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1821, the present site of the colony of Liberia was purchased, as affording the best prospect of health and prosperity to the colonists. It is situated on the western coast of Africa, in 6o N. Latitude, and extends from Gallinas river to the territory of Kroo Settra, a distance of 280 miles along the coast. About 3,000 emigrants have gone out from the United States, one thousand of whom were once slaves, but are now freemen in Africa. The chief town, Monrovia, is situated on Cape Montserado, and contains from 800 to 1,000 inhabitants. It is a port of entry, visited in 1831 by nearly 60 vessels. The exports during the year ending May, 1832, amounted to $125,549; the imports to 80,000. Distant tribes visit the colony for purposes of trade, while those in the vicinity, to the number of 10,000, have voluntarily placed themselves under the government of the colony, and have begged that their children might be taught (to use their own language)" after the white man's fashion.” The number of natives embraced in the territorial jurisdiction of the colony is upwards of 50,000. Caldwell, Millsburg, Stockton, and New Georgia are the names of four other rising villages, situated at suitable points for the advancing prosperity of the colony. The population of these places is gradually increasing. In the early years of the Society's history, the emigration to Africa was very limited. Indeed, a very large emigration was not desirable until the colony had acquired such a firmness of character, as would constitute a sufficient protection against those accidental evils to which colonial establishments are exposed. During the thirteen months ending Jan. 1, 1833, eleven hundred and thirteen colored persons emigrated from this country to the colony. Great numbers are now waiting to go, but are prevented by the want of means on the part of the Society. The sum of $30 is adequate to the transportation of one emigrant.

The officers of the colony are the Governor, Dr. Mechlin; LieutenantGovernor or Vice-Agent, A. D. Williams; Sheriff, Roberts; and a Council of Three, which is about to be enlarged. The first named gentleman only is a white man. The Society makes laws for the colony, and will continue to do so while it remains under its guardian care,those laws being regularly received and ratified by the government of Liberia. It is expected ultimately to be by mutual agreement, independent of the government of the Colonization Society.

Slavery and the slave trade are prohibited by law. A high standard of morals is said to be maintained in the establishment. No white persons are allowed to settle in the colony except the governor, physicians, missionaries, and teachers. On the whole, the existence and prosperity of this African colony, founded precisely two hundred years after the colony at Plymouth, are considered as marking an era in this age; and should the doctrines of universal emancipation happily prevail, it would of immense importance to the peace and prosperity of the colored race.

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PERIOD ICAL LITERATURE THROUGHOUT THE WORLD.

[From the London New Monthly Magazine, for December, 1832.]

"The following Table is sent to us by a gentleman, as translated from the 'Annales des Travaux' of the Paris Statistical Society, made up from information derived by M. Balbi, the well-known geographer. We subjoin it as a very curious memorandum, though we cannot vouch for its accuracy."

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"Upon these computations, the Journal of the Paris Statistical Society thus remarks: The proportion to which the number of journals in each quarter of the world bears to its population is as follows:- - in Asia there is one paper for every 14,000,000; in Africa, one for every

5,000,000; in Europe, one for every 106,000; in America, one for every 40,000 and precisely in the same ratio is the comparative progress of civilization in these different divisions of the earth.'"'

The preceding Table contains material errors. The number of newspapers and other periodical publications in London, in 1830, as given in the Picture of London, was 176; and during the year 1832, there were commenced as many as 50 new weekly periodicals, most of them sold for a penny each. Of the 80 journals published in Denmark, 57 are assigned by the Encyclopædia Americana to Copenhagen.

The number of newspapers, exclusive of other periodical publications in the United States, was computed, in 1828, at 802: since that time the number has greatly increased; and it is probably now not less than 1,200. The number of newspapers and monthly magazines, without including periodical publications issued at longer intervals, published in the city of New York in April, 1833, was 65; and in the state of N. York 263. The number of newspapers published in Boston in July, 1833, was 43; and of other journals, published at shorter intervals than a year, 38 — total, 81. The Periodical Press, comprising newspapers, magazines, reviews, &c., devoted to religion, politics, literature, arts, science, intelligence, amusements, &c., forms a remarkable feature of the modern state of society, and is one of the most momentous consequences of the inven tion of the art of printing. Periodical publications, especially newspapers, disseminate knowledge throughout all classes of society, and exert an amazing influence in forming and giving effect to public opinion in all civilized countries. This branch of literature, which was entirely unknown in ancient times, abounds especially in Great Britain, France, Germany, and the United States; and it has been greatly increased since the commencement of the present century.

UNITED STATES.

THE second volume of the American Almanac contains the Declaration of Independence, with the names of the Signers (who were members of the Congress that assembled in 1776); the Constitution of the United States, with the names of those who signed it; the Successive Administrations, comprising the names of the Presidents, Vice-Presidents, and Heads of the several departments of government from 1789 to 1831, which last names are also given, in a different form, in the first volume of the Almanac.

We now insert, in a series of tables, the names of the members of the colonial Congress of 1765, of the Congresses from 1774 to 1788; of the Convention that formed the Constitution; and of all the successive Congresses since the adoption of the Constitution.

I. MEMBERS OF THE FIRST COLONIAL CONGRESS. This Congress was composed of Delegates from nine of the Colonies, and met at New York on the 7th of October, 1765:- Timothy Ruggles, President; John Cotton, Secretary.

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"The representatives of New Hampshire, from the peculiar situation of that colony, judged it imprudent to send representatives to this congress, though they approved of the measure; and the assemblies of Virginia, North Carolina, and Georgia, not being in session, governors of these colonies refused to call special assemblies for a purpose, deemed by them improper and unconstitutional." - Pitkin's Hist. U. S.

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II. MEMBERS OF CONGRESS FROM 1774 TO 1788

[Copied from the Journals of Congress.]

* Governors of States; § Presidents of Congress.

[Congress met Sept. 5, 1774; also May 10,1775, at Philadelphia; Dec. 20, 1776, at more; March 4, 1777, at Philadelphia; Sept. 27, 1777, at Lancaster, Pa.; Sept. 30 at York, Pa.; July 2, 1778, at Philadelphia; June 30, 1783, at Princeton; Nov. 2 at Annapolis; Oct. 30, 1784, at Trenton; Jan. 11, 1785, at New York, which con to be the place of meeting till the adoption of the Constitution. From 1781 to 178 gress met annually, on the first Monday in November, pursuant to the Articles o federation, which were formed in 1777, and went into operation in 1781.]

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S 1779

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