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Mahomet the Gaznevide.-Holy War against the Gentoos.-The
Pagoda of Sumnat.-Letter from the Persian Sultana.-The
Seljukians. Togrul Beg.-Alp Arslan.-Malek.-Division

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of the Seljukian Empire.-Conquest of Jerusalem by the
Turks. Pilgrimages to the Holy Land from Europe.-
Hakem.-Atsiz the Carizmian.-Emir Ortok.... 262 to 287

288 to 300

France. Hugh Capet.-Power of the Barons.-Feudal system in

France. Count de Périgord.-"The Truce of the Lord."-

Philip the First..
301 to 307

Introduction of the Feudal System in England.-Edward the

Confessor's laws.-English Constitution.-Civil Freedom.-

France and England.-The Wittenagemote.-First Burgesses

summoned to Parliament.-Aristocratic influence of the

Conquest.-Crown of England usurped.--Prerogative of

deciding peace and war.-Saxon influence on the Norman


308 to 329

Elements of the Constitution of Spain.-Progress of Society in
Spain.-Mariana, the Spanish Historian.-War in Spain
against the Moors.-Siege of Toledo.-Don Roderigo Dias
de Bivar. Decline of Mahometan power in Spain after the
Battle of Toloso.-Alphonso.-Kingdoms of Spain.-Union
of Castille and Arragon, under Ferdinand and Isabella.-
Expulsion of the Moors.-Legislature.-Feudal System in
Spain.-Justiza of Arragon.-The Cortes ......
... 330 to 346

Origin of the First Crusade.--Peter the Hermit.-Pope Urban.-

Massacre of the Jews on the Moselle and Rhine.-The Fate

of the First Crusaders.-Chiefs of the First Crusade.-

Godfrey of Bouillon.- Eustace. Baldwin. Confederate

Force.-European Sovereigns.-Hugh, Count of Vermandois.

-Robert, Duke of Normandy.-Robert, Count of Flanders.

-Stephen, Count of Chartres, Blois, and Troyes.-Adhemar,

Bishop of Puy.-Raymond, Count of St. Giles and Thoulouse.

-Bohemond.-Tancred.-Military character of the age.-

March of the Princes to Constantinople.-Number of

Crusaders.-Loss sustained.-Princess Anne.--Siege of Nice.

-Battle of Dorylæum.-Edessa founded.--Siege of Antioch.

--Siege of Jerusalem.--Rescue of the Holy City.--Godfrey

elected King.-War with the Fatimites.--Battle of Ascalom.

--The Dominions and Conquests of Godfrey.-The Assize of

347 to 378

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Second Crusade.--Conrad the Third.--Louis the Seventh.--
Third Crusade.--Frederic Barbarossa.--Conrad's Troop of
Amazons.-Number of Crusades.-St. Bernard .. 379 to 387
Mamelukes.--Noureddin.--Egypt conquered.--Adhed.-Saladin
the Great.--Melisenda.--Fulk, Count of Anjou.--Jerusalem
taken by Saladin.-Siege of Acre.--Philip Augustus and
Richard Plantagenet.--St. Louis, King of France.--Joinville.
--Conquest of Damietta.--Mamelukes of Egypt.--Loss of
Antioch.--Bondvedar, Sultan of Egypt and Syria.-Castles
of the Hospitalers and Templars destroyed.--Edward the
First at Acre.-Acre and the Holy Land retaken by the

388 to 408

Constantinople and the Byzantine Court in the Twelfth Century.

-Alexius Angelus.-Venice founded in the Island of Rialto.

-Alliance with the French.- Siege of Zara. — Constanti-

nople besieged and conquered.-Mourzouple.-Second siege,

and pillage of the Greek capital. Baldwin.-Appropriation

of the Greek provinces.-Theodore Lascaris, Emperor of

Nice.-Bulgarian War.-Emperor Henry, A.D. 1206.-Peter

of Courtenay, Count of Auxerre.-Yolande.-Pope Honorius.

-Robert crowned in the Cathedral of St. Sophia.-John of

Brienne and Mary.-John Ducas Vataces.-Michael Palæo-

logus. Charles of Anjou.-Mainfroy.-Sicilian Vespers.-

Revolution of Athens. - Otho de la Roche.- Walter de

Brienne.-War with the Catalans.-Andronicus the Elder.

Andronicus the Younger.-Irene.-Jane, daughter of the

great Amadée.-John Cantacuzene.-War with the Genoese.

