real superiority; but yet the moment he appeared in public, the people were on the alert; they foresaw the high destiny of Cæsar, and it was an open secret that, having been destined for the Church against his will, the young cardinal was determined to correct the errors of fortune which had thus condemned him to inaction.

of the Church, in the place of Alessandro Farnese; two months later he received the baton of gonfaloniere of the Holy See, and the beretta of captain general of the troops of the Church. At the close of his first campaign he was to receive the investiture of the duchy of Benevento, which gave him a prospective title to the throne of Spain. On that day must have arisen in the brain of Cæsar the terrible thoughts which continually haunted him, and the scheme which was evolved from them. The brilliant armor of the captaingeneral of the Church which his brother wore would have sat more easily upon him than the red cardinal's robe which his father had thrown upon his shoulders; in the place of the Duke of Gandia, Cæsar's greater energy and stronger will, as well as his freedom from conscientious scruples, would have enabled him to play his part in the great drama which was preparing, better than his brother. The historians of the eighteenth century, drawing their inspiration from pamphlets against the Borgias, published by their implacable enemies the Neapolitans, tell us that when the pope had made his son duke of Benevento after his return from the cam

The occasion was soon to present itself. With the increased liberty of action which followed the departure of Charles VIII. for France, the pope was preparing to commence his campaign against the Roman barons. He had already engaged as condottiere Guidobaldo, Duke of Urbino, who had made himself famous by some successful expeditions against the Venetians; but beside the acting chief, he required for the pontifical troops a captain-general devoted to his interests. He therefore resolved to recall from Valencia his eldest son, Giovanni, Duke of Gandia, who had married Donna Maria Henriquez, daughter of the Viscount of Leon and of Donna Maria de Luna, niece of the Catholic sovereigns. It is the pon-paign against the barons, another obvious tifical usage; Gandia represents the prince-nephew, the first personage in the state after the pope. We know also that the dominating passion of Alexander VI. was the immoderate love he bore to his children; to find a throne for each of them was the task that preoccupied every hour with him. All those who observed him have pointed out this distinguishing characteristic.

In order to define clearly the position which he intended to confer on his eldest son, he received him with great pomp at the head of all his court at the Porta Pratese on the 10th of August, 1496. Cæsar had taken his place as cardinal on the pontiff's right, Giovanni was on his

cause of jealousy existed, which was to make the two brothers irreconcilable rivals; for both, they say, were the lovers of their own sister Lucrezia. This was one of those assertions, unsupported by proofs, and whose real origin is well known, which helped to give the future duchess of Ferrara the frightful reputation against which the famous German historian Gregorovius felt it his duty, not to protest, but simply to state one argument which is of considerable weight. Her nineteen years of tried fidelity to her last husband, Alfonso d'Este, at a time when Lucrezia was still young and beautiful, must indeed make us incredulous of so horrible a depravity in the pope's

