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one another without intermission." Fan- Bishop of Manchester he asked me to cy, too, the humor of the man who gave dine, and took me with him to the House pet names to his family in Greek, and of Lords; a pretty compliment to a young tried when at college to cook a meal of fellow of my years." purely classical constituents, and who turned mathematics, which he did not care for, into classics by reading the fifth book of Euclid in the original.

Like Arnold he trusted his boys, and like Arnold he was rarely if ever deceived. "We loved and respected him," says a schoolfellow of the primate's, "and were glad to shew it by obedience to his wishes; he placed confidence in our honor, and recognized the fact that boys are naturally full of spirits. Our bedroom was over his study, and every sound could be heard. We little thought how we were disturbing him as he sat burning the midnight oil just underneath.

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"One night we were playing at what we called the Olympian games; riotous and noisy enough, for we used to pull a mattrass into the middle of the floor and wrestle on it. It so happened that my bed was so despoiled, and the sheets and blankets thrown against the door. In the midst of our gambols a well-known step was heard along the passage. My chums were in bed in a trice. The door opened an inch or two, and there was I lying on the bare canvas. But all Lee said was, 'Why aren't you all in bed?' Then, with a glance at my blankets, ‘R—, do you always sleep with your bed in that fashion?' On my answering, 'No, sir!' 'Well, then, make haste and get into bed and put out the light.' Lee was like Nelson; he knew both when not to do a thing and when to overlook it. I expected a wigging in the morning, but no! there was neither lecture nor punishment. How I determined after that I'd never disturb him! Shortly after I left from lameness, but my pleasure was to be driven over to see him, and his pleasure was to see me. I once had to go into his study as best I could on crutches. He asked me what branch of study I found most difficult. On my telling him, he took a book down from his shelves and gave it to me in the hope, as he said, that it might help me. I left the school at nineteen, and saw little of him afterwards; but when he was

The primate tells of Lee giving him Bacon's "Novum Organum in Latin when he was only twelve. "I chose this book for you," he said, "though you cannot understand it yet, because the time will come when you will love it.” “That was Arnold over again,” said an old Rugbeian on hearing the story. "Why, Arnold gave Bacon to boys who'd never heard the name."


“To have a copy of verses corrected by Lee," says Archbishop Benson, was a lesson to last for one's lifetime. If the verses were worthy of being corrected no trouble was spared; the boy's own idea, however much overlaid or misrepresented by blemishes or mistakes, was treated with the greatest reverence. As much as possible only the materials he had brought were used, the conception he had tried but failed to express was patiently drawn out, and at last re-presented to him in as full and faultless a form as the idea was capa ble of receiving from the given materials. The process was made a masterpiece of education."

Lee's handwriting was not of the best. A lad once sent up an exercise very badly written. Lee wrote five words underneath, and told the delinquent to read out the subscribed condemnation. The lad looked puzzled, as well he might, for the head-master's hand was not easy to decipher. Whereupon Lee helped him out, and the five words were read antiphonally. Thus :


Boy. This
LEE. scrawl
Boy. is

LEE. scarcely
Boy. legible.

The class listened as gravely as they could, but it upset them all, the delinquent and Lee included. Lee laughed the heartiest of all, though.

A little fellow of about ten came late, and innocently explained that he had got into a merry-go-round at the fair, and they wouldn't let him out till the rounds were all over. Lee contented himself with look


laughing. Always work through a committee," he said gravely to a friend. (This was after his consecration.) "I always like to have a committee, but I like that committee to consist of one person, and that one person myself."

All very well for a head-master, but certainly not for a bishop in these days of diocesan synods, and conferences, and houses of laymen.

ing as stern as he could, though with a twinkle in his eye, and advised the lad to come to school and not to perform rotatory gyrations in the fair. "I am afraid,” said the master who stood by, "the boy does not understand you." "How he would laugh at me if he did!" was the reply. He would call up an incorrigibly noisy boy and say to him, "There's too much noise at that desk. I want a boy to take the lead in keeping better order, I think But no one could exercise more tact you are just the boy." The effect was when he chose. So it was generally supmarvellous. Then he had Arnold's way posed that he owed his elevation to the of kindling a pride in the school and in episcopate to his entertaining Prince Alhimself, and well they might; for Birming-bert on his first visit to Birmingham, to ham, under Lee, was second to no school. the charm of his conversation, the versaHe delighted, too, to bring his pupils to- tility of his information, and his perfect gether in after life and talk to them of knowledge of German. I do not think the their objects and ambitions, as well as of exchange was a happy one. Lee ought to old school-days. So it came to pass that have been made the head of a college. men eminent in the schools, in the Senate, He would have been a splendid successor the bar, the Church, in science, in com- to Whewell. merce, look back to their intercourse with him with pride and pleasure, and attribute their success to him.

