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"This bony fortification or cranium is so constructed, that singulars with common consent protect their universal, i.e. each part every other part, the parts themselves their integrals, and these again their general. This rule of union and of love prevails in universal nature; it is deduced from, and is seen in, the connection of all things, whence results a mutual relation: for every part from its circumference has relation to a certain centre, the centre of one part has relation to that of another, and all things together have relation to a certain general centre; these generals have, however, a relation to one which is most general. In the centres are collected all the forces which arrive from the rays and the circumferences; the circumfluent forces, therefore, avail just in proportion as they in due order conspire towards a most general centre. The cranium itself consists of seven bones, the bones, again, consist of their tables, and these of smaller plates, leaves, scales, and finally of particles."

The arrangement of the seven cranial bones follows a triple order: a first centre exists at the forehead over the eyebrows; a second at the occipital bone at the lower part of the back of the head; and a third at the base of the skull at what is called the sphenoid bone; at which sphenoid all the other six bones meet, and into which they are articulated or united. At the latter point all concussions received by the cranium meet and are subdued. This view receives confirmation from the fact that it is generally in this neighbourhood that violence to the skull, when caused by any blunt instrument, produces what is known as fracture by contre coup. The axis of the cerebrum also meets in the centre of this sphenoid or basal bone, upon which rests the pituitary body. These three centres of the seven cranial bones have a definite relation to the activities of their contents; the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the medulla oblongata; and to the latter they are all determined. The circumferences of these several centres and all vibrations and tremors proceed in the first to the top of the forehead in front, in the second to the mesial line at the vertex, and in the third to a line drawn from ear to ear around the back of the head, whence they are lost as they pass from bone to bone.

The apprehension by the reader of certain subsequent deductions of Swedenborg will be much facilitated by a remembrance of the foregoing particulars. He says in Par. 192:—

"The substances derive their various states of activity and inertia solely from the forms. The superior forms, which in the subsequent Part on the Doctrine of Forms (Part II. chap. ii.), which we shall call celestial, vortical, spiral, are so arranged, that the singulars which determine these forms cannot help being moved from a least beginning; the circular form, however, which is lower than the three here mentioned, and posterior, is most active in its rays and circumferences; but in its centres where the rays meet, it is most quiet, and altogether Whenever inert. The lowest form, however, or the angular, manifests the forces and powers of its substances in each point, and as it were binds them. an active nature desires to put on a passive nature, or whenever it desires to pass from a state of mobility into its state of rest, it passes off by degrees into circular, and finally into angular (forms). This course it follows in the formation of the bones; for it has been observed that in the softish membrane in infants circles are first delineated, and that these are gradually bound together by transverse lines; and that in this wise angular forms are excited, in which there is such a direction that each part resists every other part, and prevents the motion which has once been initiated from being continued. This is the

reason why at first the most mobile membranes are called into existence, which becoming less soft in cartillages, are finally rendered hard in inert, passive, resisting, and frigid bones."

In adult age the bones of the cranium are in their best condition to afford protection and minister to the perfection of the cerebral motion. Passing from the tenderness of youth in which they permit the cerebral growth to attain maturity, they become at middle age balanced in a compound of toughness and hardness, which with the membrane intervening between their edges of junction secures immunity from fragility on the one hand or yielding softness on the other. This combination, with the united circular form, confers upon the cranium the highest elasticity possible in relation to its nature and use. Still the cranium, from its very hardness of texture, is passive in those uses, giving support and protection to its contents. Its linings, however, by an exact relation to each other, first the dura-mater, then the pia-mater and arachnoid, become increasingly elastic and active, layer within layer, until the highest elasticity is reached in the cortical substance of the brain. Thus also concussions to the cranium, whether received upon the head or upon the heels, are lessened step by step and lost before they can reach the convolutions. For any force or concussion applied to the cranium is not necessarily felt there alone, because the bones of the whole skeleton are so articulated, especially the vertebræ of the spine, by intervening membrane and cushion-like structure, that concussions whether upon the head or feet are transmitted from bone to bone, and the shock deadened and lost ere it reaches either bodily extreme. Thus all the bony structures conspire to protect the central organ of life-the brain.

An excellent summary of the offices of the cranium is contained in Par. 195, which we quote entire :

"At first sight the cranium appears quite irregular and unhandsome; for its shape is not circular nor even perfectly oval; but it is uncouth, bald, porous, and full of grooves; in other places, however, it is polished and smooth; it is concave. In one place it is thick, composed of many parts, it contains diploë, and is hard; in another place, again, it is thin, simple, tough, and more soft. With all these irregularities, however, the cranium in respect to its offices is most regular, so that it is impossible to contrive anything more perfect. Thus it is formed in accordance with every motion of the enclosed cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla oblongata; and in accordance with the determination of the sinuses, both of those in the crown and in the base of the head. It is likewise formed for the passage and the fluxion of the arteries, veins, and of many nerves; for the reception of the convolutions, glands, and ganglia; for gathering up the dura-mater and its processes. Besides, it accommodates with hollows and envelopes the organs of sense, namely, those of sight, hearing, and smell; and between both periostea it contains channels of nutrition, secretion, and communication. And, nevertheless, with such a great number of duties, it preserves in a state of the greatest distinctness its numbers, orders, degrees, measures, and modes; and this great aggregation of diverse forces it directs towards the general centres; and this, not only when the head is a large globe, but also when it is as yet very small, and is scarcely the size of a hazel-nut

or a pea; for it grows continually into its harmonies, relations, dependencies. Reason constantly accompanies uses; use generates necessity, and necessity a compagination of fibres, which is derived from the inmost sanctuaries of the sciences and arts, that is, from nature in its first principles, which is the work of the Supreme Being-of Wisdom itself. Does it not follow thence that the structure of the cranium is most regular, although it appears uncouth and unhandsome?"