daughter when she was hardly sixteen. Appalled by this intelligence, Alexan-
Setting Lucrezia aside, however, we find der VI. shut himself up in his apartments
at this period at the Vatican, not a sister and refused to see any one. The vigor-
of Cæsar and Gandia, but a sister-in-law, ous old man sobbed like a woman, and
Donna Sancha of Aragon, the wife of Don gave way alternately to the most pathetic
Gioffre, Prince of Squillace, daughter of expressions of grief and the most terrible
the brother of the king of Naples, and imprecations. He must have the murder-
sister of Alfonso de Bisceglie, afterwards er; he is already inventing novel tortures
the second husband of Lucrezia. The for him. It was on the 14th of June that
shameless conduct of this princess is de Gandia was slain; up to the 18th Alexan-
clared by history. Sancha's behavior der refused to take any nourishment, and
shocked Alexander himself, who banished only yielded with reluctance to the sup
her, and it is difficult to reject the testi- plications of the Cardinal of Segovia, who
mony of the ambassador of Ferrara, and adjured him through the closed door not
that of the master of the ceremonies to to let himself die of starvation. The jo-
Alexander VI., both of whom represent vial, cynical, luxurious debauchee seemed
her as having shared her favors between suddenly converted. He appeared before
her two brothers-in-law at the same time. the Consistory, and in face of the whole
However this may be, Ferdinand, king Sacred College humbled himself, beat his
of Naples, being dead, and Cæsar Borgia breast, and accused himself of having been
having been appointed to represent the a cause of scandal, and bound himself by
pontiff at the coronation of Frederick of an oath to reform the morals of the Vati-
Aragon, it was decided that the two broth- can. Meanwhile an inquiry was set on
ers should go to Naples together in June, foot. The young princes Giovanni, Cæ.
1497 - the one to discharge his high mis-sar, and Gioffre, the youngest brother,
sion, the other to receive from the hands with his wife Donna Sancha, and another
of the new king the investiture of his Borgia—the Cardinal of Monreal - had
duchy of Benevento. Everything was been present at the farewell banquet given
ready for their departure, when their by Vanozza. At a late hour of the night
mother, Vanozza, desired to gather her Cæsar and Gandia had left together - one
children around her one last time, accord-mounted on a mule, the other on his horse
ing to her custom, and invited them to a-and had taken the road to St. Peter's.
banquet at her residence near San Pietro
in Vincoli. After the banquet, the Duke
of Gandia did not return to the Vatican.
After three days of mortal anxiety on the
part of the pope, and incessant researches
by the governor of Rome, the latter hav-
ing requisitioned three hundred fishermen
to drag the bed of the Tiber - the tomb
of so many unknown victims - his men
brought up in their nets the body of the
unfortunate duke, wrapped in his cloak,
wearing all his jewels and his weapons,
and pierced by nine wounds.t

The intimacy of Donna Sancha with Cæsar is attested by the "Diarium" of Burckardt, the impassible ceremoniere who sees everything and knows everything-"quam ipse cognoscebat carnaliter" (Diarium, vol. iii, Thuasne's edition). Sanuto in his Diarii" thus confirms the general rumor: "Et ut intellexi, ja molti mesi questo cardinal Valenza usava con la cognata" (col. 792) Machiavelli has accused Lucrezia; but Lorenzo Pigna, the envoy of Ferrara, better informed, gives the name of Donna Sancha. A number of ambassadors have also reported this connection. The accusation of incest against Lucrezia has its origin in a declaration of her divorced husband, Giovanni, lord of Pesaro, and a pamphlet of the time, which has become famous under the title of the "Letter to Paolo Savelli," which is of Neapolitan origin, and remains the principal accusatory document, the formal indictment, in which some details may be disputed, but the main points are irrefutable.

We may here quote a grimly concise document which is as yet unknown to history-the note in the papal register of the sum paid to the fishermen who

In front of the palace of Cardinal Sforza,
Gandia had taken leave of Cæsar and dis
appeared down a narrow street, while the
Cardinal of Valencia continued his way
towards the basilica. Since the moment
when he parted from his brother, no one
had seen the Duke of Gandia again.

On the third day his body was brought
back in a boat to the Castle of St. Angelo,
after it had been stripped, and purified,
and finally dressed in the uniform of cap-
tain-general, and was carried to Sta. Maria
del Popolo, the Borgias' parish, with the
face uncovered, by the light of two hun-
dred torches. His Spanish retainers fol-
lowed the procession with drawn swords,
swearing, with many imprecations, to
avenge the death of their duke. Mean.
time the governor of Rome had exerted
himself to discover the criminal, and one
of the Tiber boatmen had made a state-
ment before the magistrate. On Wednes
day night he was lying in his boat waiting
for the dawn, when he saw two men on
foot coming down the lane by the side of