Here is one pleasing recollection. "I remember," says an old college friend of my own, now a rural dean in Nova Scotia, "my father and myself meeting Prince Lee and a companion, and we all four walked on together. That companion was a striking-looking youth of nineteen, named Benson, of the sixth form. He is now Archbishop of Canterbury.

"Prince Lee's face is before me now as he used to sit with his boys in the gallery of old St. Martin's Church, with black curly hair and striking features - Italian in cast. He was a great man and a great scholar, especially learned in the Scriptures of the New Testament."

I suppose a schoolmaster must be autocratic. Dr. Busby was, and would not let his boys take off their hats to the king. He excused them on the ground — which, by the way, King George accepted that discipline would be impossible if the boys could conceive of any man being greater than the doctor himself.

One day Lee said to a master who could be free with him, "The governors desire so-and-so." The master, with a mischievous look, replied, "Who are the governors?" "Ah, well!" said Lee, and went off

I did not myself know him at Rugby or Birmingham, so I can only describe him as he was in the year of my ordination, the first he ever held in the year 1849.

In stature he was little above the middle size, his head shapely, covered with crisp curly hair, giving him the appearance of an old patrician Roman, his lips thin, mouth firm, the curves drawn into a smile if anything pleased him, but severe and sarcastic if he were angered. Some wags managed to take a photograph of him vested in cope and mitre, and armed with pastoral staff. He kept it on the drawing-room table, so I ventured to say to him, "I never saw your lordship look so well."

"I dare say,” he replied, "you would like me to adopt that habit."

“Indeed, I should,” I rejoined. "I should have no objection," he added, "if it were the legal one."

Certainly he might have stood for a Hildebrand or any great mediæval prelate. As an orator strictly on the classical model, he was unrivalled and unapproachable. In his management of the voice, in his action, always like that of the famous Greeks, with the right hand, in his fulness of illustration, I do not think that he was ever surpassed. But he was rarely seen either in the pulpit or on the platform; he

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certain was; and I rubbed my eyes when

rend what Mr. Bryce says: that he did little more than his official duties, and was unknown by sight to the people of Ancashire. The contrary is proved by the statistics of the diocese, open surely to a school-inspector, and by the fact that gopted, he was in the habit of holding confirmagations every Saturday afternoon. “His ars for ", devotion to work," says the present pri Ce mate, "was unwearying and unresting; go and his first day's work in his high office done he Demos after noon on the day that office was conferred, and some of his heaviest days' g. arising works done when he was sick already ged atten- unto death; his only respite change of as memory. work, no day of idleness ever self-allowed; serves Dean ever open to fresh business, never so **e and finished pleased as when a sudden emergency wax what I may call found him quite ready and keen to underw wide in his take it. Two faults were easily and readand laying great ily found with him, and they were these: cice of what he called that he expected to find all men as conDos of great work- stantly prepared for him as he was for tag i works as a whole, not them, and that he knew not the value of a doses. I think I have holiday. It was ever so with him from away, to give an example, that boyish days, when, after the minimum of A at of periodically reading sleep, he struck his light for severe study Lost at one sitting, and if in- through yet long hours of darkness, till cd beginning again." days when vacations were prized simply 1 vocatulated him on his memory. for the amount of extra labors they perTow you are to be envied!" "I don't mitted onwards till vacations ceased with Vow that. There are many things I could him entirely." "No consideration," testi4 to forget." Some ladies tested him fies Sir William Fairbairn, "would induce an evening party. They opened "Mar- him to forego the rigid discharge of the moa" haphazard and quoted a line; the work of the diocese." And the Bishop of Shop could have recited the entire poem. Chichester, formerly Archdeacon of ManThey next took up "Ivanhoe," at the chester, confirms this testimony: "Placed Conversation between Gurth and Wamba; far above his fellows in intellectual capachis lordship repeated the chapter word for ity, with gifts which even the extremity of word. It must be confessed that his gifts, bodily weakness could not quench or even great as they were, and deservedly as he impair, he devoted himself entirely and was beloved by those who knew him in- without reserve to the labors of his office." timately, did not make him popular. To People saw him driving into Manchester the outer world he was stern and unbend- with his carriage and horses and purple ing, and to the clergy despotic. "His liveries; but it was in no spirit of ostenstrength and his weakness lay in his deter- tation. If he lived out at Mauldeth Hall, mination to rule, his impatience, intoler- a distance of some five or six miles, he ance, exclusion of an opposing will; his had no alternative but to drive in; and disposition to overbear and consume a drive he did to the moment, for he was rival, even where the rivalry was imagi- one of the most punctual of men. He nary and impossible from inferiority of once told me himself that nothing would station. So that, as a schoolmaster at the have pleased him so much as to have got head of a great system, he was wonderful. a house in the very heart of Manchester; As a bishop he attempted despotism, and but only fancy a palace or a close in that the despotism of bishops is incongruous city of mills and warehouses! Why, the and out of date. Yet in his diocese he had site of one of the canon's houses - the attached and admiring friends both cleri- house has long given way to a bazaar cal and lay." This is the testimony of-realizes, I am told, nine hundred a one who knew him well, loved and admired him.