-Pisani and Doria.-Colony of Pera.......... 409 to 448

Great Eruption of the Moguls and Tartars.-Zingis Khan.-Laws
of Zingis.-The Faith of Zingis.-China invaded.-Revolt of
the Khitans.-Treaty between Zingis and the Chinese.-
Siege of Yeu-King.-Northern provinces of China subdued.—
Massacre at Otrar.-War between Zingis Khan and Moham-
med. Chinese Engineers.- Conquests of the Moguls. —
Octai. Gayuk.-Cathay and Mangi.-Use of Gunpowder.—
Capture of the Fleet of the Song.-Cublai's Expedition to
Japan.-Cublai's conquests.-Holagou Khan.-Conquest of
Persia, and the Empire of the Caliphs.-Baton.--Invasion
of Europe.-Bela.-Emperor Frederic the Second.-Siege of
Neustadt. Valour of the Franks.-Sheibani.- Siberia.—
Discovery of the Icy Sea.-Samoiedes.-Successors of Zingis.
-The Golden Horde.-Power of the Khan.-Progress of


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Timour or Tamerlane.-Carashar Nevian.-Timour's Birthplace.
-The Getes.-Timour elected.-Conquests in Persia.-Shah
Mansour. Turkestan.— Kipzak. - Tortamish.- Russia. —
Conquests of Hindostan.-Massacre of the Gentoos.-War
with Bajazet.-Invasion of Syria and Anatolia.-Destruction
of Damascus.-Burning of Aleppo.-Taking of Bagdad.—
Battle of Angora.-Death of Bajazet.-Timour at Samarcand.
-Royal Marriages. Preparations for invading China.
Death of Timour.-The game of Chess.-Sharokh.-Usbecks
of the North.-Aurungzebe.-Mustapha.-Isa.-Soliman.—
Mousa. Mahomet the First.-Ibrahim. - Amurath the
Second.― Reunion of the Ottoman Empire.-State of the
Greek Empire.-Siege of Constantinople.-Hereditary Suc-
cession. Military Discipline. - Royal Schools at Boursa,
Pera, and Adrianople.-Agiamoglans and Ichoglans.-Inven-
tion and Use of Gunpowder
562 to 609

Eastern Emperors and the Popes.-Andronici.-Cantacuzene.-
John Palæologus the First.-John Hawkwood.-Manuel.-
John Palæologus the Second.-Greek Language at the By-
zantine Court.-Barlaam.-Revival of Greek Literature in

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Italy.-Petrarch.-Bocacce.-Manuel Chrysoloras.-Grocyn,
Linacer, and Latimer.-Nicholas the Fifth ...... 610 to 627

Cosmo de Medicis.-Florence.-Extensive Commerce.-Transac-

tions with the Palæologi.-The Strozzi, Peruzzi, Barbadori,

and Albizzi.-Conspiracy against Cosmo.-Imprisonment.—

Escape to the Frontier.-Return to Florence.-Successful

Trade.-Conspiracy of the Pitti and Venetians.-Piero de

Medici.-Lorenzo de Medici. - Field-pieces used.. Flam-

beaux on the Field of Battle.-Volterra besieged.—Guiliano

de Medici.-Pope Sixtus the Fourth.-The Pazzi Conspiracy.

-Archbishop of Pisa.-Bandini.-Cady Bashaw, Grand Vizier

to Bajazet the Second.-Selim the First.-Commissioner

Nardi.-League between the Pope and the King of Naples

against the Medici.-Ferrand dissolves the League.—Peace

of Italy.-Piero, son of Lorenzo.-Lorenzo, the patron of

Literature.-Library of the Medici.-Catharine de Medici.—

Michael Angelo. - University founded at Pisa. - Johannes

Picus de la Mirandola, Angelus Politianus, Marsileo Ficino,

Christofano Laudini, Johannes Lascaris, Demetrius Chal-

condilas, and Marcellus Trachamontano.-Theses of Prince

della Mirandola.-Charles the Eighth at Florence.-Cardinal

Bessarion.-Lodovico Sforza.-Duke of Calabria.-Princess

Isabella.- Flight of Piero de Medici. - Estate of Medici

abandoned to pillage.-Bernardo Neri.-Savanarola.-Barto-

lonico de Salviano. Unsuccessful attempt to surprise

Florence.-Paulo Vitelli.-Piero de Soderini.-Cardinal de

Medici elected Pope. Lucretia de Medici.- Giulio.

Giuliano. Alfonsina degl' Orsini. Francis the First.

Cardinal Petrucci. - The Thirty-one Cardinals. - Pompey

Colonna.-The Heiress of Bologna.-Katherine de Medici.-

Pope Leo poisoned by Barnaby Malespina

628 to 687

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Amurath the Second.-Double Abdication.-Hungarian Invasion.

-Death of Amurath.-Eugenius.-The League.-Ladislaus.

-John Huniades.-Battle of Warna.-Death of Ladislaus.

-Column erected to his memory by Amurath.-Cardinal

Julian. Seven Chiefs.


Phranza. Embassies. -Turkish War. Mahomet the
Second.-Siege of Constantinople.-Great Cannon.-Force
of the Turks.-Force of the Greeks.-Succour from the
Christian Princes.-Mahomet's Navy transported overland.-
State of the City.-Mahomet's final orders.-Death of Con-
stantine.-St. Sophia.-Transformed into a Mosch.-Palace
of the Cæsars.-Constantine's body found.-Loss of the

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