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the Church of San Geronimo, advancing | lections of Italian State papers have been with precaution like scouts. After a time deciphered, no doubt remains. Bracci, they disappeared, and then returned, after the Florentine envoy, hesitates for a mohaving signed to a group of people, hidden ment. "He who has done the deed lacks in the lane, to advance. A horseman ap- neither talent nor courage, and, every peared first, carrying behind him a corpse, way, must be recognized as a past-master. whose head and arms hung down and Soon, however, he hesitates no longer, struck against the horse as it moved. Two though he still employs a periphrasis. As men followed on foot, and all three came for Pigna, the cnvoy of the duke of Ferforward to the edge of the river. There rara, he writes the name of the young the horseman turned his horse's tail to Borgia in so many words. the stream, and his two followers took the body, one by the arms and the other by the legs; they swung it for a moment, and then threw it out into the river. When this was done the horseman asked if all was well, and being answered in the affirmative, turned round towards the river; and as the victim's cloak reappeared on the surface, he said a few words in a low voice to his companions, who threw stones at it till the body had disappeared. The unknown then turned back in the direction of the Church of San Giacomo.

Cæsar remained impassible. He was about to start on his mission, but all the arrangements had been suspended. He had tried several times in vain to see the pontiff, but from the 14th of June to the 22nd of July the latter remained in seclusion. Meanwhile Naples was expecting its legate, and he set out at last accompanied by the master of the ceremonies of the pontifical chapel; and on the 1st of August, 1497, the last king of the Aragonian dynasty, as he was destined to be, received the crown from the hands of the All Rome was roused to excitement, for Cardinal of Valencia. On the 4th of SepGandia had been loved by all. The dif- tember, Cæsar Borgia re-entered Rome in ferent parties accused each other of the great state. Escorted by the greater numdeed. First the Orsini were suspected, ber of the cardinals, he was conducted then Arcanio Sforza, and some arrests to the Sistine Chapel, where the pope were made; but the accused were interro-awaited him. The anxiety was unspeakgated in a half-hearted way, for little by little the people began to whisper the name of Cæsar, though no one yet dared to name it aloud. Nine days after the murder, Alexander declared that he suspected some persons of high position.

His Holiness [says a despatch of the Florentine envoy to the Signoria] appears always absorbed in his search for the murderer; but this morning some trustworthy persons informed me that he now has sufficient evidence, and that he will confine himself to dissimulation to see whether he can, by his apparent indifference, quiet the fears of the criminals, and thus be able to detect them more easily. The general opinion is that they are persons of the highest position.

able; all the princes of the Church who
knew the secret of the sanguinary mys-
tery, and the ambassadors who had de-
nounced the murderer to their masters,
vied with each other in watching the scar-
let-robed Cain advancing towards the old
man whose heart he had broken. The
cardinal made a haughty inclination at the
foot of the throne, and his father, with his
heart still bleeding from the murder of
Gandia, opened his arms in silence and
coldly kissed him on the forehead. Then
he turned away his eyes, and descended
from the throne without saying a word to
his son. "Solo lo baccio,"
Non dixit verbum papæ Valentinus, nec
says Sanudo.
papa sibi, sed eo deosculato descendit de
solio," says the "Diarium" of the master
of the ceremonies of the pontifical court.

Twelve days later the truth begins to show more more clearly. "It is said that the pope knows all, but that, for reasons I A strange nature that of Alexander VI.! have already given, he will conceal his In him the appetites of life, and the desire knowledge. Some are unwilling to be- to raise his children still higher and lieve it; one thing is certain, that his higher, are the dominant influences. "His Holiness is taking no further steps; and cares and anxieties do not last beyond all those around him hold the same opin- a single night; he is not of a serious ion he must know the truth." It is from nature, and has no thought except for his external sources that the direct and for-own interests. His real ambition is to mal accusation comes, for the same night make his children great; he cares for noththe ambassadors, writing to the princes ing else. Nè d'altro ha cura. Barely whom they represent, give the name of the actual murderer.

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Narrative of the Venetian ambassador, Paolo Ca

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