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The state is divided into six judicial districts, for each of which there are a chief judge and two associate judges. The Court of Appeals is composed of the six chief judges of the six districts; and the associate judges of the District Courts are judges of the County Courts of each county within the district.

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A law in favor of primary schools in this state was passed in 1825, and has been partially carried into effect in a few of the counties. The whole amount of the public funds for the support of common schools, (including $47,293.66 belonging to different counties for the education of indigent children), was, Dec. 1, 1831, $142,063.76; and in addition to this, there is a tax for the same purpose on bank capital of 20 cents on every $100. The state also appropriates annually the sum of $5,000 to the University of Maryland, an annual sum amounting, in 1832, to $16,699.98 to other colleges, academies ($800 to each), and schools; and about $3,500 for the support of the indigent deaf and dumb.


This institution, which is pleasantly situated at Annapolis, was incorporated in 1784; opened in 1789; and the first commencement was held in 1793. It received from the state, at the time of its incorporation, a grant of £1,750 sterling per annum, on condition that the city should convey to the trustees a lot of 34 acres, the present site of the institution, which had been given to the corporation by Lord Baltimore. This grant was annulled by the legislature in 1805; but the college has since received $20,000 by a lottery; and an annual grant of $1,000

from the state. The college edifice is of three stories, 90 feet by 60. It is designed to erect other buildings for the accommodation of students, who now board and lodge in the city. The library contains 2,700 volumes; and the students' library, 400.

Among the founders of the institution were Bishops Carroll and Claggett, Rev. Dr. Wm. Smith, Alex. C. Hanson, and Charles Carroll of Carrollton. Succession of Presidents; - John McDowell, LL. D., Rev. Henry L. Davis, D. D., Rev. Wm. Rafferty, D. D., (died 1830) and Rev. Hector Humphreys, D. D., (inaugurated 1831.)

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The Faculty consists of a President (Rev. Dr. Humphreys), and four Professors. Number of students in the four college classes, in 1833, 32; in the preparatory department about 40.- Whole number of alumni stated at 640.

Commencement is on the 22d of Feb. Vacations; - 1st, from Good Friday to the 2d Monday following; -2d, from the last Wednesday in July to the 1st Monday in Sept. ; - 3d, from the 23d of Dec. to the 1st Monday in Jan.


A medical college was established in Baltimore in 1807; in 1812, the University of Maryland was incorporated, of which the medical college formed one department: at length a collegiate department, or faculty of arts, was organized with the expectation that it would go into operation in 1830; but the medical and law departments are the only ones now in actual operation.

Medical Faculty.

Nathaniel Potter, M. D., Prof. Pathol. and Julius T. Ducatel, M. D., Pr. Chem. & Phar.

Prac. Med.

Richard W. Hail, M. D., Prof. Obstetrics.
Nathan R. Smith, M. D., Prof. Surgery.

E. Geddings, M. D., Prof. Anat. and Physiol ̧
Robley Dunglison, M. D., Prof. Mat. Med.,
Therap., Hygiene, & Med. Juris.

The lectures commence on the last Monday in October, and continue

till the 1st of March. Expenses:

fee to each professor for each of

the two courses $20;- graduation $20.


David Hoffman, LL. D., Prof. Nat., Civil, and Admiralty Law, and the
Law of Nations.

Prof. Constitutional and Statute Law of the U. S., &c.
Prof. Common Law, Law of Pleading and Evidence, &c.

H. G. Jameson, M. D., Prof. Surgery.
S. K. Jennings, M. D., Prof. Mat Med.
W. W. Handy, M. D., Prof. Obstetrics.

IS. Annan, M. D., Prof. Anatomy.

J. B. Rogers, M. D., Prof. Chem.

T. E. Bond, M. D., Prof. Theo. & Prac. Ph.

This institution was incorporated in 1833, and is established in Baltimore. The lectures commence on the last Monday in October, and continue till the end of February. Expenses; for each ticket $15;. matriculation $5;-ticket for dissection $5; - graduation $10. A

student is required to attend two entire courses before he can become a candidate for a degree.


This is a Catholic institution, which has a pleasant situation in the northwest part of Baltimore, near the confines of the city, and was founded as a seminary in 1791; as a college in 1799; and empowered by the legislature to confer degrees, as a university, in 1805. Its buildings are sufficient for the accommodation of 150 boarders. It has a library of 10,000 volumes, and a good philosophical and chemical apparatus. The course of studies for such as begin their classical education, embraces 7 years.

Number of pupils, in 1831, 147;— 71 boarders, and 76 day scholars. Number graduated, in 1833, 4. Rev. Samuel Eccleston, President; with 16 other instructors. It has a theological department.

Commencement is on the 3d Tuesday in July. Vacation, from commencement to the 1st Monday in Sept.

Annual expenses : — tuition $60; - board $140.