Swedenborg next shows how a consideration of the cranial condition and surfaces bespeaks the nature of the action or motion of its cerebral contents; he traces the points of origin, the direction, the extent, and the termini, of the motions, whether of isolated portions or of the whole combined; for the active forces of the brain and the passive forces of the cranium, he says, have a distinct correspondence to each other; but he leaves this as but a secondary method of investigation. Finally he compares the covering of the Brain, and the motion of the latter, in embryos, with the same in adults; and shows the necessity for a yielding membrane in the embryo, to permit unrestrained action to the formative influence of the soul. grounds of the inversion of the head in foetal life, and after birth, under the now upright posture, the gradual formation of spaces within the cranium, which will permit of the cerebral animatory motion, under the direct influence of the conscious will and life, are severally stated.

(To be continued.)

AMERICAN NEW CHURCH PERIODICALS.

The

Our American brethren greatly excel us in the number and variety of their periodical publications. While in England we find it difficult to adequately support one weekly and one monthly serial, they publish more than double this number. Their original magazine, which held the field for so long a period, failed before the weekly Messenger. This publication has continued since its establishment many years since to be published weekly, and is the organ of the General Convention. Its pages are filled with essays on topics of New Church Theology, sermons by New Church ministers, notices of passing phases of thought in the Christian world, and news of the general progress of the New Church in America, and also in other parts of the world. Not the least interesting portion of this publication, as a "family paper," is the portion devoted to the children, which abounds with stories and instructions well suited to the tastes and requirements of the little ones.

THE NEW JERUSALEM MAGAZINE.

This magazine, after the publication had been for some years discontinued, has been restored under the auspices of the

Massachusetts Association of the New Church, and is now in its seventh year. We cannot better describe its character than in the words of the Editor's Prospectus for 1883: "The New Jerusalem Magazine is published with a view to furnishing to the Church a means of discussion, a repository for studies conducted in the light of the New Jerusalem, and a record of the progress of the New Age. It especially seeks to encourage freedom of thought and the intelligent study of the truths revealed by the Lord from His Holy Word through the instrumentality of his servant Emanuel Swedenborg." The Magazine is printed on good paper and in an attractive form, and its contributors include some of the ablest writers of the New Church in America. With the commencement of the present year it is increased in size, and other improvements also made in its already good appearance.

THE NEW CHURCH INDEPENDENT AND MONTHLY REVIEW

Completed with its December issue its thirtieth volume. This magazine, published by Weller & Son, Chicago, is also neatly got up, and makes a volume of six hundred pages. It is the representative of those members of the New Church who touch most closely the various novel forms of belief in the spiritual and unseen, and who welcome with warmest appreciation the development of novelties in the prevalent sentiment of the members of the New Church and the actual working of New Church organizations. Swedenborg was not afraid of novelties, and our friends of the Independent imitate him in this respect. There is danger of error in such an attitude; there is also possibility of progress in truth. The test, as of old, is still "to the law and to the testimony; if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them."

WORDS FOR THE NEW CHURCH

Is a serial controlled by the Academy of the New Church. It is established for the exposition and advocacy of the opinions. peculiar to the members of this organization. While we cannot accept all the opinions advocated in this serial, we can admire the zeal and earnestness with which its conductors apply themselves to their exposition and promulgation. Perhaps the principal use accomplished by the Academy will be in stimulating the ministers and members of the Church to a more diligent and painstaking study of the Writings of the Church. The work, which is published at irregular intervals, is sumptuously got up, and is now in its second volume.

THE NEW CHURCH REVIEW,

Which is published quarterly, is the latest periodical of the New Church in America. It has just completed its first volume. As its title implies, its leading feature is the review of New Church publications. But it is not confined to these publications. It aims "to furnish a plane of contact between the New Church and outside religious thought and culture, in which both may meet in a more cordial, mutual recognition than has hitherto been practicable." The review is thus conceived in the most catholic spirit, and if adequately sustained, is well calculated to fulfil an important use in the Church. It is not instituted as the rival of other New Church periodicals, but seeks to supplement their work and to co-operate with them in the eminent uses they are seeking to accomplish. Some of the articles which have appeared are of more than ordinary interest; one, "A Drama of Creation," by Principal Sewall, having appeared in a separate form.

PAPERS READ BEFORE THE SWEDENBORG READING SOCIETY. Speirs, Bloomsbury Street, London.

The papers read before this Society, many of which are of a most interesting character, are here presented in a handy form, in a small volume neatly printed on toned paper. Both to those who had the privilege of hearing the reading of these papers, and to others who can only read them in the form in which they are here presented, their publication will be a boon.

DICTIONARY AND CONCORDANCE OF BIBLE WORDS AND SYNONYMS, EXHIBITING THE USE OF ABOVE TEN THOUSAND GREEK AND ENGLISH WORDS OCCURRING IN UPWARDS OF EIGHTY THOUSAND PASSAGES OF THE NEW TESTAMENT, SO AS TO FORM A KEY TO THE HIDDEN MEANINGS OF THE SACRED SCRIPTURES. BY ROBERT YOUNG, LL.D., Author of the Analytical Concordance to the Bible." Edinburgh: George & Adam Young. Pp. 134 and 22.

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This long title is descriptive of the work that follows. Its aim is to enable the reader of Holy Scripture to trace the true meaning of the text, by having before him the original words and their general signification. Its purpose is similar to that of the" Analytical Concordance" by the same author. So far as we have been able to examine it, it is distinguished by accuracy and ability, and must be found a great help to those who need the assistance it offers. It is scarcely necessary to say that the

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