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veterinary observation of every dog in the country, the decrease of the disease has been not only rapid, but so free from fluctuations as distinctly to discredit the notion, still upheld in some quarters, that its generation may be due to unhealthy physical or atmospheric conditions, apart from the direct communication of virus through the saliva of a rabid animal. The balance of evidence lying the way it does in Germany, there seems to be ample justification for the recent temporary infliction of the muzzle in London; a fetter which, with all its drawbacks and its inconveniences for dog and master, is yet the least of two evils; and meanwhile the only certain means of effecting entire eradication of the dire disease within a short space of time. Though in Germany great results have followed measures short of it in stringency, it has only been at the cost of time and of endless trouble to citizens, incessant dictation from officials, and an expensive array of fines and taxes. English people, as before remarked, could certainly never endure this or any part of the petty and intrusive interference which comes only too naturally to the suppressed individuality of the German subject. The London rule of the muzzle was simpler, swifter, more direct; and should that, theory of rabies which it takes for granted be the correct one, why should it not speedily justify itself in results eclipsing those of the Hundesteuergesetz? Were it to be further extended to the whole of the kingdom, or supplemented by measures regulating the conveyance of animals from one place to another, it seems likely that, although later in the field, Great Britain might outstrip Germany before the race is ended, and be the first European nation to show a year's register, alike with regard to rabies and to hydrophobia, with nothing but ciphers upon it. Some permanent restriction to provide against the chance of importing incipient rabies from countries less effectually guarded might help the country to retain the immunity so won.3

The dog plays a conspicuous social part in German life. He has a thoroughly good time of it. Unaware of the arbitrary human rules on which his tenure of life depends, he takes his place as well-treated servant or family darling. The law protecting him from human cruelty or harshness is older than that which makes him a taxable luxury. When Germany became compacted to an empire, one of the laws issued to the peoples of the Bund condemned to arrest or

It must not be forgotten that, be the laws relating to dogs never so efficient, rabies is a disease to which other animals are liable. While this article is in progress comes an account of five peasant children in a secluded Bavarian village, bitten by a rabid cat, and sent to Paris by a neighbouring Lady Bountiful' for treatment by M. Pasteur. A cat may bite a dog; so that absolute immunity from canine rabies cannot be predicted as a consequence of the most perfect dog-keeping regulations; nor could the appearance of rabies in a dog be unanswerably attributed to spontaneous irritating causes, until means should be found of protecting him not only against attack from unhealthy members of his own species, but against all the cats in his neighbourhood as well.

to payment of a fine not exceeding fifty thalers (71. 108.) anyone who 'publicly, or in an indignation-arousing manner, maliciously torments or roughly maltreats dumb animals.' For the effectual carrying out of this law there exists a Thierschutzverein (similar in constitution to and identical in aim with the English Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals'), through whose agency offenders are brought to justice.

Dogs are, however, still put to draft-work in Germany. Milkcarts, laundress's carts, and other small vehicles are very frequently drawn either by a dog alone or by a dog and man side by side. The animal pulls from his chest; he goes to work cheerfully, wagging his tail, and looking about him like the intelligent, sympathetic creature he is; and of course a word is sufficient to guide him. These servant dogs are mostly very affectionately treated, at any rate in South Germany; and seldom appear at all distressed. It is a question whether any physical endurance of the kind involved in the dog's incomplete fitness of build for such work is not to a well-treated animal made amends for in the keen pleasure most obviously afforded to the canine intelligence in doing what he can, and in obeying the will of a human friend. The breed of dog oftenest put to draft-work is the great smooth-haired, grey, yellow, or brindled Dogge, but other large kinds are also harnessed.

Formerly, in Bavaria, and still more recently in Austria, dogs figured also in the army. Each regiment possessed its 'Nero' or 'Cæsar,' whose office was to march with the band on all occasions, in peace and war alike, drawing the big drum on wheels during the playing of the music. The animals so used acquired the most perfect precision of pace, never bringing the drummer out of line, or his drumming out of time, and meanwhile understanding and responding to the officer's command as to direction, &c., as promptly as the men themselves. To the South German love of dumb animals this pretty eccentricity was doubtless due; a regimental dog implied a regiment of men; the military unit was still allowed to show itself a thing of flesh and blood. As Germany grew more distinctively martial, and learnt to talk in a big voice about Eisen, the custom was, as a matter of course, disallowed, appearing too sentimental to be in keeping with so trim and grim an engine as her improved


The dog, however, though banished from military life as a fanciful accessory, has just been recalled to fill a sterner and more responsible position; trained dogs are to be henceforth employed as military scouts and messengers, and should war occur, there will doubtless be stories enough of their truth to trust, and intelligence in emergency.

Many readers are doubtless aware that the dog plays an elegant part in German university life. Each corps of students has its large

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