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Shews how the art of cobling bears
A near resemblance to the Spheres.
A fcrap of parchment hung by geometry
(A great refinement in barometry)
Can, like the flars, foretell the weather;
And what is parchment else but leather,
Which an aftrologer might ufe,
Either for Almanacks or shoes?

Thus Partridge, by his wit and parts,
At once did practice both these arts:
And as the boading Owl (or rather
The Bat, because her wings are leather,)
Steals from her private cell by night,
And flies about at candle-light;
So learned Partridge could as well
Creep in the dark from leathern cell,
And, in his fancy, fly as far
To peep upon a twinkling ftar.

Befides, he could confound the Spheres,

And fet the Planets by the ears;

To fhew his skill, he Mars could join
To Venus in afpect malign;
Then call in Mercury for aid,

And cure the wounds, that Venus made.
Great scholars have in Lucian read,
When Philip king of Greece was dead,
His foul and Spirit did divide,

And each part took a diff'rent fide
One rose a star, the other fell
Beneath, and mended fhoes in Hell.

Thus Partridge ftill fhines in each art,
The cobling and far-gazing part;
And is inftall'd as good a ftar

As any of the Cæfars are.

Triumphant ftar ! fome pity fhew
On Coblers militant below,

Whom roguish boys in stormy nights
Torment, by piffing out their lights;
Or thro' a chink convey their smoak
Inclos'd Artificers to choak!

Thou, high exalted in thy fphere,
May'ft follow ftill thy calling there.

To thee the Bull will lend his hide,
By Phoebus newly tann'd and dry'd.
For thee they Argo's hulk will tax,
And scrape her pithy fides for wax.
Then Ariadne kindly lends

Her braided hair to make thee ends.
The point of Sagittarius' dart
Turns to an awl by heav'nly art;
And Vulcan, wheedled by his wife,.
Will forge for thee a paring-knife.
For want of room by Virgo's fide.
She'll strain a point, and fit *astride:
To take thee kindly in between ;
And then the Signs will be Thirteen.

ttt tt tetek



Of the PAS TO RA L.

HIS poem takes its name from the Latin word. Paftor, a Shepherd; the fubject of it being fomething in the Paftoral or rural life; and the perfons, or interlocutors, introduced in it, either. fhepherds or other rufticks.

Thefe poems are frequently called Eclogues, which fignifies felect or choice pieces; tho' fome account for this name. after a different manner. They are also called Bucolicks from Baxon, a Herdsman.

"The original of poetry, fays Mr. Pope, is afcribed to "that age which fucceeded the creation of the world: "and as the keeping of flocks feems to have been the first. " employment of mankind, the most ancient fort of poe"try was probably Pafioral. It is natural to imagine, "that the leisure of thofe ancient fhepherds admitting and inviting fome diverfion, none was fo proper to that foli"tary and fedentary life as finging; and that in their fongs they took occafion to celebrate their own felicity. "From hence a poem was invented, and afterwards improved to a perfect image of that happy time; which by giving us an esteem for the virtues of a former age,



*Tibia brachia contrahet ingens
Scorpius, &c,

might recommend them to the prefent. And fince the life of fhepherds was attended with more tranquility than any other rural employment, the poets chose to "introduce their perfons, from whom it received the name s of Paftoral."

Scaliger, and Fontenelle are of Mr. Pope's opinion, and fuppofe that Paftorals were the first poems; but this conclufion feems not to be drawn from nature and reafon. As man in the infant ftate of the world, was undoubtedly ftruck with an awful idea of God, arifing from a confidera. tion of his works of creation, fo must he be very early led to fupplicate and adore that divine Being on whom he perceived his existence depended; it is more natural, and more rational, therefore, to fuppofe that the first poems where hymns or odes made in praise of the Deity. We may allow shepherds indeed to have been the first poets, but we cannot fuppofe that Paftorals were the first poems; fince it is more reasonable to conclude that the ancients would prefer the praise of the Creator to that of his creatures. But controverfies of this fort are befide our purpose.

This kind of poem, when happily executed, gives great delight; nor is it a wonder, fince innocence and fimplicity generally pleafe: To which let me add, that the scenes of Paftorals are always laid in the country, where both poet and painter have abundant matter for the exercife of genius, fuch as inchanting prospects, purling ftreams, fhady groves, enamelled meads, flowery lawns, rural amuse. ments, the bleating of flocks, and the mufick of birds; which is of all melody the moft sweet and pleafing, and calls to my mind the wisdom and taste of Alexander, who on being importuned to hear a man that imitated the notes of the Nightingale, and was thought a great curiofity, replied, that he had had the happiness of hearing the Nightingale berfelf.