A worker, and a thorough worker, he

year. The surroundings of the cathedral are warehouses, public buildings, and hotels.

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Like most eminent schoolmasters, | some of the noblest ever written, "VirtuPrince Lee had great discernment of char- tem videant, intabescantque relictâ ; " of acter. I never knew of more than one modern critical theories—and here only candidate for holy orders who managed to he allowed himself to use stern severity take him in, and it happened in this way. in condemning some untrained and hasty The young fellow had neglected his theo- speculations. Then came a long and sollogical studies, although he had gone up emn pause, while his thoughts, I fancy, to the university from a public school, no less than mine, were pondering on the and his hopes of passing were of the slen- relation of Biblical controversies to the derest. Well, he was in for the terrible fulness of Christian faith. At last the ordeal of a viva-voce before the bishop, bishop turned his eyes on me they were who sat by with his watch on the table, overflowing with tears - with a look which for he had to minute each interview. The clings to me now, and said only this, candidate had read, but not construed the • Ah ! Westcott, μὴ φόβου, μόνον πίστευε.” The Greek, and had made no false quantity. words have risen again and again before As he glanced across the table, he saw me in times of anxiety and doubt, charged one of Westcott's or Lightfoot's books, I forever with a new force; and what would forget which, by the bishop's elbow. AI not give if I could convey to others the happy thought struck him to ask the amount of authority due to these eminent writers. The bishop grew suddenly animated, his eye sparkled, and he poured out a torrent of appreciatory criticism. The youth, as in duty bound, listened with all humility. Lee glanced at his watch; the time was up, no question was asked, and the candidate was ordained.

impression which they conveyed to me, crowning with the grace of complete selfsurrender and childlike faith the character which through long years I had learnt to revere, for love, for power, for breadth, for insight, for justice, for sympathy."

He did not live to be old, but long enough to deplore the loss of friends all the more severely, because, considering what he was and what he might have been, he made comparatively so few. "I am suffering," he said, a short time before his death, "the Roman's curse: 'Si quis hos cineres violabit, ultimus suorum moriatur.'

I was present the last time he attended his cathedral. His sight was fast failing him, and as he was coming down the chapter-house steps, he could not see where to place his foot. So I went out of my rank in the procession and offered him my arm; he took it and we walked in together. I shall never forget his grasp or the warmth of his thanks.

I must find space for Dr. Westcott's last visit to Mauldeth. "The health of the bishop was already shaken, but his intellectual powers were never greater. In his intervals of leisure he returned to each old topic of interest. Now it was the famous variation in St. Luke ii. 14; now the almost prophetic character of Eschylus, on whom I happened to be busily working at the time; now a volume of sketches of old masters in which he showed me the outline of Thorwaldsen's famous Night,' (owl and all) already given in a drawing, unless I am mistaken, by one of the Carracci; now it was the work of Arnold, on whom he delighted to dwell His last words were characteristic. with loving admiration; now some aspect "Occleston [his physician] tells me I am of diocesan labor in which he saw some in danger, but I can trust. God's love bright promise of hope. One evening I has been greater to me than mine to him, can never forget. We had dined alone; first at Rugby, then at Birmingham, and there had been the usual rich variety of then in the grand work here." Manchester subjects in his conversation; playful quo- can never forget him. A church, simple tations from Thucydides, and Aristopha- but stately, near to where he lived, has nes, and Virgil, in memory of school-days; been erected to his memory; but in addia clear summary of the latest results of tion to his munificence to public instithe explorations of Palestine; an estimate tutions he bequeathed his magnificent of the moral influence of Shakespeare, | library to Owens College, now Victoria which to my surprise he judged somewhat University. The college was then little unfavorably. As the evening closed in, the topics became graver; he spoke of some of the difficulties of belief, of future punishment, and in illustration of the instinctive promptings of the heart he quoted the words which he always called

more than in its infancy, and one can only imagine the boundless influence which such a man as Prince Lee would have exercised for its welfare, had his life been spared longer or the institution founded earlier.