This is also a Catholic institution, established in 1809, by Dr. Dubois, now Catholic bishop of New York, and incorporated as a college in 1830. It has a beautiful and romantic situation, at the foot of a branch of the Blue Ridge mountains, in Frederick county, 2 miles from Emmittsburg, 50 WNW. of Baltimore. It has a good philosophical apparatus, and a library of 7,000 volumes. The Faculty consists of a principal, vice-principal, 9 professors, and 16 associate professors and tutors. The course of studies for those who begin their classical education, comprises 7 years. The number of students, in 1831, was 130. - The number graduated, from 1830 to 1833, 21. — Rev. John B. Purcell, Principal.

Commencement is on the last week in June. — One Vacation, from the

1st of July to the 16th of August.

Annual expenses : board, lodging, and tuition $ 172; with extra charges for certain branches of education.




JOHN FLOYD, Governor; term of office expires March 31, 1834, $3,3334

Wyndham Robertson, Counsellor, Lt.-Gov.; term expires


March 31, 1834,

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The judges are entitled to receive, in addition to their salaries, 25 cents a mile for necessary travel. The Court of Appeals holds two sessions annually; one at Lewisburg, Greenbrier county, for the counties lying west of the Blue Ridge, commencing on the 1st Monday in July, and continuing 90 days, unless the business shall be sooner despatched; the other at Richmond, for the counties lying east of the Blue Ridge, commencing at such times as the court may, from time to time, appoint, and continuing 160 days, unless the business shall be sooner despatched.

General Court.

The state is divided into 10 districts, and each district into two circuits, and a Circuit Superior Court of law and chancery is held twice every year in each county and corporation; the courts sitting until the business is despatched.

There are 20 judges, having each a salary of $1,500, and their names, with the number of their respective circuits, are as follows:

1. Robert B. Taylor,

2. John F. May,
3. Abel P. Upshur,
4. William Browne,
5. J. T. Lomax,
6. John Scott,

8. William Daniel,
9. William Leigh,
10. Fleming Saunders,
11. Richard H. Field,
12. Lucas P. Thompson, 19. Lewis Summers,
13. Richard E. Parker, 20. Joseph L. Frye.

15. Benjamin Estill,
16. James E. Brown,
17. Allen Taylor,
18. Edward D. Duncan,

7. Wm. Brockenbrough, 14. Daniel Smith,


In an interesting article in the London " Quarterly Journal of Education," on the subject of "Education in Virginia," said to have been written by a gentleman who was formerly a professor in the University of Virginia, it is remarked; —" Education seems never to have been an object of public concern in Virginia, before her separation from Great Britain; nor is there a single statute in the colonial code in which the subject is mentioned, unless, perchance, in some special enactment concerning the College of William and Mary." In accordance with this statement is the following extract from the answer of Sir William Berke

ley, (the most distinguished governor that Virginia had during her colonial state, and once a fellow of Merton College, in Oxford University,) to the Committee for the Colonies: "I thank God there are no free schools nor printing; and I hope we shall not have, these hundred years; for learning has brought disobedience, and heresy, and sects into the world, and printing has divulged them, and libels against the best government."

"But after the declaration of independence," as is stated in the article above mentioned, "education seems to have been one of the first subjects which engaged the attention of the leading politicians of Virginia." From the same article we select the following facts. A general system of education for all classes of the community comprehending elementary schools, colleges, and a university, was prepared by Mr. Jefferson; but it appears to have been too extensive for that early period. But the part of it which related to elementary schools, was adopted by the legislature in 1796; yet it was never carried into execution, apparently because it imposed a tax on the rich for the education of the poor.

In 1809, an act was passed providing for a Literary Fund, by appropriating all fines, escheats, and forfeitures of every description to a permanent fund "for the encouragement of learning." In 1816, Virginia appropriated the principal part of a large claim on the government of the United States, for military services during the war with Great Britain, to this Fund; and commissioners were appointed to devise a system of education. In the session of the legislature, 1817 - 18, it was found that the Fund amounted to upwards of $900,000, yielding an income of more than $50,000; and a permanent appropriation was made of $15,000 a year for the support of a university, and $ 45,000, annually, for the education of the poor, to be distributed among the several counties and corporate towns of the state, according to their free white population; and to be placed under the management and control of school commissioners, who were to be annually appointed by the courts of the several counties and towns. The number of poor children instructed, in 1822, in 48 counties, under the operation of this law, was 3,298, at the average cost of $7.03, for each child; in the year 1830, the number of children instructed, in 95 counties, was 14,169, at the average cost of $2,82 for each child. It appears from the Auditor's Report of 1831, that the number of poor children in the state according to the returns of the school commissioners amounts to 27,598, which is about one 25th of the whole white population, and probably about one 5th of the whole number of children between the ages of 8 and 15. From the mass of evidence exhibited to the legisla. ture in the auditor's Report, it appears that, although the plan has been attended with different degrees of success in the different coun

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