The character of the Paftoral confifts in fimplicity, brevity, and delicacy; the two first render an eclogue natural, and the laft delightful. With refpect to nature, indeed, we are to confider, that as a pastoral is an image of the ancient times of innocence and undefigning plainnefs, we are not to defcribe fhepherds as they really are at this day, but as they may be conceiv'd then to have been, when the best of men, and even princes, followed the employment. For this reafon an air of piety fhould run through the whole poem, which is vifible in the writings of antiquity.

To make it natural with refpect to the prefent age, fome knowledge in rural affairs should be discovered, and that in fuch a manner, as if it was done by chance rather than by defign; left by too much pains to feem natural that fimplicity be destroyed from whence arifes the delight; for what is fo engaging in this kind of poefy proceeds not fo much from the idea of a country life itself, as in expofing only the best part of a fhepherd's life, and concealing the misfortunes and miferies which fometimes attend it. Be. fides, the fubject must contain fome particular beauty in itself, and each eclogue present a scene or prospect to our view enriched with variety: which variety is in a great measure obtained by frequent comparisons drawn from the moft agreeable objects of the country; by interrogations to things inanimate; by fhort and beautiful digreffions ; and by elegant turns on the words, which render the numbers more sweet and pleafing. To this let me add, that the connections must be negligent, the narrations and defcriptions short, and the periods concife.

Riddles, parables, proverbs, antique phrafes, and fuperftitious fables are fit materials to be intermixed with this kind of poem. They are here, when properly applied, very ornamental; and the more fo, as they give our modern compofitions the air of the ancient manner of writing.

The ftyle of the Pafloral ought to be humble, yet pure; neat, but not florid; eafy, and yet lively: and the numbers fhould be fmooth and flowing.

This poem in general fhould be fhort, and ought never much to exceed an hundred lines; for we are to confider that the ancients made thefe fort of compofitions their amufement, and not their bufinefs: but however short they are, every eclogue must contain a plot or fable, which must be fimple and one; but yet so managed as to admit of fhort digreffions. Virgil has always obferved this-I fhall give you the plot or argument of his first Pastoral as an example.

Melibacus, an unfortunate Shepherd, is introduced with Tityrus, one in more fortunate circumstances; the former addreffes the complaint of his fufferings and banishment to the lat ter, who enjoys his flocks and folds in the midst of the public calamity, and therefore expresses his gratitude to the benefactor

from whom this favour flow'd: but Melibus accufes fortune, civil wars, and bids adieu to his native country. This is therefore a dialogue.

But we are to obferve, that the poet is not always obliged to make his eclogue allegorical, and to have real perfons reprefented by the fictitious characters introduced; but is in this refpect entirely at his own liberty.

Nor does the nature of the poem require it to be always carried on by way of dialogue; for a fhepherd may with propriety fing the praifes of his love, complain of her inconftancy, lament her absence, her death, &c. and addrefs himself to groves, hills, rivers, and fuch like rural objects, even when alone.

We shall now give examples from each of those authors who have eminently diftinguish'd themselves by this manner of writing, and introduce them in the order of time in which they were written.

Theocritus, who was the father or inventor of this kind of poetry, has been defervedly esteemed by the best critics and by fome, whofe judgement we cannot difpute, prefer'd to all other Paftoral writers. We shall infert his third Idyllium, not because it is the best, but because it is within our compass, and we are favoured with an elegant verfion of it by Mr. FAWKES; who will foon oblige the public with an entire translation of this favourite author.

AMARYLLIS: Or the third Idyllium of THEOCRITUS.

To Amaryllis, lovely Nymph, I fpeed,
Mean while my goats upon the mountains feed:
O Tityrus tend them with affiduous care,
Lead them to cryftal fprings, and pastures fair,
And of the ridgling's butting horns beware.
Sweet Amaryllis, have you then forgot,
Our fecret pleasures in the confcious grott?
Where in my folding arms you lay reclin'd;
Bleft was the thepherd, for the nymph was kind.
I whom you call'd your Dear, your Love fo late,
Say, am I now, the object of your hate?
Say is my form difpleafing to your fight ?
This cruel love will furely kill me quite.
Lo! ten large apples, tempting to the view,


Pluck'd from your favourite tree, where late theygrew.15

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