Two men could hardly be less alike than James Prince Lee and James Fraser. Both were men of mark and scholars, Lee immeasurably the profounder, but the one was nervous and sensitive, arising out of natural temperament and enfeebled health; the other was buoyant, full of animal spirits, the results of a splendid constitution and active habits. Fraser was tall, erect in figure, shoulders broad and well thrown back, eye quick, step firm, complexion ruddy, with a look of singular frankness and geniality. He was, as I heard a clerical athlete described, "a rejoicing Christian, who would take a five-barred gate as soon as look at you." You felt drawn to him by his very glance. And yet it is certain that as a college don he had not a tithe of the influence over Oxford undergraduates that Prince Lee had over the lads of Rugby and Birming. ham. The people of Lancashire took much more quickly to him than his brother fellows of Oriel, perhaps because there was nothing of the don about him. Lancashire men like their parson to be tall and good-looking. They admire a manly presence, and, above all things, pluck. They despise a cleric of the pale student or monkish type. They say that nothing gave the Staffordshire folk more respect for Bishop Selwyn than his thrashing three big colliers one after another for insulting some women. A pretty story is told of a little ballet-girl who, on returning late at night from Drury Lane, thought she found a protector in "a gentleman in a tall hat," and so she kept behind him all the way. I am sure there was not a woman in Lancashire who would not instinctively have felt a protector in the tall gentleman with the shovel hat. Why, they knew him as well as the postman or the policeman. They met him - overtake him they could not striding into town at a pace that fairly took away other people's breath, but not his. And on he posted, exchanging kindly greetings with everybody. I have no doubt they were duly impressed by Bishop Lee as he drove by in his carriage, but here was a bishop who walked about everywhere, and positively carried his own bag! They "hatted" him, as I can testify from having followed him, although Lancashire is not very observant of etiquette, and they knew that he ought to be called "my ford," but it did not take long to show that he was a good deal more to them, in fact that he

was their friend. And friends he made of them, for he found opportunities, or had opportunities found for him. He had gatherings of railway men, canal men, pit-brow men, foundry men, brickmakers, scavengers, factory hands, all by their invitation, and he not only talked to them, but with them. And he met, amongst others, with the lessees, managers, and actors of the theatres, even with the little ballet-girls, and he conversed with them on the moral teaching of the stage and the need of making it better, but in such a way as to raise their moral tone and their self-respect. With Walter Scott he held that there was no one from whom you could not learn something. And so he got that boundless influence which every one felt; and whilst the learned would have gone to his predecessor on questions of criticism, the unlearned went to Fraser on the more practical difficulties arising from disputes between masters and men. Many compliments were paid him, none so true as when he was made the arbiter in a long-standing strike among the cottonweavers.

The Lancashire folk are great readers of newspapers, and in the Saturday's pa pers there is nothing they look out for more keenly than the lists of preachers and services on the following Sundays. The bishop was a godsend to the papers, for not only did they advertise what he was going to do, but they duly reported all he did. Here is a pretty good list. "It is no uncommon thing to find him, within the space of twenty-four hours, speaking half-a-dozen times in as many different places, and ranging apart from a somewhat scanty theology over a field embracing such subjects as the evils of drunkenness, the statistics of crime, mischievous agitations, working hours, church collections, the evils of ignorance, young men's means of saving money, the evils of the licensing acts, and costly funerals." If the truth must be told, however, he talked too much, and on topics he could not possibly have studied, although, like Dr. Johnson, he picked up salient points at a glance. But old-fashioned folk did not care to hear him preach about social questions, and complained of a lack of gospel in his sermons. Once he was called, and that by a lady admirer, "a magnificent pagan." But a pagan in her sense he was not, as the following story shows.

He was on his way to preach in the neighborhood of Bolton-le-Moors, a wild moorland, tenanted by mill-hands and colliers, rough and uncouth, the pit-brow

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